Christian Democratic Appeal
|Christian Democratic Appeal|
|Leader||Sybrand van Haersma Buma|
|Honorary chairman||Piet Steenkamp|
|Leader in the Senate||Elco Brinkman|
|Leader in the House of Representatives||Sybrand van Haersma Buma|
|Leader in the European Parliament||Esther de Lange|
|Founded||11 October 1980 (as unitary party)|
|Merger of||ARP, CHU and KVP|
Buitenom 18 The Hague
|Youth wing||Christian Democratic Youth Appeal|
|Thinktank||Wetenschappelijk bureau CDA|
|International affiliation||Centrist Democrat International|
|European affiliation||European People's Party|
|European Parliament group||European People's Party|
|House of Representatives|
|Politics of Netherlands
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Christian Democratic Appeal (Dutch: Christen-Democratisch Appèl, pronounced [krɪstə(n)deːmoːkraːtis ɑˈpɛl]; CDA) is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands founded in 1977, which participated in all but three governments since then. It was a merger from the Catholic People's Party (which through its antecedents had been part of every government since 1918), the Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union.
The party suffered severe losses in the 2010 elections, losing half of its seats to fall to fourth place in the House of Representatives. From 2010 to 2012 consequently, the CDA was a junior coalition partner in a right-wing minority cabinet with the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), supported in parliament by the Party for Freedom (PVV). The CDA had 6 ministers in the first Rutte cabinet along with the 6 VVD cabinet ministers. Some senior offices were held. Sybrand van Haersma Buma leads the CDA in the House of Representatives and has been the new Party leader since May 18, 2012.
Subsequently the CDA again lost a considerable number of seats in the 2012 elections, dropping to fifth place.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology and issues
- 3 Electoral results
- 4 Representation
- 5 Electorate
- 6 Organization
- 7 See also
- 8 Further reading
- 9 References
- 10 External links
History before 1977
Since 1880 the sizeable Catholic and Protestant parties had worked together in the so-called Coalitie. They shared a common interest in public funding of religious schools. In 1888 they formed the first Christian-democratic government, led by the Anti-Revolutionary Æneas Baron Mackay. The cooperation was not without problems and in 1894 the more anti-papist and aristocratic conservatives left the Protestant Anti Revolutionary Party, to found the Christian Historical Union. The main issues dividing Protestants and Catholics was the position of the Dutch Representation at the Holy See and the future of the Dutch Indies.
From 1918 to 1967, the three Christian Democratic parties had a majority in both houses of the States General, and at least two of them were included in every cabinet. After the war the three Christian-democratic parties were the Catholic People's Party (KVP), the Protestant Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP), and the Protestant Christian Historical Union (CHU). The KVP and its antecedent, the Roman Catholic State Party, had been in government without interruption since 1918.
In the sixties, the Dutch society became more secularized and the pillars faded, and voters began to move away from the three Christian-democratic parties. In 1963 the three parties held 51% of the vote, whilst in 1972 they held only 32%. This decline forced the three parties to work closer together. In 1967 the Group of Eighteen was formed: it was a think-tank of six prominent politicians per party that planned the future cooperation of the three parties. In 1968 the three political leaders of the parties (Norbert Schmelzer (KVP), Barend Biesheuvel (ARP) and Jur Mellema (CHU) made a public appearance, stating that the three parties would continue to work together.
This caused progressive forces within the three parties, especially the ARP and KVP to regret their political affiliation. In 1968 they founded the Political Party of Radicals, a left-wing party that sought cooperation with the Labour Party (PvdA). Locally and provincially however the three parties had long cooperated well, in some areas they formed one Christian-democratic parliamentary party and proposed one list of candidates. In the 1971 general election, the three parties presented a common political program, which lay the foundation for the first Biesheuvel cabinet.
After the disastrous elections of 1972 the cooperation was given new momentum. Piet Steenkamp, a member of the Senate of the Netherlands for the KVP was appointed chairman of a council which was to lay the foundation for a federation of the three parties, and provide a common manifesto of principles. In 1973 this federation was officially formed, with Steenkamp as chairperson.
