Chongqing Rail Transit

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Chongqing Rail Transit
BSicon SUBWAY-CHN.svg BSicon CHN-Mono.svg
CRT Logo.svg
Overview
Native name 重庆轨道交通
Area served Chongqing Urban Area
Locale Chongqing, China
Transit type Rapid transit rapid transit
Monorail straddle-beam monorail
Number of lines 4
Line number  1   2   3   6 
Number of stations 120[Note 1]
Daily ridership 1.73 million (2015 Avg.)[1]
2.403 million (Peak on 8 June 2016)[2]
Annual ridership 630 million (2015)[1]
Chief executive Le Mei (since 2015)
Headquarters 123 Renming Rd., Yuzhong District, Chongqing
Website http://www.cqmetro.cn
Operation
Began operation 18 June 2005
Operator(s) Chongqing Rail Transit (Group) Co., Ltd.
Headway 2'30" to 20'
Technical
System length 201.6 km (125.3 mi)
Track gauge Rapid transit 1435 mm (Standard)
Electrification Rapid transit 1500 V DC overhead line
Monorail 1500 V DC third rail
Average speed Rapid transit 50 km/h (31 mph)
Monorail 40 km/h (25 mph)
Top speed Rapid transit 100 km/h (62 mph)
Monorail 75 km/h (47 mph)
System map

Chongqing Rail Transit Map.png

Chongqing Rail Transit
Simplified Chinese 重庆轨道交通
Traditional Chinese 重慶軌道交通
Timelapse of the Chongqing Metro.

The Chongqing Rail Transit (CRT) also known as Chongqing Metro, is the metro system in the city of Chongqing, China and has been in operation since the year 2005. CRT serves transportation needs in the city's main business and entertainment downtown areas and inner suburbs. It is the oldest of the three metro systems in operation in the interior west of China, the others being Chengdu Metro, and Xi'an Metro which opened in 2010 and 2011, respectively.

As of May 2015, CRT consisted of four lines, with a total track length of 201.6 km (125.3 mi). Lines 1 and 6 are conventional heavy-rail subways, while Lines 2 and 3 are heavy-capacity monorails. Line 1 is the system's backbone connecting the most densely populated areas including the main Central Business Districts: Jiefangbei, Lianglukou, Daping, and Shapingba. Line 2 runs through three administrative districts in the central city (Yuzhong, Jiulongpo, and Dadukou). Line 6 runs from Jiangbei to Yubei. A system network of 18 lines in total is planned.

At 80 km (50 mi), the system's two monorail lines form the world's largest monorail network circa 2014,[3] with the 55.5 km (34.5 mi) Line 3 being the world's longest single monorail line.[4][5]

History[edit]

The CRT is part of the central government's project to develop the Western regions and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation provided part of the funding.[6] Construction was carried out in cooperation between Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. Ltd. and Hitachi Monorail, using advanced Japanese monorail technology.[7] Construction on Line 2 began in 1999, and it was officially opened in June 2005 from Jiaochangkou (Jiefangbei CBD) to Dongwuyuan (Chongqing Zoo).

Planning timeline[8][edit]

1946[edit]

Nationalist government made a plan of high-speed tram system. The rail weighs 47.77 kg/m, with a rail gauge of 1000 mm, a maximum slope of 9%, a minimum radius of curvature of 80 m. The top speed is 25 km/h (16 mph) in the urban area, and 45 km/h (28 mph) in the suburban area. The train is 8-meter-long, 1.8-meter-wide, with two 35-horsepower motors and a trailer. Each train takes 240 passengers. The headway was designed to be 10 mins. The system was expected to carry 1 million passengers per day. Some of the tracks are underground.

  • Line A, Longmenhao – Ciqikou, 9 Stations, 14.75 km (9.17 mi)
  • Line B, Longmenhao – Nanwenquan, 7 Stations, 19.49 km (12.11 mi)
  • Line C, Longmenhao – Datiankan, 3 Stations, 6.9 km (4.3 mi)

1960[edit]

A 100 km-long (62 mi) underground rapid rail transit system which links the city center with Xinpaifang, Xiaolongkan, Yangjiaping, Shiqiaopu, Lianglukou, etc. was planned.

