Chris Hedges

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Chris Hedges
Chris hedges blur.jpg
Hedges, c. 2007
Christopher Lynn Hedges

(1956-09-18) September 18, 1956 (age 63)
EducationColgate University (BA)
Harvard University (M.Div)
OccupationJournalist, writer, activist, clergyman

Christopher Lynn Hedges (born September 18, 1956) is an American Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, Presbyterian minister, New York Times best selling author and television host. His books include War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning (2002), a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for Nonfiction; Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle (2009); Death of the Liberal Class (2010); Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt (2012), written with cartoonist Joe Sacco, which was a New York Times best-seller; Wages of Rebellion: The Moral Imperative of Revolt (2015); and his most recent America: The Farewell Tour (2018).

Hedges, who wrote a weekly column for the progressive news website Truthdig for 14 years, was fired along with all of the editorial staff in March 2020. [1][2][3] Hedges and the staff had gone on strike earlier in the month to protest the publisher's attempt to fire the Editor-in-Chief Robert Scheer, demand an end to a series of unfair labor practices and the right to form a union.[4] He hosts the Emmy-nominated program On Contact for the RT (formerly Russia Today) television network.[5] Hedges spent nearly two decades as a foreign correspondent in Central America, West Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Balkans. He has reported from more than fifty countries, and has worked for The Christian Science Monitor, NPR, Dallas Morning News, and The New York Times,[6] where he was a foreign correspondent for fifteen years (1990–2005) serving as the paper's Middle East Bureau Chief and Balkan Bureau Chief during the war in the former Yugoslavia.

In 2001, Hedges contributed to The New York Times staff entry that received the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting for the paper's coverage of global terrorism. He also received the Amnesty International Global Award for Human Rights Journalism in 2002.[7] He has taught at Columbia University, New York University, the University of Toronto and Princeton University.[6][8][9][10]

Hedges has also taught college credit courses for several years in New Jersey prisons as part of the B.A. program offered by Rutgers University.[11] He has described himself as a socialist[12][13][14][15] identifying with Catholic activist Dorothy Day in particular.[16]

Early life and career[edit]

Christopher Lynn Hedges was born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, the son of Thelma Louise (née Prince) and the Rev. Thomas Havard Hedges, a Presbyterian minister.[17][18] He grew up in rural Schoharie County, New York, southwest of Albany. He graduated in 1975 from the Loomis Chaffee School, a private boarding school in Windsor, Connecticut.[19][20] He founded an underground newspaper at the school that was banned by the administration and resulted in his being put on probation.[21]

Hedges received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Colgate University in 1979. He received a Master of Divinity degree from Harvard University's Divinity School (where he studied under James Luther Adams) in 1983.[22] Hedges lived in the depressed inner city neighborhood of Roxbury, the most dangerous in Boston, as a seminarian and ran a small church. He was also a member of the Greater Boston YMCA's boxing team, writing that the boxing gym was "the only place I felt safe."[23][24][25][26] He studied Latin and Classical Greek at Harvard and speaks Arabic, French, and Spanish in addition to English.[7]

Latin America

Hedges began his career as a freelance journalist in Latin America.  He wrote for several publications, including The Washington Post, and covered the Falkland War from Buenos Aires for National Public Radio.[27] From 1983 to 1984 he covered the conflicts in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala for The Christian Science Monitor and NPR[28].[29]  He was hired as the Central America Bureau Chief for The Dallas Morning News in 1984 and held this position until 1988.[30] Noam Chomsky wrote of Hedges at the time that he was one of the "few US journalists in Central America who merit the title."[31]

The Middle East

Hedges took a sabbatical to study Arabic in 1988.[32]  He was appointed the Middle East Bureau Chief for The Dallas Morning News in 1989.  In one of his first stories for the paper he tracked down Robert Manning, the prime suspect in the 1985 bombing death in California of Alex Odeh, head of the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee’s Western office, in the Jewish settlement of Kiryat Arba in the Israeli-occupied West Bank.[33][34]  Israel, until Hedges discovered Manning, said it had no knowledge of Manning’s whereabouts.  Manning, linked to the militant Jewish Defense League and allegedly behind several murders, was extradited to the United States in 1991 where he is serving a life sentence.[35]

The New York Times[edit]

