This article possibly contains original research. (September 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A Christ figure, also known as a Christ-Image is a literary technique that the author uses to draw allusions between their characters and the biblical Jesus. More loosely, the Christ Figure is a spiritual or prophetic character who parallels Jesus, or other spiritual or prophetic figures.
In general, a character should display more than one correspondence with the story of Jesus Christ as depicted in the Bible. For instance, the character might display one or more of the following traits: performance of miracles, manifestation of divine qualities, healing others, displaying kindness and forgiveness, fighting for justice, being guided by the spirit of the character's father, and the character's own death and resurrection. Christ figures are often martyrs, sacrificing themselves for causes larger than themselves.
In postmodern literature, the resurrection theme is often abandoned, leaving us with the image of a martyr sacrificing himself for a greater good. It is common to see Christ figures displayed in a manner suggestive of crucifixion as well.
- Jim Conklin in The Red Badge of Courage 
- Sydney Carton in A Tale of Two Cities 
- Uncle Tom and Eva St. Clare in Uncle Tom's Cabin 
- Jim Casy in The Grapes of Wrath.
- Santiago of The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway.
- Aslan in The Chronicles of Narnia by C. S. Lewis. Aslan the lion sacrifices himself to save Edmund but rises again from the dead to defeat the White Witch.
- Simon in William Golding's Lord of the Flies. When Simon reaches up and grabs the fruit from the top of the tree for the little boys in the group, which parallels the story of Jesus feeding the people on the mountain with fish and bread. Simon looks like Jesus, with long black hair. He also is spiritually sensitive. He likes to go off on his own (as Jesus did, going into the desert); he "wrestles with the devil" in the form of his conversation with the Lord of the Flies (the pig's head on a stick); he goes to the mountaintop to find out the revelation that the "beast" is only a dead pilot, and he is martyred for trying to bring the truth to the other boys. Finally, as Simon's dead body is taken by the sea, glowing creatures seem to form a halo around his head.
- Finny in A Separate Peace
- Billy Budd in Billy Budd by Herman Melville 
- John Coffey from The Green Mile.
- Harry Potter in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series displays Savior qualities every time he defends the wizard (and Muggle) world from the devilish Lord Voldemort. On multiple occasions, Harry willingly presents himself as a sacrifice and, by so doing, is able to destroy the evil wizard. As an innocent baby, Harry becomes the only being to withstand the killing curse which temporarily defeats Voldemort. Later, after defeating Voldemort for the second time, Harry lies in a coma, as Christ did in the tomb. In the end, just as Christ died and was resurrected to overcome Satan and death, Harry dies and returns from death to finally destroy Voldemort.
- Meursault in The Outsider.
- Randle Patrick McMurphy in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest.
- Aragorn, a Ranger of the North and King of Gondor in The Lord of the Rings and Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings (film series). Aragorn represents the "kingship," nature of Christ. Like Christ, Aragorn too is the descendent in a long line of royalty who has been "exiled," or removed from his crown position. At the end of the series, Aragorn returns to Gondor and is named its official king. Along with Gandalf (sage/prophet) and Frodo Baggins (saviour/priest), Aragorn completes the triune representation of Christ in the series as its king.
- Gandalf the wizard in the novel The Lord of the Rings and Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings (film series). In saving his companions from the Balrog, he falls into an abyss with it, battles with it, dies, and is restored to life by divine intervention. After his return, his robe is no longer gray but brilliant white. The film emphasizes and brings out the symbolic aspects that Tolkien felt compelled to cut back in the book, and adds to the aspects of the sage/prophet and the resurrection aspect also the aspect of the exorcist by making explicit the nature of his healing of Théoden.