The cooperation was frustrated by the formation of the Den Uyl cabinet, established by the leader of the social-democratic PvdA and Prime Minister of the Netherlands Joop den Uyl. Den Uyl refused to allow members of the CHU in the cabinet that he would lead. This led to a situation where the CHU, ARP and KVP formed a federation and had one parliamentary party in both houses of parliament, but only the KVP and ARP supplied ministers and junior ministers. The cabinet Den Uyl was riddled with political and personal conflicts. Another issue that split the three parties was the place the Bible would take in the new party.
Period of CDA prime ministers 1977–1994
In 1976, the three parties announced that they would field a single list at the 1977 general election under the name Christen Democratisch Appèl. The KVP minister of Justice, Dries van Agt, was the top candidate. In the election campaign he made clear the CDA was a centrist party, that would not lean to the left or to the right. The three parties were able to stabilize their proportion of the vote.
The election result forced Van Agt to start talks with Den Uyl. Although Van Agt had been Deputy Prime Minister in the cabinet Den Uyl, the two had never gotten along well. The animosity between them frustrated the talks. After more than 300 days of negotiations, they finally officially failed, and Van Agt was able to negotiate a cabinet with the conservative liberal VVD. The Cabinet Van Agt-I had a very narrow majority. The unexpected cabinet with the VVD led to split within the newly founded CDA between more progressive and more conservative members. The progressives remained within the party, and were known as loyalists. On 11 October 1980, the three original parties ceased to exist and the CDA was founded as a unitary party. After the 1981 general election, the VVD and the CDA had lost their majority, and the CDA was forced to cooperate with the PvdA. Van Agt became prime minister and Den Uyl became deputy prime minister. The second Van Agt cabinet was troubled by ideological and personal conflicts, and fell after one year.
After the 1982 general election, the new CDA leader, Ruud Lubbers, formed a majority coalition with the VVD. The first Lubbers cabinet set an ambitious reform program in motion, which included budget cuts, reform of the old age and disability pensions and liberalization of public services. Lubbers won the 1986 general election and again in 1989, and he was not only supported by Christians, but also by non-religious people. In 1989 however, although the CDA had won the elections, they were only able to get a minimal majority with the VVD, which they had also gradually fallen out with during the previous cabinet, leading the CDA to instead cooperate with the PvdA in the new government. In the third Lubbers cabinet, the ambitious reform project was continued, with some adaptations and protests from the PvdA.
The 1994 elections were fraught with problems for the CDA: personal conflicts between prime minister Lubbers and lijsttrekker Elco Brinkman, a lack of support for the reforms of old age and disability pensions, and the perceived arrogance of the CDA caused a dramatic defeat at the polls. A new coalition was formed between Labour and the two liberal parties, consigning the CDA to opposition for the first time ever. It was also the first government without any Christian Democratic ministers since 1918. The party was marred by subsequent internal battles over leadership. The party also reflected on its principals: the party began to orient itself more toward communitarian ideals.
During the tumultuous 2002 general election, which saw the murder of Pim Fortuyn, many people voted for the CDA, hoping that it could bring some stability to Dutch politics. The CDA led the first Balkenende cabinet, which included the VVD and the Pim Fortuyn List (LPF). This cabinet fell due to internal struggles within the LPF. After the 2003 general election, the Christian Democrats were forced to begin cabinet negotiations with the PvdA. Personal animosity between Balkenende and the leader of the PvdA, Wouter Bos, frustrated these negotiations. Balkenende eventually formed a coalition with the VVD and Democrats 66. The coalition proposed an ambitious program of reforms, including more restrictive immigration laws, democratization of political institutions and reforms of the system of social security and labour laws.
After the 2006 elections the CDA changed their course radically: they formed a new fourth cabinet Balkenende still led by Balkenende, but now with the social-democratic PvdA and the social-Christian ChristianUnion. The cabinet was more progressive, entailing increased government spending funded by higher taxes.
In the 2010 elections the CDA lost half of its seats and became only fourth after VVD, PvdA and PVV. Balkenende announced his resignation and stayed prime minister until the formation and inauguration of the Rutte cabinet.
