Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide

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Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide
Protein CGA PDB 1dz7.png
PDB rendering based on 1dz7.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM118850 MGI88390 HomoloGene587 GeneCards: CGA Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CGA 204637 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1081 12640
Ensembl ENSG00000135346 ENSMUSG00000028298
UniProt P01215 P01216
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000735 NM_009889
RefSeq (protein) NP_000726 NP_034019
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
87.09 – 87.1 Mb
Chr 4:
34.89 – 34.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glycoprotein hormones alpha polypeptide is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CGA gene.[1]

The gonadotropin hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are heterodimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits (also called chains) that are associated non-covalently. The alpha subunits of these four human glycoprotein hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family.[2]


  1. ^ Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (Oct 1982). "The gene encoding the common alpha subunit of the four human glycoprotein hormones". Journal of Molecular and Applied Genetics 1 (1): 3–18. PMID 6286817. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: CGA glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Roger M, Lahlou N, Couzinet B, Chaussain JL, Scholler R (Oct 1989). "[Free alpha-subunit glycoprotein hormones: physiological and pathological data]". Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 33 (4B): 763–9. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(89)90489-5. PMID 2481154. 
  • Pierce JG (Dec 1971). "Eli Lilly lecture. The subunits of pituitary thyrotropin--their relationship to other glycoprotein hormones". Endocrinology 89 (6): 1331–44. doi:10.1210/endo-89-6-1331. PMID 5002675. 
  • Kourides IA, Gurr JA, Wolf O (1984). "The regulation and organization of thyroid stimulating hormone genes". Recent Progress in Hormone Research 40: 79–120. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-571140-1.50007-4. PMID 6207569. 
  • Miyoshi I, Kasai N, Hayashizaki Y (Apr 1994). "[Structure and regulation of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) gene]". Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 52 (4): 940–7. PMID 8196184. 
  • Barrios-De-Tomasi J, Timossi C, Merchant H, Quintanar A, Avalos JM, Andersen CY, Ulloa-Aguirre A (Jan 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 186 (2): 189–98. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(01)00657-8. PMID 11900895. 
  • Moyle WR, Bahl OP, März L (Dec 1975). "Role of carbohydrate of human chorionic gonadotropin in the mechanism of hormone action". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 250 (23): 9163–9. PMID 172504. 
  • Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (Oct 1979). "Isolation, cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin". Nature 281 (5730): 351–6. doi:10.1038/281351a0. PMID 481597. 
  • Sairam MR, Li CH (Jul 1977). "Human pituitary thyrotropin. The primary structure of the alpha and beta subunits". Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 55 (7): 755–60. doi:10.1139/o77-108. PMID 890569. 
  • Morgan FJ, Birken S, Canfield RE (Jul 1975). "The amino acid sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The alpha subunit and beta subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 250 (13): 5247–58. PMID 1150658. 
  • Rathnam P, Saxena BB (Sep 1975). "Primary amino acid sequence of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary glands. I. alpha subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 250 (17): 6735–46. PMID 1158880. 
  • Weisshaar G, Hiyama J, Renwick AG, Nimtz M (Jan 1991). "NMR investigations of the N-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of human lutropin". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS 195 (1): 257–68. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15702.x. PMID 1991473. 
  • Sakakibara R, Yokoo Y, Yoshikoshi K, Tominaga N, Eida K, Ishiguro M (Nov 1987). "Subcellular localization of intracellular forms of human chorionic gonadotropin in first trimester placenta". Journal of Biochemistry 102 (5): 993–1001. PMID 2449427. 
  • Matzuk MM, Keene JL, Boime I (Feb 1989). "Site specificity of the chorionic gonadotropin N-linked oligosaccharides in signal transduction". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 264 (5): 2409–14. PMID 2536708. 
  • Lustbader JW, Birken S, Pileggi NF, Kolks MA, Pollak S, Cuff ME, Yang W, Hendrickson WA, Canfield RE (Nov 1989). "Crystallization and characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin in chemically deglycosylated and enzymatically desialylated states". Biochemistry 28 (24): 9239–43. doi:10.1021/bi00450a001. PMID 2611225. 
  • Harris DC, Machin KJ, Evin GM, Morgan FJ, Isaacs NW (Apr 1989). "Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 264 (12): 6705–6. PMID 2708337. 
  • Hayashizaki Y, Miyai K, Kato K, Matsubara K (Sep 1985). "Molecular cloning of the human thyrotropin-beta subunit gene". FEBS Letters 188 (2): 394–400. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(85)80409-9. PMID 3839756. 
  • Bellisario R, Carlsen RB, Bahl OP (Oct 1973). "Human chorionic gonadotropin. Linear amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 248 (19): 6796–809. PMID 4745444. 
  • Shome B, Parlow AF (Jul 1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH): first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit (hFSHa) and first demonstration of its identity with the alpha-subunit of human luteinizing hormone (hLHa)". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 39 (1): 199–202. doi:10.1210/jcem-39-1-199. PMID 4835135. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.