In 1990 Hedges was hired by The New York Times.  He covered the first Gulf War for the paper, where he refused to participate in the military pool system that restricted the movement and reporting of journalists.[36][37]  He was arrested by the U.S. military and had his press credentials revoked, but continued to defy the military restrictions to report outside the pool system.  He entered Kuwait with the U.S. Marine Corp.  He was taken prisoner in Basra after the war by the Iraqi Republican Guard during the Shiite uprising.[38]  He was freed after a week.  Hedges was appointed the paper’s Middle East Bureau Chief in 1991.  His reporting on the atrocities committed by Saddam Hussein in the Kurdish-held parts of northern Iraq saw the Iraqi leader offer a bounty for anyone who killed him, along with other western journalists and aid workers in the region.  Several aid workers and journalists, including the German reporter Lissy Schmidt, were assassinated and others were severely wounded.[39]

In 1995 Hedges was named the Balkan Bureau Chief for The New York Times.  He was based in Sarajevo when the city was being hit by over 300 shells a day by the surrounding Bosnia Serbs.[40][41]  He reported on the Serbian massacres in Srebrenica and shortly after the war uncovered what appeared to be one of central collection points and hiding places for perhaps thousands of corpses from the Bosnian Serbs' campaign of ethnic cleansing at the large open pit Ljubija mine.[42][43]  He and the photographer Wade Goddard were the first reporters to travel with armed units of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in Kosovo.[44]  Hedges published an investigative piece in The New York Times in June 1999 detailing how Hashim Thaci, the former rebel leader and current president of Kosovo, directed a campaign in which as many as half a dozen top rebel commanders were assassinated and many others were brutally purged to consolidate his power.[45]

During the academic year 1998-1999 he was a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University where he studied classics.[46][47]

Hedges was based in Paris following the attacks of 9/11.  He covered Al Qaeda in Europe and the Middle East, work for which he and the investigative team of the New York Times in 2002 won the Pulitzer prize.[48][49]

Three of Hedges' articles were based upon the stories of Iraqi defectors, who had been furnished to Hedges by the Information Collection Program of the U.S.-funded Iraqi National Congress.[50] The program promoted stories to major media outlets in order to orchestrate U.S. intervention in Iraq in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. Most significant of his reports in this period was a November 8, 2001, front-page story about two former Iraqi military commanders who claimed to have trained foreign mujahedeen how to hijack planes without using guns.[51] Hedges quoted a man whom he believed to be an Iraqi general: "These Islamic radicals ... came from a variety of countries, including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Algeria, Egypt, and Morocco. We were training these people to attack installations important to the United States". The two defectors also asserted there was a secret compound in Salman Pak facility where a German scientist was producing biological weapons.[52]

According to Jack Fairweather in Mother Jones: "The impact of the article ... was immediate: Op-eds ran in major papers, and the story was taken to a wider audience through cable-TV talk shows.[53] When Condoleezza Rice, then President George W. Bush's national security adviser, was asked about the report at a press briefing, she said, 'I think it surprises no one that Saddam Hussein is engaged in all kinds of activities that are destabilizing.'" As late as 2006, according to Fairweather in the same article, conservative magazines including The Weekly Standard and National Review continued to use this article to justify the invasion of Iraq.[53]

It later was revealed that the story which Hedges reported was "an elaborate scam". The defector whom Hedges quoted, who had identified himself as Lt. General Jamal al-Ghurairy, was a former sergeant. The real Ghurairy had never left Iraq. Hedges said that he had taken on reporting this account at the request of Lowell Bergman of Frontline, who wanted the defectors for his show but could not go to Beirut for the interview. The trip had been organized by Ahmed Chalabi, whom Hedges considered to be unreliable. Hedges said he had done the piece as a favor to Bergman, explaining, "There has to be a level of trust between reporters. We cover each other's sources when it's a good story because otherwise everyone would get hold of it." Hedges had relied on the U.S. embassy in Turkey for further confirmation of the man's identity.[53]

Hedges wrote two more articles that year that were informed by Chalabi-coached defectors. The second one, claiming that Iraq still held 80 Kuwaitis captured in the 1991 Gulf War in a secret underground prison, was also found to be baseless.[54]

Political views and activism[edit]

The Democratic Party is as much to blame for Trump as the Republicans. It is a full partner in the perpetuation of our political system of legalized bribery, along with the deindustrialization of the country, austerity programs, social inequality, mass incarceration and the assault on basic civil liberties. It deregulates Wall Street. It prosecutes the endless and futile wars that are draining the federal budget. We must mount independent political movements and form our own parties to sweep the Democratic and Republican elites aside or be complicit in cementing into place a corporate tyranny. Sanders won’t help us. He has made that clear. We must do it without him.