1983[edit]

A 12.2 km-long (7.6 mi) subway line (Chaotianmen – Yangjiaping) was planned. It evolved to Line 2 nowadays.

1991[edit]

A 55 km-long (34 mi) monorail system was planned.

  • Chaotianmen – Shapingba (– Shuangbei), the forerunner of Line 1.
  • Chaotianmen – Xinshancun (– Jiugongmiao), the forerunner of Line 2.
  • Airport Line: Xinpaifang – Nanping (– Sigongli), the forerunner of Line 3.
  • Link Line: Yangjiaping – Shiqiaopu.

1998[edit]

A refreshed edition of the 1991 plan. The total length is about 119 km (74 mi).

  • Line 1: Chaotianmen – Shuangbei.
  • Line 2: Chaotianmen – Jiugongmiao.
  • Line 3: Jiangbei Airport – Sigongli.
  • Line 4: Sigongli – Shiqiaopu.
  • Line 5: Tongjiayuanzi – Zhongliangshan.

2003 & 2007[edit]

An expended edition of the 1998 plan. The length was about 522 km (324 mi). It has 10 Lines, including a circle line.

2013[9][edit]

The current plan. An expended edition of the 2007 plan. The length was about 820 km (510 mi). It has 18 Lines, including a circle line.

Testing timeline[8][edit]

These tests left some tunnels, which were re-used in the construction of Line 1 & 2 nowadays.

  • Late 1958. "Yuzhong District Subway Engineering Unit" was started. Stopped 1 year later.
  • 1965. "Yuzhong District Subway Engineering Units" was rebooted. It has 4 units including more than 1000 workers in total. The construction was stopped again in Late 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution. The units was officially disbanded again in 1971. The tunnels was taken over by the Civil Air Defending Department.
  • 1988. Some nonlocal businessmen were imported to start a metro group company located in Lianglukou. Once prolong some tunnels.

Opening timeline[edit]

Phase I (2000 – 2016)[edit]

  • 18 June 2005 (Line 2): Jiaochangkou – Dongwuyuan
  • 1 July 2006 (Line 2): Dongwuyuan – Xinshancun
  • 28 July 2011 (Line 1): Jiaochangkou – Shapingba
  • 27 September 2011 (Line 1): Jiaochangkou – Xiaoshizi
  • 29 September 2011 (Line 3): Lianglukou – Yuanyang
  • 8 October 2011 (Line 3): Yuanyang – Changfulu
  • 30 December 2011 (Line 3): Lianglukou – Ertang & Changfulu – Jiangbei Airport
  • 28 September 2012 (Line 6): Kangzhuang – Wulidian
  • 21 December 2012 (Line 1): Shapingba – Daxuecheng
  • 28 December 2012 (Line 3): Ertang – Yudong
  • 31 January 2013 (Line 3): Chalukou, Huaxi & Jinzhu
  • 15 May 2013 (Line 6): Lijia – Yuelai
  • 31 December 2013 (Line 6): Lijia – Beibei
  • 31 December 2014 (Line 2): Xinshancun – Yudong
  • 31 December 2014 (Line 6): Wulidian – Chayuan

Phase II (2012 – 2022)[edit]

  • 26 December 2012 (Line 6): Kangzhuang – Lijia

Network[edit]

CRT is a unique metro system in China in that a significant number of lines use heavy monorail technology. In a hilly, multiple-river city it is not feasible to construct an all heavy-rail tunnel system given the depths of some many of the stations. For this reason, there are two straddle-beam monorail lines using heavy vehicles.

Line 1 is the first conventional subway running in a deep bored tunnel below Yuzhong and Shapingba Districts. The other conventional subway is Line 6, which connects the main central business districts of Nanping in Nan'an District and Jiangbei's Guanyinqiao CBD and New City CBD to Jiefangbei CBD.