After the fall of the short-lived Cabinet Rutte I (2010–2012), in which the CDA participated, the party announced a leadership election. On 18 May 2012 the party announced that the leadership elections were won by Sybrand van Haersma Buma. He received more than 50 percent of the votes. The popular Mona Keijzer, the rising star within the party, received 26% of the votes and announced that she will closely collaborate with Van Haersma Buma during the election campaign prior to the Dutch general election on 12 September 2012. In that election, the CDA suffered considerable losses, falling to 13 seats. The party was left out of the Rutte II cabinet—only the second time in its history that the party has not been in government.
|Leadership election of 2012|
|Sybrand van Haersma Buma||51.4%|
|Madeleine van Toorenburg||1.7%|
Ideology and issues
The CDA is a Christian democratic party, but the Bible is only seen as one source of inspiration, for individual members of parliament. The party also has Jewish, Muslim and Hindu members of parliament, and it favors the integration of minorities into Dutch culture.
The party has four main ideals: shared responsibility, stewardship, justice, and solidarity. Shared responsibility refers to the way society should be organized: not one organization should control all society, instead the state, the market, and social institutions, like churches and unions should work together. This is called sphere sovereignty, a core concept of Protestant political philosophy. Furthermore, this refers to the way the state should be organized. Not one level of the state should have total control, instead responsibility should be shared between local, provincial, national and European government. This is called subsidiarity in Catholic political thought. With stewardship the Christian Democrats refer to the way we should treat our planet: the Earth is a gift from God. Therefore we should try to preserve our environment.
Practically, this means the CDA is a centre party. However, the party has a considerable centre-left wing, that supports eco-friendly politics, a strong pro-European policy and favors centre-left coalitions. The position of the centre-left group within the party has been weakened since the party's participation in the centre-right minority cabinet with the VVD (the Rutte cabinet), a cabinet that strongly depends on the parliamentary support of the Party for Freedom. CDA politicians that can be considered centrist or centre-left: Jack Biskop (MP), Ad Koppejan (MP), Kathleen Ferrier (MP; daughter of the late Johan Ferrier, president of Suriname 1975–1980), Dries van Agt (former Prime Minister), Ruud Lubbers (former Prime Minister) and Herman Wijffels (former chairman of the Social Economic Council, former informateur).
Maxime Verhagen, the informal leader of the CDA and current deputy Prime Minister, strongly denies the claim that the CDA is considered a right-wing party. Verhagen continues to tell the media that his party is a centrist and moderate party and that the CDA participates in a centre-right coalition (with the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) as the right-wing component and the CDA as the centrist component). However, his colleague in the cabinet, minister of Defence, Hans Hillen, is a strong proponent of a conservative CDA.
- The state deficit should be repaid in one generation, to cope with the effects of the aging population.
- The toleration of soft drugs should come to an end, furthermore the practices of prostitution, abortion and euthanasia should be more limited.
- The party is a staunch proponent of European integration and Turkey's possible EU membership in the future.
- The party wants to make schools and hospitals more responsible for their own policy, instead of being regulated by the government.
New party course
At a congress on 21 January 2012 the party adopted a centrist course, dubbed by former minister of Social Affairs Aart-Jan de Geus as "Radical centrist" ("het radicale midden"). The party explicitly abandoned its former center-right course. Despite of this, the party continued its coalition with the centre-right VVD of Prime Minister Mark Rutte and the Party for Freedom of Geert Wilders until the government collapsed later in the year.
The so-called Strategic Council, which was formed in 2011 and headed by former minister Aart-Jan de Geus, that worked on a report to redifine the party course, advised the following:
- limiting the so-called Home mortgage interest deduction;
- introduction of flat tax;
- eco-friendly polics (ecotax);
- a strong pro-European policy;
- a more friendly immigration policy;
- equal chances for every person;
- more investment in higher education;
- and a modern social policy.