—Chris Hedges on the Democratic Party[55]

Hedges was an early critic of the Iraq War. In May 2003, he delivered a commencement address at Rockford College in Rockford, Illinois, saying: "We are embarking on an occupation that, if history is any guide, will be as damaging to our souls as it will be to our prestige and power and security."[56] His speech was received with boos, "two students approached the stage to push [him] off the podium" (as he told an interviewer),[57] and his microphone was shut off three minutes after he began speaking.[58]

The New York Times, his employer, criticized his statements and issued him a formal reprimand for "public remarks that could undermine public trust in the paper's impartiality".[59] Shortly after the incident, Hedges left The New York Times to become a senior fellow at The Nation Institute, and a columnist at Truthdig, in addition to writing books and teaching inmates at a New Jersey correctional institution.[59][60]

Hedges has worked for a decade teaching in prisons in New Jersey, and he has become a fierce critic of mass incarceration in the United States.[61][62]

In the 2008 United States presidential campaign, Hedges was a speech writer for candidate Ralph Nader.[63]

In March 2008, Hedges published a book titled I Don't Believe in Atheists, in which he expresses his belief that new atheism presents a danger that is similar to religious extremism.[64]

In his December 29, 2008, column for Truthdig, Hedges stated that "[t]he inability to articulate a viable socialism has been our gravest mistake. It will ensure, if this does not soon change, a ruthless totalitarian capitalism".[12] He elaborated upon this in a 2013 interview with The Real News, claiming that, "the left has been destroyed, especially the radical left, quite consciously in the whole name of anti-communism", and:

[W]e have allowed ourselves to embrace an ideology which, at its core, states that all governance is about maximizing corporate profit at the expense of the citizenry. For what do we have structures of government, for what do we have institutions of state, if not to hold up all the citizenry, and especially the most vulnerable?[65]

In a March 2009 column, Hedges warned that human over-population and mass species extinction are serious problems, and that any measures to save the ecosystem will be futile unless we cut population growth, and noted that, "As long as the Earth is viewed as the personal property of the human race, a belief embraced by everyone from born-again Christians to Marxists to free-market economists, we are destined to soon inhabit a biological wasteland."[66]

On December 8, 2009, Hedges identified as a "radical Keynesian" during his lecture at The New School, entitled "Empire of Illusion".[67]

On December 16, 2010, he was arrested outside the White House along with Daniel Ellsberg and more than 100 activists who were protesting the war in Afghanistan.[68][69]

Hedges appeared as a guest on an October 2011 episode of the CBC News Network's Lang and O'Leary Exchange to discuss his support for the Occupy Wall Street protests; co-host Kevin O'Leary criticized him, saying that he sounded "like a left-wing nutbar". Hedges said "it will be the last time" he appears on the show, and compared the CBC to Fox News.[70] CBC's ombudsman found O'Leary's heated remarks to be a violation of the public broadcaster's journalistic standards.[71]

On November 3, 2011, Hedges was arrested with others in New York as part of the Occupy Wall Street demonstration, during which the activists staged a "people's hearing"[72] on the activities of the investment bank Goldman Sachs and blocked the entrance to their corporate headquarters.[73][74] Hedges has appeared on the syndicated Democracy Now! television program; on Breaking the Set on RT (formerly known as Russia Today), and on CBC's George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight.[75][76][77]

In October 2012, Hedges publicly supported Jill Stein, the candidate of the Green Party of the United States, in the 2012 United States presidential election.[78] On April 7, 2013, Hedges delivered the keynote address at the Green Party of New Jersey state convention.[79][80]

In June 2013, Hedges and numerous celebrities appeared in a video showing support for Chelsea Manning.[81][82]

On September 20, 2014, a day before the People's Climate March, Hedges joined Bernie Sanders, Naomi Klein, Bill McKibben, and Kshama Sawant on a panel moderated by WNYC's Brian Lehrer to discuss the issue of climate change.[83] Hedges and Klein also participated in the 'Flood Wall Street' protests that occurred shortly thereafter.[84]

On November 11, 2014, Hedges published an article explaining why he and his family have become vegan. He explained that this is "the most important and direct change we can immediately make to save the planet and its species".[85]

In a December 15, 2014, article, Hedges compared the actions of ISIS today to the way Israel's founding fathers acted in the late 1940s.[86]

