Chris Gayle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chris Gayle
ChrisGayle Cropped.jpg
Chris Gayle at the Docklands playing for the ICC World XI, 2005
Personal information
Full name Christopher Henry Gayle
Born (1979-09-21) 21 September 1979 (age 35)
Kingston, Jamaica
Nickname Gayleforce, GayleStorm, Master Storm, The big Jamaican kuta
Height 6 ft 4.5 in (1.94 m)
Batting style Left-handed
Bowling style Right arm offbreak
Role All-rounder
International information
National side
Test debut (cap 232) 16 March 2000 v Zimbabwe
Last Test 05-09 September 2014 v Bangladesh
ODI debut (cap 97) 11 September 1999 v India
Last ODI 21 March 2015 v New Zealand
ODI shirt no. 45
T20I debut (cap 6) 16 February 2006 v New Zealand
Last T20I 11 January 2015 v South Africa
Domestic team information
Years Team
1998–2008, 2010–present West Indies (squad no. 333)
2005 Worcestershire
2008–2010 Kolkata Knight Riders (squad no. 45)
2009–2011 Western Warriors
2011–present Royal Challengers Bangalore (squad no. 333)
2011–2014 Sydney Thunder
2012 Barisal Burners
2008 Stanford Superstars
2011 Matabeleland Tuskers
2013–present Dhaka Gladiators
2014 Highveld Lions
2015–present Melbourne Renegades
2015–present Somerset County Cricket Club
Career statistics
Competition Test ODI T20I FC
Matches 103 269 45 180
Runs scored 7214 9,139 1406 13,226
Batting average 42.18 37.30 35.15 44.7983
100s/50s 15/36 22/47 1/12 32/61
Top score 333 215 117 333
Balls bowled 7,109 7,222 301 12,511
Wickets 73 163 15 132
Bowling average 42.73 35.20 24.00 38.91
5 wickets in innings 2 1 2
10 wickets in match 0 n/a 0
Best bowling 5/34 5/46 2/15 5/34
Catches/stumpings 96/– 112/– 12/– 158/–
Source: ESPNCricinfo, 30 June 2015

Christopher Henry "Chris" Gayle (born 21 September 1979) is a Jamaican cricketer who plays international cricket for the West Indies. He captained the West Indies' Test side from 2007 to 2010. He plays domestic cricket for Jamaica, and also represents the Royal Challengers Bangalore in the Indian Premier League, the Melbourne Renegades in the Big Bash League and the Dhaka Gladiators in the Bangladesh Premier League. He has also represented Worcestershire, the Western Warriors, Sydney Thunder, Barisal Burners and the Kolkata Knight Riders in his career. He was also selected for team Uva Next for the inaugural Sri Lanka Premier League in 2012.[2]

He is one of only four players who have scored two triple centuries at Test level: 317 against South Africa in 2005, and 333 against Sri Lanka in 2010. He is known as a big hitter, very often hitting sixes; in 2012 he became the first player to hit a six off the first ball of a Test match. Playing for Royal Challengers Bangalore, he scored a 30-ball century, the fastest across any format, that became the highest individual T20 score (175 not out).[3][4] It eclipsed the previous mark set by Brendon McCullum of Kolkata Knight Riders. At the launch of the Caribbean Premier League he was announced as the first franchise player for the league.[5] Chris Gayle became the first batsman in World Cup history to score a double century when he reached 200 off 138 balls during the 2015 Cricket World Cup versus Zimbabwe. He finished on 215 runs, which was the record for highest score in a World Cup until it was broken by Martin Guptill, ironically against Gayle's West Indies team.[6] He is one of the five players to score a double century in ODIs.