- Frodo Baggins, a hobbit, also in The Lord of the Rings. His Christ imagery was more emphasized in the film series. Frodo carried a burden of evil on behalf of the whole world, like Christ who carried his cross for the sins of mankind. Frodo walks his "Via Dolorosa" to Mount Doom just like Jesus who made his way to Golgotha. As Frodo approaches the Cracks of Doom the Ring becomes a crushing weight as the cross was for Jesus. Samwise Gamgee, Frodo's friend, parallels Simon of Cyrene, who carries Frodo up to Mount Doom, much as Simon aids Jesus by picking up his cross to Golgotha. When Frodo accomplishes his mission, like Christ, he says "it is done". As Christ ascends to heaven, Frodo’s life in Middle-earth comes to an end when he departs to the Undying Lands. Nevertheless, Tolkien makes sure not to present anything like a one-on-one parallel to Christ: Frodo is unmistakably presented as suffering from the effects of the Fall (in the sense of Catholic theology, in which it is not incompatible with being a genuinely friendly, not unheroic person of certain good-will), which does lead to a major false choice that has to be outdone by Providence; and he travels to the Undying Lands - an earthly Paradise, not Heaven - in order to find bodily healing and a possibly long, but finite life in peace.
Stage, television and film
- Babette in Babette's Feast. She gives entirely of her lottery winnings for the sake of a poor puritanical community.
- James Cole in Twelve Monkeys.
- In Hair, the character Claude becomes a classic Christ figure at various points in the script. In Act I, Claude enters, saying, "I am the Son of God. I shall vanish and be forgotten," then gives benediction to the tribe and the audience. Claude suffers from indecision, and, in his Gethsemane at the end of Act I, he asks "Where Do I Go?". There are various textual allusions to Claude being on a cross, and, in the end, he is chosen to give his life for the others.
- Klaatu from The Day the Earth Stood Still comes down from the "heavens" in a flying saucer, takes the name "Carpenter" to walk incognito among the people, and is persecuted and killed. However, he resurrects back to life, gives a stern benediction to the people of Earth, and then ascends back to the heavens.
- Neo in The Matrix Trilogy. Although the film series makes many visual and textual references to various religions, many Christ figure parallels exist. He is repeatedly called "the One" in a messianic sense; Neo saves various people (and all humanity at the trilogy’s conclusion); he suffers and dies; he rises from the dead; and, in the ending of the first movie, ascends into the sky. "Neo" is also an anagram of "one".
- Superman in Superman: The Movie and Superman Returns. Both Superman and Jesus have been sent to Earth by their fathers (Jor-El and God, respectively). Both films chronicle the beginning of Superman's story, and included the famous quote: "They can be a great people, Kal-El, they wish to be. They only lack the light to show the way. For this reason, above all, their capacity for good, I have sent them you: my only son." In the first movie, Kal-El is sent to retire for 12 years to be educated "in spirit" by his father to be earth's savior. At the movie's ending, he made Lois Lane "Rise from death". In Returns, Superman tells Lois "You wrote that the world doesn't need a savior," (referring to her article, "Why the World Doesn't Need Superman") "but every day, I hear people crying for one." Later in the movie, Superman is stabbed in the side as Jesus was believed to have been during the Crucifixion; after casting the Crystal Continent into space, the fatigued Superman falls to Earth in a pose almost identical to that of a man being crucified. Superman wakes from coma in what seems the third day (by biblical timekeeping), mirroring Jesus' awakening on the third day after crucifixion.
- John Connor in The Terminator as mankind's leader against the machines and T-800 in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. Sent to protect John and Sarah Connor. Sacrificing itself for the human race after defeating the devious T-1000.
- Spock in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan exposes himself to a lethal amount of radiation in order to save the crew of the Enterprise, and is later "resurrected".
- Ellen Ripley in the Alien film series has been seen as a Christ figure. Both in the way that she serves as a personal savior to Newt in Aliens and in the matter that sacrifices her own life in Alien 3 (spreading her arms as she falls into a giant furnace) so the Alien cannot exist anymore. Others have noted that she dies in an act of self-sacrifice, yet similarly to Jesus, she returns in "another form" in the aptly titled Alien Resurrection.
