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Chouchi Kingdom

296–442 (580)
The kingdom of Chouchi in the western China
The kingdom of Chouchi in the western China
Historical era3rd - 6th century
• Established
• Conquered by Former Qin
• Chouchi restored as Later Chouchi
• Conquered by Liu Song
• Disestablished
442 (580)
• Restored as Wudu, Wuxing and Yinping kingdoms
448 - 580
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin dynasty (265–420)
Former Qin
Liu Song
Northern Zhou
Today part ofChina

Chouchi (Chinese: 仇池; pinyin: Chóuchí ) was a kingdom of the Di ethnicity in modern-day Gansu Province during the Sixteen Kingdoms and Southern and Northern Dynasties.[1][2][3][4]


At the beginning of the 3rd century CE Yang Teng (楊騰), chieftain of the White Neck Di (白項氐), had occupied the southeast area of modern Gansu province, at the upper course of the Han River. His followers Yang Ju (楊駒) and Yang Qianwan (楊千萬) paid tribute to the emperors of the Cao-Wei Dynasty and were rewarded with the title of Prince (wáng 王).[5][6][3] Yang Feilong (楊飛龍) shifted the center of the Chouchi realm back to Lüeyang, where his successor Yang Maosou (楊茂捜) reigned as independent king at the beginning of the 4th century. The Chouchi troops often plundered territories in the Central Plains to the east and abducted people there, but on the other side the troops of Eastern Jin and Former Zhao deprived the Chouchi empire of her inhabitants. In 322 Yang Nandi (楊難敵) suffered a defeat against Former Zhao and was degraded to Prince of Wudu (武都王) and Duke of Chouchi (仇池公). The next years are characterized by numerous internal struggles among the Yang clan and several throne usurpations. The rulers were not seen as mere regional inspectors (cishi 刺史) or governors (taishou 太守) of their region under the government of Jin.[3]

In 371 Fu Jiàn, ruler of Former Qin attacked Chouchi, captured the ruler Yang Cuan (楊篡) and ended the period of Former Chouchi.[3]

Yang Ding (楊定), a great-grandson of Yang Maosou and grandson of Fu Jiàn, resurrected the Chouchi kingdom in 385 with the capital at Licheng (歷城). His younger brother Yang Sheng (楊盛) was able to conquer the region Liangzhou (梁州) at the upper course of the Han River, and declared himself governor for the Jin Dynasty. Efforts to occupy the territory of modern Sichuan failed, but Chouchi controlled a great part of the modern provinces Gansu (east) and Shaanxi (south).[3]

After 443 the lords of Chouchi were only puppet rulers controlled by the Northern Wei. Historians talk of the five realms of Chouchi (Chouchi wuguo 仇池五國): Former and Later Chouchi (Qianchouchi 前仇池, Houchouchi 後仇池), Yinping 陰平, Wudu 武都, and Wuxing 武興.[7][8][3]


Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid 6th century)
Posthumous Names Common names in Chinese characters Durations of reigns or in office Era names
First Phase of Chouchi (late 2nd century-371)
楊騰 Yáng Téng late 184 - 210
楊駒 Yáng Jū 210 - 230
楊千萬 Yáng Qiānwàn 230 - 263
楊飛龍 Yáng Fēilóng 263 - 296
楊茂搜 Yáng Màosōu 296 - 317
楊難敵 Yáng Nándí 317-334
楊毅 Yáng Yì 334-337
楊初 Yáng Chū 337-355
楊國 Yáng Guó 355-356
楊俊 Yáng Jùn 356-360
楊世 Yáng Shì 360-370
楊篡 Yáng Cuàn 370-371
Second Phase of Chouchi 385-473
武 Wǔ 楊定 Yáng Dìng 385-394
惠文 Huìwén 楊盛 Yáng Shèng 394-425
孝昭 Xiàozhāo 楊玄 Yáng Xuán 425-429
楊保宗 Yáng Bǎozōng 429 and 443
楊難當 Yáng Nándāng 429-441 Jianyi (建義 Jiànyì) 436-440
楊保熾 Yáng Bǎochì 442-443
楊文德 Yáng Wéndé 443-454
楊元和 Yáng Yuánhé 455-466
楊僧嗣 Yáng Sēngsì 466-473
Kings of Wuxing 473-506 and 534-555
楊文度 Yáng Wéndù 473-477
楊文弘 Yáng Wénhóng 477-482
楊後起 Yáng Hòuqǐ 482-486
安 Ān 楊集始 Yáng Jíshì 482-503
楊紹先 Yáng Shàoxiān 503-506, 534-535
楊智慧 Yáng Zhìhuì 535-545
楊辟邪 Yáng Bìxié 545-553
Note: Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 477- mid 6th century
楊廣香 Yáng Guǎngxiāng 477-483?
楊炯 Yáng Jiǒng 483-495
楊崇祖 Yáng Chóngzǔ 495-before 502
楊孟孫 Yáng Mèngsūn before 502-511
楊定 Yáng Dìng 511- ?


  1. ^ 《宋書》列傳第五十八
  2. ^ Scroll of 水經注, Circle of 卷三, part 河水
  3. ^ a b c d e f g, retrieved 28 Jul 2019
  4. ^ 李祖桓. 李祖桓, 《仇池国志》, 书目文献出版社 : 新华书店北京发行所发行, 1986 [1]
  5. ^ 抱朴子, part 內篇, section 仙藥
  6. ^ 漾水, particularly page 7
  7. ^ 抱朴子, part 內篇, section 仙藥
  8. ^ Era of 魏晉南北朝, Title 三國志, Part 吳書十, section 董襲傳

See also[edit]