The monorail vehicles with strong climbing capabilities and have rapid transit capacity, capable of transporting 32,000 passengers per hour per direction,[10] invaluable in the densely populated but hilly city. Line 2 is for the most part elevated above streets, although a 2.2 km (1.4 mi) section is underground, including three of its 18 stations in the Jiefangbei CBD and Daping downtown areas in hyper-dense populated area of Yuzhong District. In 2010, Line 2 served 45 million passengers.[11]

To keep up with demand, construction is under way on extensions to Line 1 and Line 3, whose primary route is currently under trial. There are also Line 0, 4, 5, 9, 10 under construction.

Line Terminals
(District)
Opened Newest extension Carriages [Note 2] Length
(km)
Stations
Rapid transit  1  Xiaoshizi (Yuzhong) Jiandingpo (Shapingba) 2011 2014 6B 38.9 23
Monorail  2  Jiaochangkou (Yuzhong) Yudong (Ba'nan) 2005 2014 4/6HL 31.3 25
Monorail  3  Yudong (Ba'nan) Jiangbei Airport (Yubei) 2011 2013 6/8HL 55.5 39
Rapid transit  6  Chayuan
(Nan'an)
Beibei (Beibei) 2012 2015 6B 75.9 33
Lijia (Yubei) Yuelai (Yubei)
Rapid transit Sub-Total (Heavy-rail) 114.8 56[Note 3]
Monorail Sub-Total (Monorail) 86.8 64[Note 4]
Grand Total 201.6 120

Line 1[edit]

CRT Line 1's logo.

Line 1 runs 16.4 km (10.2 mi) from Chaotianmen in downtown west to Shapingba, and eventually to Jiandingpo with a length of 38.9 km (24.2 mi). It is the first heavy-rail subway line, the second in Western China. Passenger capacity is 36,000 passengers/hour/direction.

In 1992, the Chongqing government signed a Build-Operate-Transfer agreement with a Hong Kong company and provided the land for the project, but work ceased in 1997 due to legal issues.[8] Work resumed from Chaotianmen to Shapingba on 9 June 2007, and opened to limited operation on 28 July.[12] Thales provided an Operations Control Centre for this line.

Line 1 has 23 stations, including interchange stations with Line 2 at Jiaochangkou in Jeifangbei CBD and at Daping and with Line 3 at Lianglukou, near the Chongqing Rail Station in the Caiyuanba section of central Yuzhong.

Line 2[edit]

CRT Line 2's logo.
Dongwuyuan station, CRT Line 2.

Line 2, a monorail line, runs 31.3 km (19.4 mi) and services 25 stations. It begins as a subway under downtown Jeifangbei, then runs west along the southern bank of the Jialing River on an elevated line, then turns south into the south-western inner suburbs, looping back east to terminate at Yudong in Ba'nan. It also runs through Daping CBD and Yingjiaping CBD in Jiulongpo District and the Chongqing City Zoo at Dongwuyuan Station. Most trains consist of four carriages, and six-carriage trains began to operate in September 2012.[13] Line 2 is the first rapid transit line to open in the Interior West of China (in 2005). In 2013, six-car trains are being implemented due to overcrowding and increasing demand.[14]

Line 3[edit]

CRT Line 3's logo.

Line 3 runs from north to south, linking the districts separated by the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) and Jialing rivers. The initial segment from Lianglukou to Yuanyang (18 stations, 17.5 km (10.9 mi)) opened on 29 September 2011, with a northern extension from Yuanyang to Jiangbei Airport opening on 30 December 2011[15] and a southern extension from Ertang to Yudong on 28 December 2012.[16]

Most trains consist of six carriages, bigger than on the older Line 2, expected to upgrade to eight-car trains by 2014.[17] Currently 8 car trains are in operation.[18] There are interchange stations in central Yuzhong district with Line 1 at Lianglukou (Caiyuanba Intercity Railway/Bus Station), and with Line 2 at Niujiaotuo.

Line 6[edit]

CRT Line 6's logo.