- Jeremy Reed in Powder.
- Lucas Jackson in Cool Hand Luke.
- E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
- The Doctor in Doctor Who, dying in martyrdom and resurrecting from time to time to save many worlds.
- Alex J. Murphy in the RoboCop films and other media. A policeman dead as a martyr in the line of duty resurrected to be a righteous champion and protector following faithfully his 3 "commandments": "Serve the public trust, protect the innocent, uphold the law".
- Chris Keller in All My Sons. The son of Joe Keller who is the symbol of Christ in the play.
- King Leonidas I in the historical-fantasy film 300 (2006), adapted from the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller. At the movie's ending, Leonidas, along with the rest of his 300 Spartans, stay behind to defend a narrow pass against their vastly more numerable Persian foe. Despite suffering a gruesome death to arrow fire, Leonidas' death gives the rest of Sparta time to mobilize an army to defeat the Persian Empire. The final shots of the film show Leonidas' body laying in a crucifix-like pose, pierced in the side and hands by arrows.
Comics and animation
- In comic books as in all other media, Superman saves the people from dangers they cannot overcome on their own. The House of El (Jor-El, Kal-El, etc.) echoes the Hebrew expression for God, El. He even had to resurrect once to keep watching over Earth.
- Nausicaä, the protagonist of Hayao Miyazaki's manga Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind and its film adaptation, is the humane and peace-loving Warrior Princess of the Valley of the Wind, a small post-apocalyptic society in a world dominated by large, powerful insects who reside in the "Sea of Corruption". Fueled by her love for others and for life itself, Nausicaä attempts to restore the balance of life among other human tribes and the insects, often making numerous sacrifices to do so. Although her character was intended to be viewed in the context of animistic philosophies by Miyazaki, she is often interpreted, especially in regards to Disney's English dub, as a Christ figure.
- Kamui Shirō in the manga series X. The story takes place at the end of days. Kamui Shirō returns home to Tokyo after a six-year absence to face his destiny as the one who will determine humanity's fate. The construction of Kamui as a messiah is reinforced by his miraculous birth and given name. "Kamui" (a spiritual or divine being in Ainu mythology), like "Christ", doubles as a title that alludes to the character's divine nature.
- Kikyo, in Inuyasha, is a Christ figure, able to perform miracles. Resurrected, she eventually gives up on her love for the main character and dies for the cause which allows the other characters to eliminate the antagonist. See Inuyasha The Final Act Among The Twinkling Stars, Episode 8.
- The Giant from The Iron Giant, a robot from space who learns to be human from a boy, sacrifices himself to save the town and is 'resurrected' when he rebuilds himself.
- Signless, in the webcomic Homestuck, is a Christ figure who:
- is born with no clear parents (albeit that being normal)
- has controversial ideas about how people should be treated
- is eventually tortured/crucified by the tyrannical government
- his handcuffs become a secret symbol for his followers, like the cross of Christianity
- one of his most prominent followers is named The Disciple
- "Jim Conklin ("The Tall Soldier") in The Red Badge of Courage". Shmoop.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Charles Dickens. "A Tale of Two Cities: Analysis of Major Characters". SparkNotes.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Ammons, Elizabeth. “Heroines in Uncle Tom’s Cabin.” American Literature 49.2 (1977): 161-79.