|Election year||House of Representatives||Government||Notes|
| % of
overall seats won
|1981||2,677,259||7.9 (#5)||1||in coalition|
|1982||2,420,441||29.4 (#2)||3||in coalition|
|1986||3,172,918||34.6 (#1)||9||in coalition|
|1989||3,140,502||35.3 (#1)||0||in coalition|
|1994||1,996,418||22.2 (#2)||20||in opposition|
|1998||1,581,053||18.4 (#3)||5||in opposition|
|2002||2,653,723||27.9 (#1)||14||in coalition|
|2003||2,763,480||28.6 (#1)||1||in coalition|
|2006||2,608,573||26.5 (#1)||3||in coalition|
|2010||1,281,886||13.6 (#4)||20||in coalition|
|2012||801,620||8.5 (#5)||8||in opposition|
| % of
overall seats won
|Election year||# of
| % of
overall seats won
|2009||913,233||20.1 (#1)|| 2
Members of the House of Representatives
Seats in the House of Representatives:
- 1977 – 48
- 1972 – 49 ... (KVP 27, ARP 14, CHU 7)
- 1971 – 58 ... (KVP 35, ARP 13, CHU 10)
- 1967 – 70 ... (KVP 43, ARP 15, CHU 12)
- 1963 – 76 ... (KVP 50, ARP 13, CHU 13)
- 1959 – 75 ... (KVP 49, ARP 14, CHU 12)
- 1956 – 77 ... (KVP 49, ARP 15, CHU 13)
Members of the Senate
Seats in the Senate:
Members of the European Parliament
- Esther de Lange, leader CDA delegation and viceleader EVP delegation
- Wim van de Camp
- Jeroen Lenaers
- Lambert van Nistelrooij
- Annie Schreijer-Pierik
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Local and provincial government
By far, the CDA has the most members of municipal and provincial councils in the Netherlands. Furthermore, it cooperates in most municipal and provincial governments.
The CDA is mainly supported by religious voters, both Catholics and Protestants. These tend to live in rural areas and tend to be elderly. In some periods, however, the CDA has functioned as a centrist party, attracting people from all classes and religions.
Geographically, the CDA is particularly strong in the provinces of North Brabant, Limburg and Overijssel and in the Veluwe and the Westland areas. In the 2006 elections the CDA received the highest percentage of votes in the municipality of Tubbergen, Overijssel (66,59% of the vote). The CDA is weaker in the four major cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and in Groningen and Drenthe.
The youth movement of the CDA is the Christian Democratic Youth Appeal (CDJA). The CDA publishes a monthly magazine, and its scientific bureau publishes the Christian Democratic Explorations (Christen-Democratische Verkenningen).
As an effect of pillarization, the CDA still has many personal and ideological ties with religious organizations, such as the broadcasting societies KRO and NCRV, the paper Trouw, the employers organizations NCW and the union CNV.
The CDA participates in the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, a democracy assistance organisation of seven Dutch political parties.
The CDA is a member of the European People’s Party and the Centrist Democrat International. Within the EPP the CDA belongs to those parties which least favour a cooperation with conservatives.
As a large Christian democratic party, the CDA is comparable to other European Christian democratic parties such as Germany's Christian Democratic Union (although it's more moderate). It is the Netherlands' third largest party (after the VVD and the PVV), but it is centrist unlike the British Conservative Party.
- Bosmans, Jac (2004). Michael Gehler; Wolfram Kaiser, eds. The Primacy of Domestic Politics: Christian Democracy in the Netherlands. Christian Democracy in Europe since 1945 (Routledge). pp. 47–58. ISBN 0-7146-5662-3.
- Lucardie, Paul (2004). Steven Van Hecke; Emmanuel Gerard, eds. Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained? Christian Democracy in the Netherlands. Christian Democratic Parties in Europe Since the End of the Cold War (Leuven University Press). pp. 159–177. ISBN 90-5867-377-4.
- (Dutch) Buma gekozen tot lijsttrekker CDA NOS
- Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck
- Barbara Wejnert (26 July 2010). Democratic Paths and Trends. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-85724-091-0. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Christopher Anderson (1995). Blaming the Government: Citizens and the Economy in Five European Democracies. M.E. Sharpe. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-56324-448-3. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- T. Banchoff (28 June 1999). Legitimacy and the European Union. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-415-18188-4. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- (Dutch) Sybrand van Haersma Buma lijsttrekker CDA, de Volkskrant
- Thomas Jansen; Steven Van Hecke (28 June 2011). At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party. Springer. p. 51. ISBN 978-3-642-19413-9. Retrieved 19 August 2012.