Line 6 is the second heavy-rail subway. Opened on 28 September 2012 it connects Nan'an, Yuzhong, and Jiangbei districts in central Chongqing. A northern branch line from Lijia to Wulukou, Beibei district was opened on 31 December 2013,[19] 26.2 km (16.3 mi) long with five stations. The Chayuan extension Phase 1 was opened in 2014. Thales provided an Operations Control Centre for this line.

Service[edit]

Fares[20][edit]

Single Journey Tickets[edit]

Tickets range from ¥2 ($0.33 USD) to ¥7 (1.14 USD) depending on distance. Day passes cost ¥18 (2.93 USD).

Refund[edit]

Only unused tickets you bought at the same day and the same station can be refunded without explanation. If the train was delayed for over 15 minutes, the tickets may be refunded and a certifcate of delay can be acquired.

Transport Cards[edit]

CRT accepts Life & Transport Card (Chongqing Universal Card, released by Chongqing City Card Payment Co., Ltd.) and its compatible cards released by partner companies in other cities of China.

You can get a 10%-off price when you use Regular Card to take public vehicles in the city. You'll only have to pay the higher price when you transfer in the system within 1 hr (not including metro-to-metro, according to the paying time). Regular Card takes ¥25 ($4.07), available in all ticket windows of CRT, as long as 9 service points of CCCPC in the city. You can get part of the money (= ¥25 - ¥1 * months you've kept it, ¥0 at least) back when you give back the card with the receipt. You can also use it in many shops, cinemas, restaurant, etc. in the city.

Students' Card and Elders' Card are not available in CRT, but you can add a cash sub-account to them at the service points for free.

For more information, visit http://www.cqtk.com.cn/infolist.php?id=45 (Simplified Chinese).

Time limit[edit]

All trips must be complete in 3 hours upon entering the fare paid area, if a passenger overstayed beyond the allotted time the highest ticket price in the system will be charged.

Operation[edit]

For every termius or branch termius, the first train leaves at 6:30 while the last leaves at 22:30.

During times of heavy use such as major events, CRT may close some stations to avoid overcrowding. In 2015, CRT closed Xiaoshizi, Jiaochangkou, Qixinggang, Lianglukou, Linjiangmen, Huaxinjie, Guanyinqiao and Hongqihegou Station after 20:00 in Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and New Year Eve.

Equipment[edit]

Wi-fi[edit]

Free Wi-fi is provided in most platforms and trains of Line 1 & 6. The steps to access are below.

  • Enable Wi-fi on your phones and link to the open AP called "Heikuai".
  • Open the browser and visit any website without "https". The page will be redirected to the download page of an app called Heikuai (Chinese: 嘿快), then download it without any fare to any ISP.
  • Open the app. Sign in and log in, then you can access to the Internet for free!

Caution: Only Android phones with 5 GHz Wi-fi model are supported now.

Accessible equipments[edit]

Almost every station has accessible elevators and toilets, and almost every train has wheelchair locks, except Line 2 (Jiaochangkou - Xinshancun part) and its old trains because they are the earliest in CRT. Still, many interchange channels are not accessible due to the structure of the stations.

Visual Design[edit]

Informational signs[edit]

Unlike most metro systems of other cities in China, CRT didn't follow the design style of MTR in Hong Kong. The signs are designed by GK Design Group in Japan, so they are simple, light and clear. Many equipments in CRT will follow the color of the line they belong to.

Line theme[21][edit]

CRT gave each line a theme about local culture, and the stations of the line will have some art works in the theme.