- John Steinbeck. "The Grapes of Wrath: Analysis of Major Characters". SparkNotes.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "The Old Man and the Sea Essay | Essay". Bookrags.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- How to Read Literature Like a Professor. Thomas C. Foster p. 121
- The Old Man and the Sea By Gerry Brenner p. 37
- Understanding The Old Man and the Sea, Patricia Dunlavy Valent,i p. 13
- Brady, Erik (2005-12-06). "Is that lion the King of Kings?". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Luke 9:16 Taking the five loaves and the two fish and looking up to heaven, he gave thanks and broke them. Then he gave them to the disciples to distribute to the people". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Understanding Lord of the Flies: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents By Kirstin Olsen, p. 126
- CliffsNotes on Knowle's A Separate Peace By Charles Higgins, Regina Higgins, Cary M. Roberts ISBN 0-7645-8578-9, ISBN 978-0-7645-8578-4 pp. 54, 65
- A SeparatePeace: Four Decades of Critical Response by Lois Rauch Gibson pp. 14 - 15
- Herman Melville By Brett Zimmerman p. 59 ISBN 0-7735-1786-3, ISBN 978-0-7735-1786-8
- Allegory and the Modern Southern Novel By Jan Whitt p. 31 ISBN 0-86554-397-6, ISBN 978-0-86554-397-3
- "The Green Mile (1999)". Hollywoodjesus.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Harry Potter, Christ Figure? Chart". Beliefnet.com. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Petre, Jonathan (2007-10-20). "J K Rowling: 'Christianity inspired Harry Potter'". Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20090112214424/http://www.mugglenet.com/editorials/editorials/edit-beauseigneura01.shtml. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009. Missing or empty
- John W. Martin. "Saint Meursault, philosophe et martyr - Springer". Springerlink.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest: Analysis of Major Characters". SparkNotes.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Yarbrough, Oliver. "Engaging the Passion: Perspectives on the Death of Jesus." Minnieapolis: Fortress Press, 2015. p. 216-218
- Stucky, Mark (2006). "Middle Earth's Messianic Mythology Remixed: Gandalf's Death and Resurrection in Novel and Film" (PDF). Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. XIII (Summer). Retrieved 25 Nov 2006.
[¶35] Although most viewers of the films would likely not notice all this symbolism, Gandalf’s death and resurrection scenes are clearly messianic metaphors that add an additional spiritual dimension to the mythology of The Lord of the Rings.... [¶36] After publication, Tolkien thought his book’s description of the return of Gandalf was a “defect.” He explained that Gandalf “must return at that point, and such explanations of his survival as are explicitly set out must be given there—but the narrative is urgent, and must not be held up for elaborate discussions involving the whole ‘mythological’ setting....” The visual nature of film can often compress information into a scene equivalent to many scattered pages of text, and Jackson “encoded” more Christ figure imagery into his scenes than Tolkien’s “severely cut” account. Since Jackson’s films visually amplified Tolkien’s Christological association in Gandalf’s death and resurrection scenes, Jackson’s cinematic presentations of Gandalf as a Christ figure may have communicated more fully the vision of what Tolkien had intended all along.
- Bedell, Haley (2015). "Frodo Baggins: The Modern Parallel to Christ in Literature". Humanities Capstone Projects. Pacific University (Paper 24).
- McAvan, Emily. The Postmodern Sacred: Popular Culture Spirituality in the Science Fiction, Fantasy and Urban Fantasy Genres. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc, 2012. Print.
- Pearce, Joseph. “Christ.” J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. New York: Routledge, 2007. 97-98
- "Humble Heroism: Frodo Baggins as Christian Hero in The Lord of the Rings | In Pursuit of Truth | A Journal of Christian Scholarship". Cslewis.org. 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Bedell, Haley, "Frodo Baggins: The Modern Parallel to Christ in Literature" (2015). Humanities Capstone Projects. Paper 24.
- Curry, Thomas J. "Babette's Feast and the Goodness of God". Journal of Religion and Faith. University of Nebraska Omaha. Archived from the original on 2013-02-15. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
Abstract: This article attempts to answer the preeminent question Babette’s Feast invites viewers to consider: Why does Babette choose to expend everything she has to make her feast? Of the critical studies made of the film, few have considered analytically crucial the catastrophic backstory of Babette, the violence of which is implied and offscreen. Appreciation of the singularity of Babette’s own personhood and the darker aspects of her experience, and not only how she might act as a figure of Christ, are key to understanding the motivating force behind her meal and its transformative effect: That through the feast Babette lays to rest the horrors of her past and takes refuge in God’s goodness.