He contended at the Left Forum in 2015 that with the "denouement of capitalism and the disintegration of globalism", Karl Marx has been "vindicated as capitalism's most prescient and important critic". He said that Marx "foresaw that capitalism had built within it the seeds of its own destruction. He knew that reigning ideologies—think neoliberalism—were created to serve the interests of the elites and in particular the economic elites."[87]

On April 15, 2016, Hedges was arrested, along with 100 other protesters, during a sit-in outside the U.S. Capitol during Democracy Spring to protest the capture of the political system by corporations.[88]

Commenting on the 2016 election during an interview on The Real News, Hedges asserted that the modern American Left's embrace of neoliberalism resulted in a dysfunctional democracy and has given rise to a Trump presidency, which he characterizes as "proto-fascist".[89] Hedges argues that logical result of neoliberalism is neofascism.[90] At a March 2017 speech delivered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Hedges insisted that resistance to the Trump Administration must be broadly socialist and anti-capitalist in nature:

This resistance must also be accompanied by an alternative vision of a socialist, anti-capitalist society. Because the enemy in the end is not Trump or Bannon—it is corporate power. And if we do not stop corporate power, we will never dismantle fascism's seduction of the white working class and unemployed."[91]

On May 27, 2020, Hedges announced that he would run as a Green Party candidate in New Jersey's 12th congressional district for the 2020 elections. However, he was informed the following day that he cannot run for a federal office because of FCC regulations.[92][93]

On a June 2020 episode of the Jimmy Dore Show, Dore asked Hedges if Bernie Sanders had rolled over "for the corporate state" by refusing to confront the Democratic Party hierarchy about its subservience to corporate power. Hedges responded by saying that Sanders has always carried water for the Democratic party leadership, pointing out that he campaigned for Bill Clinton in 1996 after Clinton had passed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which militarized the police and hired 100,000 new police officers, provided $9.7 billion in funding for prisons and nearly doubled the prison population by imposing harsher sentencing laws. Hedges stated that Sanders has never seriously confronted the Democratic Party leadership, fearing retribution that would derail his ability to caucus with the Democrats in Congress and jeopardize his political career. He said, for this reason, Sanders was "morally and temperamentally unfit to lead this fight."[94]

NDAA lawsuit[edit]

In 2012, after the Obama Administration signed the National Defense Authorization Act, or NDAA, Hedges sued members of the U.S. government, asserting that section 2021 of the law unconstitutionally allowed presidential authority for indefinite detention without habeas corpus. He was later joined in the suit, Hedges v. Obama, by activists including Noam Chomsky and Daniel Ellsberg. In May 2012 Judge Katherine B. Forrest of the Southern District of New York ruled that the counter-terrorism provision of the NDAA is unconstitutional.[95] The Obama administration appealed the decision and it was overturned. Hedges petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the case,[96] but the Supreme Court denied certiorari in April 2014.[97][98]

Ordination and ministerial installation[edit]

On October 5, 2014, Hedges was ordained a minister within the Presbyterian Church. He was installed as Associate Pastor and Minister of Social Witness and Prison Ministry at the Second Presbyterian Church Elizabeth in Elizabeth, New Jersey.[99] He noted having been rejected for ordination 30 years earlier, saying that "going to El Salvador as a reporter was not something the Presbyterian Church at the time recognized as a valid ministry, and a committee rejected my 'call'".[100]

Personal life[edit]

Hedges is married to the Canadian actress Eunice Wong.[101] The couple have two children. Hedges also has two children from a previous marriage. He currently lives in Princeton, New Jersey.[102]