Career[edit]

Early life[edit]

Gayle started his cricket career with the famous Lucas Cricket Club in Kingston, Jamaica.[7] Gayle claimed "If it was not for Lucas I don't know where I would be today. Maybe on the streets."[7] Lucas Cricket Club's nursery has been named in honour of Gayle.[7]

International debut[edit]

Gayle played for the West Indies at youth international level prior to making his first-class debut aged 19 for Jamaica. He played his first One Day International eleven months later, and his first Test match six months after that. Gayle, who normally opens the innings when he plays for the West Indies, is a destructive batsman who is most effective playing square of the wicket. In July 2001, Gayle (175), together with Daren Ganga (89) established the record for opening partnerships at Queens Sports Club, Bulawayo when they put on 214 together against Zimbabwe.

International career[edit]

Gayle had a slow start to his international career, but invigorated it in 2002, ending the year with three centuries against India in November and becoming the third West Indian to score over 1,000 runs in a calendar year, along with Vivian Richards and Brian Lara. He is one of only six players in One Day International history to have three or more scores of 150. In 2005, Gayle was dropped for the first Test against South Africa along with six other players following a dispute over sponsorship issues (see below). He returned for the second Test but had a poor series until the fourth Test, where he made a match-saving 317. It was the first ever triple century against South Africa and up until Mahela Jayawardene made 374, it was the highest individual Test score against them. In another match of the series, Gayle had to leave the field after complaining of dizziness. During a subsequent series against Australia, Gayle again complained of dizziness and shortness of breath during his innings. He left the field for a time, and was after the match sent to hospital where he was diagnosed with a congenital heart defect causing a cardiac dysrhythmia. He underwent heart surgery following the series to correct the defect.[8][9] In August 2005, Gayle joined Worcestershire for the rest of the English season, playing eight matches. He made two half-centuries in three first class matches and two half-centuries in five one-day matches, and won one Man of the Match award in the one-day National League. However, Worcestershire were relegated after Gayle made 1 in the final match against Lancashire.

Gayle was named Player of the 2006 Champions Trophy, where the West Indies nearly defended the title they won in 2004, being defeated in the final by Australia. Gayle scored three centuries and totalled 474 runs, 150 more than any other batsman, and also took eight wickets in as many matches. Gayle, in keeping with the rest of the West Indies team, had a poor World Cup in 2007. He recorded a series of low scores; the one exception being a blistering 79 off 58 balls against England in the West Indies' final match.

Gayle set the first record for the highest innings in a Twenty20 International, scoring 117 against South Africa in the first match of the 2007 World Twenty20.[10] The innings was the first century in international Twenty20 cricket and made him the first batsman to score a century in each of international cricket's three formats.[11] The record stood unmatched until 19 February 2012, when South Africa's Richard Levi scored 117n.o. against New Zealand; Cricinfo recognised Levi as having broken the record outright, because a not out innings is ranked above a dismissal.[12]

In the semi-final match of the 2009 World Twenty20 against Sri Lanka, he became the first international player to carry his bat through the entire innings in this format of the game as well. In April 2008, Gayle was auctioned by the franchise Kolkata Knight Riders of the Indian Premier League, but missed the opening games due to a Sri Lanka tour to the Caribbean. When he finally joined the team, he missed out on the action due to a groin injury he picked up during that tour. Afterwards, he left to join the West Indies team for a home series against Australia, therefore not playing in the inaugural version of the IPL.

He played in the second IPL competition in early 2009, arriving for an away Test series against England very late, earning criticism about his commitment.[13] His Test series went poorly, and the West Indies went on to lose both the Test and ODI series. Gayle, however, went to on score a match winning 88 in the first official match of the 2009 Twenty20, in a surprise victory over Australia.[14]

On 17 December 2009 in the Australia v West Indies 3rd Test Chris Gayle scored the fifth fastest century in Test match history. He reached the century in just 70 balls. However he was shortly after dismissed for 102 runs. This feat included a flurry of runs thanks to some big hitting sixes. On 16 November 2010, he became the fourth cricketer to score two triple centuries in Test cricket after Donald Bradman, Brian Lara and Virender Sehwag.[15]

Gayle in 2010.