Line Theme
 0  Memories
 1  Folk
 2  Civilization's Journey
 3  Life
 4  Sister Cities
 5  Cultural Characters
 6  Landscape
 7  Historical Figures
 8  Old Towns
 9  Cultural Heritage
TBA

Network plan[edit]

CRT is expected to have 8 lines criss-crossing the urban districts by 2020, and a loop line connecting the commercial areas in the urban area. The rest 8 lines are expected to be in operation before 2050.[9]

Lines under construction[edit]

Line Terminals Track Type Carriages [Note 2] Length (km) New Stations Start of Construction Planned Opening Status Notes
 0  Full loop loop through Chongqing W. Railway Station Heavy-rail 6As 50.9 33 28 October 2013 Late 2017 (partly) In full construction [22]
 1  Bishan Extension - Phase 1 Jiandingpo Bishan Heavy-rail 6B 5.6 1 June 2014 2017 In full construction [23]
 S1  Bishan Jinlong Heavy-rail 4B 33.8 6 Late 2016 2019 Under preparation [24]
 3  Airport Branch Bijin Jurenba Monorail 6HL 10.9 6 2013 December 2016 Under testing [25]
 4  Phase 1 Minan Ave. Tangjiatuo Heavy-rail 6As 17.6 8 3 December 2013 Late 2017 In full construction [26]
Phase 2 Tangjiatuo Shichuan Heavy-rail 6As 32.46 12 2017 2022 Under preparation [27]
 5  Phase 1 Garden Expo Center Tiaodeng Heavy-rail 6As 39.7 25 3 December 2013 Late 2017 (partly) In full construction [26]
 S12  Tiaodeng Jiangjin Heavy-rail 4As 26.7 6 June 2015 2018 In full construction [28]
Phase 2 Garden Expo Center Yuegang Ave. Heavy-rail 6As 7.95 6 2017 2022 Under preparation [27]
Branch Fuhua Rd. Tiaodeng S. Heavy-rail 6As 29.45 19 2017 2022 Under Preparation [27]
 6  International Expo Branch - Phase 2 Yuelai Shaheba Heavy-rail 6B 13.71 9 Late 2016 2020 Under preparation [29]
 9  Phase 1 Gaotanyan Huixing Heavy-rail 6As 32.3 24 28 September 2016 2020 In full construction [30]
Phase 2 Huixing Huashigou Heavy-rail 6As 10.77 5 2017 2020 Under preparation [30]
 10  Phase 1 Liyuchi Wangjiazhuang Heavy-rail 6As 32.2 19 May 2014 Late 2017 In full construction [31]
Phase 2 Lanhua Rd. Liyuchi Heavy-rail 6As 11.3 8 Late 2016 2020 Under preparation [32]

Lines in long-term plan[edit]

Planned opening Line Terminals Length (km) Stations Status Notes
No timetable  7  Beibei Shuangfu 58 21 planned [9]
 8  Jieshi Yulin 51 19 planned
 11  Danzishi Industrial Zone 15 9 planned
 12  Jinfeng S. Lujiao S. 27 14 planned
 13  Huxi International Convention and Exhibition Center 41 16 planned
 14  Shuitu Yulin 38 16 planned
 15  Shuangbei Shengjibao 44 16 planned
 16  Xiangjiagang Hujiaqiao 15 7 planned
 17  Xiyong Jijiang 41 16 planned
 18  Shuitu Caijia N/A N/A canceled