  • 2002: War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning (ISBN 1586480499)
  • 2003: What Every Person Should Know About War (ISBN 1417721049)
  • 2005: Losing Moses on the Freeway: The 10 Commandments in America (ISBN 0743255135)
  • 2007: American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America (ISBN 0743284437)
  • 2008: I Don't Believe in Atheists (ISBN 141656795X)
  • 2008: Collateral Damage: America's War Against Iraqi Civilians, with Laila Al-Arian (ISBN 1568583737)
  • 2009: When Atheism Becomes Religion: America's New Fundamentalists, (ISBN 9781416570783), a retitled edition of I Don't Believe in Atheists
  • 2009: Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle (ISBN 9781568584379)
  • 2010: Death of the Liberal Class (ISBN 9781568586441)
  • 2010: The World As It Is: Dispatches on the Myth of Human Progress (ISBN 9781568586403)
  • 2012: Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt, with Joe Sacco (ISBN 9781568586434)
  • 2015: Wages of Rebellion: The Moral Imperative of Revolt (ISBN 1568589662)
  • 2016: Unspeakable (ISBN 1510712739)
  • 2018: America, The Farewell Tour (ISBN 978-1501152672)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Truthdig: About Us
  2. ^ "Reuters Ex-LA Times Writer Mark Heisler Vents Again About Tribune". Reuters. August 19, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  3. ^ "Statement From Striking Truthdig Workers". March 27, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Ryan, Danielle (January 10, 2017). "RT America Was Not 'Pro-Trump'". The Nation. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Simon & Schuster, "Authors: Chris Hedges"". Simon & Schuster. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Chris Hedges, Columnist". Truthdig. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  8. ^ "Visiting Journalism Professors Roster 1964–2015". Archived from the original on May 31, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  9. ^ "Anshutz Distinguished Fellowship in American Studies". Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  10. ^ "In Conversation with Brian Steward: Pulitzer-Prize Winning Journalist Christopher Hedges". Retrieved April 28, 2016.
  11. ^ Pauchet, Maddy (April 16, 2017). "An Interview with Chris Hedges and Boris Franklin". Nassau Weekly. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  12. ^ a b Hedges, Chris (December 29, 2008). "Why I Am a Socialist". Truthdig.
  13. ^ Hedges, Chris (August 21, 2018). America: The Farewell Tour. Simon & Schuster. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-73527-596-6.
  14. ^ Chris Hedges Interviewed at NYSEC Youtube Assessed 12/15/2016
  15. ^ Chris Hedges on What it Takes to be a Rebel in Modern Times Youtube Assessed 12/15/2016
  16. ^ Occupy Tactics – Violence and Legitimacy in the Occupy Movement and Beyond Youtube Assessed 12/15/2016
  17. ^ Ellen Gilbert (February 2, 2013). "Chris Hedges The News Is Not Good". Princeton Magazine. Archived from the original on April 23, 2014.
  18. ^ Chris Hedges in FamilySearch
  19. ^ Chris Hedges; Howard A. Doughty (2008). "I Don't Believe in Atheists".
  20. ^ "Notable Alumni Humanitarianism and Public Service". May 15, 2013.
  21. ^ Johnny Mason. "Writer Shares War Stories". Hartford Courant. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  22. ^ "Interview: Chris Hedges". PBS. January 31, 2003. Archived from the original on March 10, 2013.
  23. ^ ""Roxbury Was Quite a Shock for Me": Christ Hedges on Empire, Religion and Resistance". Spare Change News. July 31, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  24. ^ "Chris Hedges: Urban Poverty Made Me Ask Questions". Truthdig: Expert Reporting, Current News, Provocative Columnists. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  25. ^ "Looking Ahead: Chris Hedges On Poverty, Politics, U.S. Culture". Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  26. ^ "A World Without Compassion -". Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  27. ^ Hedges, Chris (January 3, 1982). "Riding the Meat Run Over Bolivia's Andes". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  28. ^ "A 'driven' colonel commands his Salvadorean troops to fight like guerrillas". Christian Science Monitor. September 14, 1983. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  29. ^ "El Salvador military said to bomb Red Cross aid sites". Christian Science Monitor. March 26, 1984. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  30. ^ "Hedges, Chris (Christopher Lynn Hedges) |". Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  31. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1985). Turning the Tide: U.S. Intervention in Central America and the Struggle for Peace. Boston: South End Press. p. 259.
  32. ^ "The Miracle of Kindness".
  33. ^ "Israel's Toy Soldiers". Common Dreams. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  34. ^ "Bombing Trial Is Snarled in U.S.-Israeli Treaty Issue". The LA Times.