- Kozlovic, Anton Karl. "The Structural Characteristics of the Cinematic Christ-figure". Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. Archived from the original on 2005-02-23. Retrieved 2016-01-06.
- Miller, Scott. Let the Sun Shine In: The Genius of Hair (Heinemann, 2003) ISBN 0-325-00556-7, pp. 88-89
- [dead link]
- "Journal of Religion & Film: From Holy Aliens to Cyborg Saviours: Biblical Subtexts in Four Science Fiction Films by Anton Karl Kozlovic". Unomaha.edu. 2001-10-02. Archived from the original on 2016-01-26. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Brown, Kevin (November 2003). "The Deification of Neo, Again". KEVIN BROWN'S PAGE O'WRITINGS. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Stucky, Mark (October 2005). "He is the One: The Matrix Trilogy's Postmodern Movie Messiah". The Journal of Religion and Film. 9 (2). Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- "Superman Is a Christ Figure to Some". Fox News. 2006-06-13. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Superman Returns-Director Bryan Singer Interview - Beliefnet.com - Page 2". Beliefnet.com. 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20070205084505/http://www.kinema.uwaterloo.ca/kozl052.htm. Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2007. Missing or empty
- https://web.archive.org/web/20060621211259/http://www.cornerstonemag.com/imaginarium/features/trek.html. Archived from the original on June 21, 2006. Retrieved January 19, 2007. Missing or empty
- Lansingh, Steve. "Christ figures are found in the strangest places". JoyOfMovies.com. Seattle Cat. Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Alien 3 …review and/or viewer comments : Christian Spotlight on the Movies". Christiananswers.net. 1992-05-22. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Powder (1995)". Hollywoodjesus.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Journal of Religion and Film: The Mssianic Figure in Film: Christology Beyond the Biblical Epic by Matthew McEver". Unomaha.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- [dead link]
- "Philip Purser-Hallard – The Spirituality of Doctor Who". Infinitarian.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- "Robo Cop (1987)". Hollywoodjesus.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Breimeier, Russ. "300: Movie Review". christianitytoday.com. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
- "Journal of Religion and Film: Superman as Christ-Figure: The American Pop Culture Movie Messiah by Anton Karl Kozlovic". Unomaha.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-02-09. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- Ogihara-Schuck, Eriko (December 23, 2010). "The Christianizing of Animism in Manga and Anime: American Translations of Hayao Miyazaki's Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind". In Lewis, A. David; Hoff Kraemer, Christine. Graven Images: Religion in Comic Books and Graphic Novels. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 133–146. ISBN 9780826430267. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Ogihara-Schuck, Eriko (October 16, 2014). "The Christianizing of Animism in Manga and Anime: American Translations of Hayao Miyazaki's Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind". Miyazaki's Animism Abroad: The Reception of Japanese Religious Themes by American and German Audiences. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Books. pp. 133–146. ISBN 978-0-7864-7262-8. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- X Infinity: Illustrated Collection 2. (Kadokawa Shoten: ISBN 4-04-853895-0). 2005.
- Williams, Kevin (March 24, 2000). "Anime loses its storytelling luster in X". Chicago Sun-Times.
- Elliott, David (April 8, 2000). "X: an animated comic book with little between the covers". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
- Yoshiaki Kawajiri (Director) (August 25, 2000). X: An Omen (DVD). Bandai Visual.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20091107222355/http://www.animax-asia.com/shows/inuyasha-final-act. Archived from the original on November 7, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2009. Missing or empty
- HollywoodJesus.com - Pop culture from a spiritual point of view.
- The Journal of Religion and Popular Culture - An exploration, analysis, and interpretation (from a range of disciplinary perspectives) of the interrelations and interactions between religion and religious expression and popular culture. at Archive.is (archived 2013-06-29)
- The Journal of Religion and Film - An examination of the description, critique, and embodiment of religion in film.