On his return to Test cricket in July 2012, he scored 150 on the third day of the first Test against New Zealand.[16]

Gayle scored 75 runs from 41 balls, fuelling West Indies' total of 205, against Australia in the 2012 ICC World Twenty20 semifinal, which was the highest total of the tournament.[citation needed]

In November 2012, during the First Test against Bangladesh in Dhaka, Gayle became the first player to hit a six off the first ball in the history of Test cricket.[17][18] In February 2015, he became the fourth cricketer to score a double century in ODIs when he made 215 against Zimbabwe.[19][20]

On February 24, 2015, during the 2015 Cricket World Cup in Canberra against Zimbabwe, Gayle became the first player to hit a double century in World Cup history. His partnership with Marlon Samuels was the most productive wicket in Cricket World Cup history, producing 372 runs before Gayle was caught for an out on the final ball of the innings.[6] Coincidentally, he was almost adjudged out on the very first ball he faced as an LBW appeal was raised by Zimbabwe bowler, Tinashe Panyangara, however, the umpire turned down the appeal. Despite a review which showed that the ball would have clipped the top of the bails, the original decision was upheld.[6]
Gayle thus became the only player in world cricket to hit a triple hundred in Tests, a double hundred in ODIs and a hundred in Twenty20 Internationals.

Twenty20 cricket[edit]

C.Gayle's record in Twenty20 matches[21]
  Matches Runs HS 100s 50s Avg.
T20I[22] 45 1406 117 1 13 35.15
IPL[23] 82 3199 175* 5 18 46.38
CLT20[24] 6 257 92 0 2 42.83

On 1 July 2009, Gayle signed with the Western Australia Warriors for the Australian Domestic Twenty20 tournament known as the Big Bash for the 2009–10 season.

In 2011, after being left out of the initial part of the West Indies T20 and one-day home series against Pakistan, Gayle opted to join the Royal Challengers Bangalore in the fourth edition of the Indian Premier League.[25] In his debut game against his previous team Kolkata Knight Riders in their home ground, he scored 102 off 55 balls, hitting 10 fours and 7 sixes.[26] On 6 May 2011, he scored another century, 107 off 49 balls in Bangalore against the Kings XI Punjab, which included 10 fours and 9 sixes.[27] In the next match against Kochi Tuskers Kerala, he scored 37 runs in one over, which included 3 sixes, 3 fours and a no ball that was hit for a six.[28][29] Although many people cite him as having hit the over for 37, one run was awarded as an extra due to the no ball. He can therefore be said to have hit 36 off an over that went for 37. Gayle won the Orange Cap Award for scoring the most runs in the tournament amassing 608 runs in 12 matches.[30] He was instrumental in many victories for the Royal Challengers Bangalore and received five Man of the Match awards and also the Player of the Tournament award for his performances.[31] In the 2011 Champions League Twenty20, Chris Gayle was the second highest run-scorer in the competition, behind David Warner, with 257 runs from 6 matches at an average of 42.83 and a top score of 92, and was one of the star players.[32]

Following his prolific performances Gayle was signed by Zimbabwean franchise Matabeleland Tuskers, for the 2011-12 Stanbic Bank 20 Series.[33] As Gayle later recalled it was valuable practice ahead of the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, where he had signed for the Sydney Thunder.[34][35][36] Gayle hoped his first appearance in the tournament was a success, and he gave the spectators something to cheer about. Gayle was the second West Indian to be signed in the event, after the legendary Brian Lara had signed for Southern Rocks the previous season.