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "轨道交通 感谢有你". Sina Weibo (in Simplified Chinese). Chongqing Rail Transit Official Weibo. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  2. ^ "2016年6月8日线网客流创新高:240.3万乘次". Baidu Tieba (in Simplified Chinese). 27 June 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2016. 
  3. ^ "世界最长单轨线路" (in Simplified Chinese). NetEase News. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  4. ^ "3号线鱼洞~二塘段基本情况" (in Simplified Chinese). Chigqing Rail Transit (Group) Co., Ltd. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  5. ^ "一不小心创造了又一个第一?" (in Simpliefied Chinese). Chongqing Rail Transit Official Weibo. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "Contract". Japan Bank for International Corporation. 2000. Retrieved 27 September 2007. 
  7. ^ "Technological Files". Hitachi Ltd. 2005. Retrieved 5 October 2006. 
  8. ^ a b c Jiang, Yong (2007). 直辖十年重庆城市交通规划与实践 (in Simplified Chinese). Chongqing University Press. p. 152. ISBN 9787562441281. 
  9. ^ a b c "重庆城市轨道交通近期建设规划(2012-2020年)获批" (in Simplified Chinese). Chongqing Daily. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  10. ^ "China's First Urban Monorail System in Chongqing" (PDF). Hitachi Ltd. 2005. 
  11. ^ "Three more rail transit lines to put in use in Chongqing". Chongqing News. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  12. ^ "Chongqjng's metro Line 1 now open". China Cities. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  13. ^ Dai Liu (9 July 2012). "Extended train for Chongqing Light Rail Line 2 to debut in Sept.". Chongqing News. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  14. ^ "重庆轨道交通2号线新增3列车上线运行". Chongqing Daily (in Simplified Chinese). China News. 29 September 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "Chongqing Rail Transit Line 3 opens to traffic". Xinhua. 30 December 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2014 – via People's Daily Website English Edition. 
  16. ^ "3号线鱼洞~二塘段基本情况" (in Simplified Chinese). Chongqing Rail Transit (Group) Co., Ltd. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  17. ^ "明年轨道3号线增开8辆编组列车 动力将提升1/3" (in Simplified Chinese). Fenghuang Chongqing. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  18. ^ Liu, Xianke. "3号线8节编组列车外观就是这样的" (in Simplified Chinese). Tencent Chongqing. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  19. ^ Liu, Kan (1 January 2014). "Rail transit Line 6 to Beibei". Chongqing News. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  20. ^ "重庆轨道交通 (集团) 有限公司 - 票务政策". Chongqing Rail Transit (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  21. ^ "重庆轨道交通 (集团) 有限公司 - 线路文化". Chongqing Rail Transit (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "明年重庆部分轨道交通线路有望建成通车". Chongqing Daily (in Simplified Chinese). Sina Chonqging. 17 May 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  23. ^ "轨道交通大学城至璧山段开建 3年后坐地铁到璧山". Chongqing Morning Paper (in Simplified Chinese). Sina Chongqing. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  24. ^ "重庆市郊铁路璧铜线年内开工 可在璧山换乘1号线". Chongqing Morning Paper (in Simplified Chinese). NetEase Chongqing. 5 June 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  25. ^ Liu, Yan; Mao, Ziwei (10 September 2016). "今起轨道3号线北延伸段不载客试运行 年内开通试运营" (in Simplified Chinese). Hualong. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  26. ^ a b "重庆轨道交通四、五号线一期工程今日开工" (in Simplified Chinese). Tencent Chongqing. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c "《重庆市城市快速轨道交通第二轮建设规划修编(2017~2022)》环境影响评价公众参与第二次信息公示" (in Simplified Chinese). Chongqing Rail Transit Official Website. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  28. ^ "重庆轨道交通延长线 跳蹬至江津段开工". Chongqing Daily (in Simplified Chinese). NetEase Chongqing. 11 June 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  29. ^ "重庆轨道6号线支线二期将延伸到沙河坝" (in Simplified Chinese). The Government of Nanan, Chongqing, China. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  30. ^ a b "重庆地铁9号线设29座车站" (in Simplified Chinese). China Municipal Engineering Net. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  31. ^ "重庆轨道交通10号线一期明年通车 设车站19座". Chongqing Morning Paper (in Simplified Chinese). Tencent Chongqing. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  32. ^ "重庆轨道交通10号线二期2016年开工". Chongqing Evening Paper (in Simplified Chinese). China Rail Transit Net. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  1. ^ This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line that it is part of. If every interchange is only counted once, there will be 113 stations.
  2. ^ a b The number shows the number of the carriages of each train, and the letter shows the type of the carriage. As and B are defined by China, while HL is short for "Hitachi Large" from Japan.
    Full Passenger Capability
    As B HL
    4 1534 \ 882
    6 2322 1880 1342
    7 2716 \ \
    8 \ \ 1802
  3. ^ This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line that it is part of. If every interchange is only counted once, there will be 54 stations.
  4. ^ This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line that it is part of. If every interchange is only counted once, there will be 62 stations.

External links[edit]