  35. ^ "Robert Manning Sentenced to Life in Prison for 1980 Mail Bomb Killing". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. February 10, 1994. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  36. ^ "Reporting America at War . Chris Hedges . On working outside the Gulf War pool system | PBS". Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  37. ^ Jr, R. W. Apple; Times, Special To the New York (February 12, 1991). "WAR IN THE GULF: THE PRESS; Correspondents Protest Pool System". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  38. ^ Hedges, Chris; Times, Special To the New York (March 12, 1991). "AFTER THE WAR: Journalists; A Reporter in Iraq's Hands: Amid the Fear, Parlor Games". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  39. ^ "Iraq accused over murder of German reporter". The Independent. April 5, 1994. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  40. ^ "3,777 Shells fired at Sarajevo on the 22nd of July 1993!". Sarajevo Times. July 22, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  41. ^ Hedges, Chris (July 28, 1995). "CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS: THE PEOPLE; War Turns Sarajevo Away From Europe". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  42. ^ Hedges, Chris (July 13, 1995). "CONFLICT IN THE BALKANS: THE OVERVIEW; Serbs Start Moving Muslims Out of Captured Territory". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  43. ^ Hedges, Chris (January 11, 1996). "Bosnian Mine Is Thought to Hold Evidence of Mass Killings". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  44. ^ Hedges, Chris (June 22, 1998). "Both Sides in the Kosovo Conflict Seem Determined to Ignore Reality". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  45. ^ "The Separatists: Kosovo's Rebels Accused of Executions in the Ranks". Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  46. ^ "In Yugoslavia, the Consequences of Not Reporting the Truth". Nieman Reports. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  47. ^ Hedges, Chris (July 1, 2000). "What I Read at War". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  48. ^ Hedges, Chris (October 28, 2001). "A NATION CHALLENGED: POLICE WORK; The Inner Workings of a Plot to Blow Up the U.S. Embassy in Paris". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  49. ^ Barringer, Felicity (April 9, 2002). "Pulitzers Focus on Sept. 11, and The Times Wins 7". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  50. ^ Jonathan S. Landay and Tish Wells, "Global Misinformation Campaign was Used to Build Case for War" Knight-Ridder, March 16, 2004 Archived November 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ McCollam, Douglas (July 12, 2004). "Ahmed Chalabi's List of Suckers: Judith Miller is only one of the many reporters from almost every blue-blooded news outfit in America who were played by the Iraqi exile". Alternet. Retrieved November 22, 2013. Chris Hedges of The New York Times wrote a page-one piece headlined "Defectors Cite Iraqi Training for Terrorism".
  52. ^ Hedges, Chris (November 8, 2001). "Defectors Cite Iraqi Training for Terrorism". The New York Times. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  53. ^ a b c Fairweather, Jack (March–April 2006). "Heroes in Error". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 17, 2013. How a fake general, a pliant media, and a master manipulator helped lead the United States into war.
  54. ^ Jonathan S. Landay; Tish Wells (March 16, 2004). "Iraqi Exile Group Fed False Information to News Media – Global Misinformation Campaign was Used to Build Case for War". Knight-Ridder. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
  55. ^ Hedges, Chris. "Capitalism". Archived from the original on March 12, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  56. ^ Footage of the speech on YouTube; Rockford College, May 2003
  57. ^ Saltman, Bethany (December 2008). "Moral Combat: Chris Hedges on War, Faith, and Fundamentalism". The Sun: 8.
  58. ^ "New York Times Reporter, Chris Hedges was Booed off the Stage and had his Microphone Cut Twice as he Delivered a Graduation Speech on War and Empire at Rockford College in Illinois". Democracy Now!. May 21, 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  59. ^ a b Hedges, Chris; A Father's Gift, Dallas Morning News, 17 June 2006, accessed December 21, 2010[dead link]
  60. ^ "The Nation Institute". Archived from the original on June 1, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  61. ^ Marshall "Eddie" Conway; Chris Hedges (January 4, 2015). "How Prisons Rip Off and Exploit the Incarcerated (1/2)". The Real News. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  62. ^ Chris Hedges (December 29, 2014). The Prison State of America. Truthdig. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  63. ^ David Barsamian (August 2011). "An Interview with Chris Hedges". The Progressive. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  64. ^ Hedges, Chris (2008). I Don't Believe in Atheists. Free Press.
  65. ^ Chris Hedges: 'The Left Has Been Destroyed'. Truthdig, July 22, 2013.