Gayle enjoyed great success in that tournament. He was the leading run-scorer in that series with 293 runs, a top score of 109, and an average over 50, the best of the tournament.[37] Ironically, the only century Gayle scored in the event ended in defeat as Mid West Rhinos's Brendan Taylor's outstanding 75* outlasted his team.[38] The Tuskers could not win the tournament as they were overpowered by Mashonaland Eagles's Ryan ten Doeschate's brilliant 121* off 58 and despite Gayle scoring a half-century, it was not enough to see his home through.[39]

Gayle also joined the Barisal Burners in the Bangladesh Premier League, and has scored two centuries at more than a run-a-ball.[40]

In the 2012 IPL season, Gayle hit the most sixes (59)[41] and was nominated for the orange cap for making 733 in 14 matches.[42]

He was selected for team Uva Next for the inaugural Sri Lanka Premier League in 2012.[2]

Gayle started off his 2013 IPL season scoring 92 not out from 58 balls, hitting 11 fours and four sixes against the Mumbai Indians. His innings helped his side to victory, and he was awarded the Man of the match.[43] On 23 April 2013 during an IPL match against Pune Warriors India, Gayle broke multiple scoring records. With an individual score of 175 not out off 66 balls and a century reached in 30 balls, Gayle set records for the fastest century reached in any format of cricket, the highest individual score in a T20 match, and the most sixes scored in a single innings in the IPL.[3][44] He also took two wickets in the match.

List of Twenty20 centuries[edit]

Chris Gayle holds the record for most centuries in Twenty20 cricket (15), 9 more than his nearest rival Brendon McCullum. Here is the list of all his Twenty20 hundreds.

Chris Gayle – Centuries in Twenty20 cricket[45]
# Runs Balls 4s 6s For Against Venue Date
1 117 57 7 10 West Indies South Africa Johannesburg 11 Sep 2007
2 102* 55 10 7 Royal Challengers Bangalore Kolkata Knight Riders Kolkata 22 Apr 2011
3 107 49 10 9 Royal Challengers Bangalore Kings XI Punjab Bangalore 6 May 2011
4 109* 59 7 8 Matabeleland Tuskers Mid West Rhinos Harare 29 Nov 2011
5 100* 54 3 11 Sydney Thunder Adelaide Strikers Sydney 23 Dec 2011 [46]
6 101* 44 7 10 Barisal Burners Sylhet Royals Dhaka 10 Feb 2012
7 116 61 6 11 Barisal Burners Dhaka Gladiators Dhaka 14 Feb 2012
8 128* 62 7 13 Royal Challengers Bangalore Delhi Daredevils Delhi 17 May 2012
9 122* 61 5 12 Jamaica Guyana Gros Islet 19 Jan 2013
10 114 51 5 12 Dhaka Gladiators Sylhet Royals Dhaka 15 Feb 2013
11 175* 66 13 17 Royal Challengers Bangalore Pune Warriors India Bangalore 23 April 2013
12 111* 63 5 10 Jamaica Tallawahs St Lucia Zouks St. George's, Grenada 12 July 2014
13 108* 55 10 7 Lions Warriors East London 7 November 2014
14 117 57 7 12 Royal Challengers Bangalore Kings XI Punjab Bangalore 6 May 2015
15 151* 62 10 15 Somerset Kent Taunton 31 May 2015

Technique and attitude[edit]

The ball spat off the middle of his bat to all corners, turning into parabolas that the crowd was hollering for. Gayle faced more than half the balls bowled by the Warriors and produced a compressed 20-over highlights package.[47]

Sharda Ugra, CricInfo on a Gayle IPL innings.

Gayle is known for his characteristic hitting, imposing physique, and timing. He attributes the latter to being very thin when young, and having a heavy bat.[48] He is known for appearing very calm as the bowler approaches. "Tall and imposing at the crease, he loves to carve through the covers off either foot, and has the ability to decimate the figures of even the thriftiest of opening bowlers" recorded Wisden and CricInfo.[49] He holds numerous records that reflect his batting style, including record Twenty20 strike-rates and high scores.

"It is instinct... We premeditate at times, but most of those things are instinct. When a fast bowler runs in to me, my breathing is controlled. So you keep a still head, slow down your breathing. Sometimes I actually hold my breath, so I can be as still and well-balanced as possible. If you get too excited, you overreact more, and with the adrenalin, you lose focus quickly."[48]

Controversies[edit]

Despite being regarded as a calm, cool cricketer,[49] in 2005 Gayle was involved in the dispute between the West Indies Cricket Board and a number of players over sponsorship issues. These players had personal sponsorship deals with Cable and Wireless, who used to sponsor West Indian cricket. However, since the West Indies had recently become sponsored by Cable and Wireless' rivals Digicel the West Indies Cricket Board demanded the players dropped their Cable and Wireless deals. When the players refused to back down, the West Indies Cricket Board dropped them for the first Test against South Africa.[50] Gayle later cut his deal with Cable and Wireless and rejoined the side for the second Test. He was charged with conduct contrary to the spirit of cricket during a Test against New Zealand in March 2006, but was subsequently found not guilty.[51] Later that year, during October's Champions Trophy tournament in India, he was fined 30 percent of his match fee after repeated verbal exchanges with the Australian batsman Michael Clarke.[52] He also publicly criticised the West Indies Cricket Board during the 2007 tour of England, which led to an official reprimand and warning.[53]

Gayle also received criticism in early 2009 during West Indies' tour of England, where he commented that he did not want to captain the West Indies any more given the pressures involved, and that he "wouldn't be so sad" if Test cricket was superseded by Twenty20 cricket in the future.[13] From the West Indies, both Viv Richards and Gary Sobers criticised Gayle's comments, as did opposite number Andrew Strauss.[54] Gayle later commented that his statement had been quoted out of context, according to Julian Hunte, President of the West Indies Cricket Board.[55] In an interview with Mike Atherton at the conclusion of a West Indies defeat in their tour of England, Gayle stated that he was not going to resign the captaincy.[56]

In April 2011 Chris Gayle criticized the West Indies Cricket Board and coach Ottis Gibson and did not play for the team for more than a year. On 6 April 2012, Gayle and the WICB reached an understanding that paved the way for the former West Indies captain to return to the national team.[57] On 25 June 2012, Gayle was chosen to be a part of the 2 T20 and five- match one-day squad series starting on 30 June 2012, in the West Indies and Florida. They won the T20 series 2–0 in which Gayle was awarded man of the series, and the ODI series 4–1 in which Gayle made an aggressive century and half-century.

Gayle is set to play cricket for the Northern Districts in the Plunket Shield in the 2013–14 season and will miss the West Indian cricket team in New Zealand in 2013–14 tour of New Zealand, which contains 3 Tests, 2 T20 and five- match ODIs.