  66. ^ Hedges, Chris (March 9, 2009). "We Are Breeding Ourselves to Extinction". Truthdig. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  67. ^ Hedges, Chris (December 16, 2009). "Chris Hedges' Empire of Illusion | The New School". YouTube. The New School. Retrieved August 29, 2016.
  68. ^ "'Hope Is Action': Hedges and Ellsberg Arrested at White House Protest". Truthdig. December 17, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  69. ^ "Exclusive: US empire could collapse at any time, Pulitzer winner tells Raw Story". The Raw Story. December 17, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  70. ^ James Crugnale (October 12, 2011). Journalist Chris Hedges Argues With CBC's Kevin O'Leary: 'This Sounds Like Fox News And I Don't Go On Fox News!', Mediaite. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  71. ^ Cassandra Szklarski (October 14, 2011). "Kevin O'Leary 'Nutbar' Remark Violated Journalistic Standards: CBC Ombudsman]". The Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  72. ^ Chris Hedges Arrested in Front of Goldman Sachs. Truthdig. November 3, 2011.
  73. ^ Rich Schapiro; Helen Kennedy (November 3, 2011). "More than a dozen Occupy Wall Street protesters arrested outside Goldman Sachs, Reporter/Activist Chris Hedges among those charged]". Daily News. New York. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  74. ^ RTAmerica on YouTube
  75. ^ Shows featuring Chris Hedges. Democracy Now! Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  76. ^ "Socialist in Seattle: Kshama Sawant's revolution, the indigenous fight against Keystone XL". RT. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
  77. ^ "Strombo, Chris Hedges, CBC Television". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2010. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
  78. ^ Hedges, Chris. "Why I'm Voting Green". Truthdig. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  79. ^ "Green Party to livestream Chris Hedges keynote at NJ GP annual meeting, Sun. 4/9". Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  80. ^ Chris Hedges Strategy for Radical Change at Green Party of New Jersey Convention on YouTube
  81. ^ "Celeb video: 'I am Bradley Manning' – Patrick Gavin". Politico. June 20, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
  82. ^ I am Bradley Manning (full HD) on YouTube
  83. ^ "It's Time to Act on the Climate Crisis". The Real News, September 21, 2014
  84. ^ John Light; Joshua Holland (September 23, 2014). "After People's Climate March, Thousands Re-Kindle Occupy Wall Street". Moyers & Company. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  85. ^ "Saving the Planet, One Meal at a Time". Truthdig. November 10, 2014.
  86. ^ Hedges, Chris. "ISIS-The New Israel". TruthDig.
  87. ^ Chris Hedges (May 31, 2015). Karl Marx Was Right. Truthdig. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
  88. ^ "Rosario Dawson Among 100 Democracy Spring Protesters Arrested at U.S. Capitol". DCMediaGroup. April 15, 2016.
  89. ^ Chris Hedges: The Surrender of the Liberal Left to Neoliberalism Gave Us Proto-fascism. The Real News. November 10, 2016.
  90. ^ Hedges, Chris (November 26, 2018). "Neoliberalism's Dark Path to Fascism". Truthdig. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  91. ^ Chris Hedges: The Enemy Is Not Donald Trump or Steve Bannon—It Is Corporate Power (Video) Truthdig. March 15, 2017
  92. ^ "Author Chris Hedges Announces CD12 Run As Green Party Candidate". Insider NJ. May 27, 2020.
  93. ^ "Hedges Ends Short-Lived CD12 Green Party Candidacy; Prohibited By FCC Rules". Insider NJ. May 28, 2020.
  94. ^ The Ruling Elite Has Lost All Legitimacy”. w/Chris Hedges [1] Assessed 06/04/2020
  95. ^ Kuipers, Dean (May 18, 2012). "Federal judge blocks National Defense Authorization Act provision". Los Angeles Times.
  96. ^ David Seaman (September 13, 2012). "Obama Has Already Appealed The Indefinite Detention Ruling". Business Insider.
  97. ^ Denniston, Lyle (April 28, 2014). "Detention challenge denied". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  98. ^ "Order List: 572 U. S. 13-758 Hedges, Christopher, et Al. V. Obama, Pres. Of U.S., et Al. – Certiorari Denied" (PDF). United States Supreme Court. April 29, 2014. p. 7. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
  99. ^ "Leadership of the Second Presbyterian Church in Elizabeth, NJ". Retrieved April 27, 2015.
  100. ^ "Ordained to Write". Truthdig. October 13, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  101. ^ "Eunice Wong: Biography". Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2016.
  102. ^ "Americans Who Tell the "Chris Hedges Biography"". Robert Shetterly. Retrieved January 15, 2015.

External links[edit]

External video
Stop Fascism: Chris Hedges in Portland, Oregon. A KBOO Benefit. on YouTube
On Contact: Noam Chomsky – Part I on YouTube
Organizing resistance to Internet censorship on YouTube
Chris Hedges talking about his book America: The Farewell Tour on MSNBC on YouTube