An innings-by-innings breakdown of Gayle's Test match batting career, showing runs scored (red bars) and the average of the last ten innings (blue line).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Big Star Creations. Bigstarcricket.com. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b Kaushik, R. "Groin strain makes Gayle doubtful starter for SLPL". Wisden India. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Record-breaking Gayle sinks Pune". Wisden India. 23 April 2013. 
  4. ^ http://www.espncricinfo.com/indian-premier-league-2013/engine/match/598027.html
  5. ^ http://cplt20.com/news/caribbean-premier-league-announces-exciting-plans-tournament
  6. ^ a b c http://www.bbc.com/sport/0/cricket/31599255
  7. ^ a b c Lannaman, Jermaine (27 October 2012). "Lucas saved me". Jamaica Star. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  8. ^ "Gayle to have heart condition treated after series". ABC News. 18 November 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  9. ^ "Gayle has heart for Test fight". The Telegraph. 22 November 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Gayle ton fails to stop S Africa, BBC News. Retrieved 11 September 2007
  11. ^ List of highest individual International Twenty20 innings, ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 20 January 2008
  12. ^ "Records – Twenty20 Internationals – Batting records – Most runs in an innings (progressive record holder)". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 7 April 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "Gayle ponders Test future". ESPNcricinfo. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  14. ^ Monga, Sidharth (6 June 2009). "Gayle and Fletcher blast through Australia". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 6 June 2009. 
  15. ^ "West Indies' Chris Gayle hits 333 against Sri Lanka". BBC News Sport (BBC). 16 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010. 
  16. ^ "Gayle inspires as Windies take command in 1st Test". 28 July 2012. 
  17. ^ "West Indies'".  Chris Gayle creates Test history with opening six |most sixes in Test cricket by a West Indian cricketer.
  18. ^ "Gayle's 101 leaves Zimbabwe reeling". The Indian Express. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  19. ^ Polkinghorne, David (February 24, 2015). "West Indies Chris Gayle sets record World Cup score with 2015 against Zimbabwe". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  20. ^ "Gayle becomes first World Cup double-centurion". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 Feb 2015. 
  21. ^ "Statistics / Statsguru / CH Gayle /One-Day Internationals". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  22. ^ "List of Test victories". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  23. ^ "IPL Records-Most Runs". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  24. ^ "CLT20 Records-Most Runs". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  25. ^ "Gayle joins RCB". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 20 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  26. ^ "Indian Premier League – 24th match Kolkata Knight Riders v Royal Challengers Bangalore". ESPNcricinfo. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  27. ^ "Indian Premier League – 47th match Royal Challengers Bangalore v Kings XI Punjab". ESPNcricinfo. 6 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  28. ^ Most expensive over in IPL. Gayle hits 37 runs.[dead link]
  29. ^ "The 37-run over". ESPNcricinfo. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  30. ^ "IPL 2011: Who wins what". NDTV. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  31. ^ "Numbers game of CSK v/s RCB Match". Krishcricket.com. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  32. ^ Nokia Champions League T20, 2011/12 / Records / Most runs ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  33. ^ Gayle to play T20s in Zimbabwe ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  34. ^ "Gayle, Afridi sign for Big Bash league". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 23 July 2012. 
  35. ^ Gayle and Nannes gear up for Zimbabwe challenge ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  36. ^ Oz Big Bash: Gayle signs up for Sydney Thunder Rediff. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  37. ^ Records / Stanbic Bank 20 Series, 2011/12 / Most runs ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  38. ^ Gayle century in vain as Rhinos advance ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  39. ^ ten Doeschate takes Eagles into final ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  40. ^ "Chris Gayle". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  41. ^ "Most Sixes- Stats". iplt20.com. 
  42. ^ "Most runs". IPL T20.com. 
  43. ^ Indian Premier League, 2013 / Scorecard ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 9 April 2013
  44. ^ Ashdown, John (23 April 2013). "Chris Gayle scores fastest century in cricket history during IPL game". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  45. ^ [1], ESPNcricinfo, 3 May 2012.
  46. ^ http://www.espncricinfo.com/big-bash-league-2011/engine/current/match/524922.html
  47. ^ "When a man filled an entire stadium". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  48. ^ a b Liew, Jonathan (7 June 2013). "Champions Trophy 2013: Chris Gayle is still the life and soul of West Indies party". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  49. ^ a b "Player Profile: Chris Gayle". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  50. ^ West Indies sponsor rejects plans, BBC Sports. Retrieved 20 January 2008
  51. ^ Gayle cleared of conduct charges, Fox Sports Australia. Retrieved 20 January 2008
  52. ^ Gayle fined for misconduct, ECB. Retrieved 20 January 2008
  53. ^ Gayle in hot water, ECB. Retrieved 20 January 2008
  54. ^ Brown, Alex (13 May 2009). "Richards and Sobers defend primacy of Test cricket". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  55. ^ "Gayle's comments an 'unfortunate development' – Hunte". ESPNcricinfo. 13 May 2009. Retrieved 18 May 2009. 
  56. ^ Interview with Mike Atherton – Award Presentation following England v West Indies, 2nd Test 14–18 May 2009. Sky Sports 18 May 2009.
  57. ^ West Indies news: Chris Gayle, WICB reach agreement on return | West Indies Cricket News. ESPNcricinfo. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.

References[edit]

  • 75 Years of West Indies Cricket 1928–2000 by Ray Goble and Keith AP Sandiford ISBN 1-870518-78-0

External links[edit]