Christian Frederik von Schalburg
|Christian Frederik von Schalburg|
|Native name||Konstantin Fedorovitch Schalburg|
15 April 1906|
Zmeinogorsk, Russian Empire
|Died||2 June 1942
|Service/branch|| Royal Danish Army
|Years of service||1929-1942|
|Commands held||Frikorps Danmark, Mar – Jun 1942|
|Awards||Iron Cross First Class
Iron Cross Second Class
Winter War Medal
|Spouse(s)||Helga Frederikke von Bülow|
Christian Frederik von Schalburg was born in Zmeinogorsk, Tomskaja Gubernija, Russian Empire (now Altai Krai, Russia) as the oldest of three children to August Theodor Schalburg and wife Helene Schalburg. His father was born 1879 in Nyborg, Denmark  and his mother Elena Vasiljevna née Starizki von Siemianowska was born 1882 in Ukraine (possibly Poltava) out of a Russian noble family. Still a boy von Schalburg received a military education in the Tsar's cadet corps and lived in Russia until the October Revolution of 1917 when he fled with his family to Denmark. These dramatic events caused him to long for Russia and to hate communists.
In 1927 in Copenhagen he was deemed unfit for military service.
Nevertheless, on 18 October 1929 he was married in the Alexander Nevsky Church as bachelor, Danish subject, lieutenant Konstantin Fedorovitch Schalburg residing Trestjernegade 4 on Amager. His bride was the four years younger unmarried Baroness Helga Frederikke von Bülow. In 1930 he registered a telephone as a first lieutenant residing Trestjernegade 4 on Amager.
On 22 November 1934 his wife gave birth to their son who was baptized Aleksander Schalburg on 2 February 1935 in the Alexander Nevsky Church, Copenhagen. The father was registered as first lieutenant in the Royal Danish Life Guards Konstantin Schalburg, residing Store Kongensgade 114, while the godparents were His Royal Highness Prince Gustav of Denmark, colonel Nikolai Kulikovsky and his spouse Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna of Russia.
From 1939 von Schalburg headed the youth branch (NSU) of the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (DNSAP), where he became very popular. That same year he and a group of NSU members called 'bloddrengene' (the blood boys) were among the Danish volunteers for the Finnish Winter War against the USSR in 1939–1940. He was thus abroad when Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany on 9 April 1940. Despite his national socialist beliefs he was deeply distressed that Denmark had surrendered almost without fighting.
The SS gave von Schalburg this command mostly because of his political reliability and willingness to provide his corps with the required ideological training and also because he enjoyed good relations with his subordinates, all qualities that his predecessor C.P. Kryssing lacked.
On 2 June 1942 von Schalburg initiated the first offensive operation of Frikorps Danmark. In the disaster that followed the badly planned attack, von Schalburg advanced towards the front line to get his soldiers to continue the attack instead dug down in the artillery fire, but stepped on a mine and was moments later killed by shrapnel from a Russian artillery shell. The subsequent rescue of his corpse, which caused a casualty, revealed extensive injuries including a leg torn off at the hip and a missing foot.
After his death
On 3 June 1942, von Schalburg's body was transported in a coffin draped in Dannebrog to the cemetery of the corps located in the small village Biakovo in the Demjansk area. The commanding officer of the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf SS-Brigadeführer Hellmuth Becker spoke at the funeral.
In Denmark the newspaper of the DNSAP 'Fædrelandet' (the Fatherland) filled the front page with the news of the fallen commander, while a memorial service for von Schalburg was disrupted by protests shouted by a student. The poet Valdemar Rørdam who had already gotten himself into public scandal with a poem praising Hitler, further alienated himself from the Danish public when he published a tribute to Schalburg.
A Danish medal, the Schalburg Cross and the Danish Germanic-SS Schalburg Corps, was named after von Schalburg. His widow called herself Valet de chambre (Kammerjunkerinde) Helle von Schalburg and founded Schalburgs mindefond (memorial fund), which sent packages to Danish SS volunteers on the Eastern Front.
The fact that von Schalburg advanced (against the advice of a company commander) towards the front line and jeopardized not only his own life but that of his corps made him a reckless commander in some eyes. However his record indicate that he was a competent commander and it must also be noted that in the SS this behaviour was not uncommon and that the losses of commanders in the SS were exceptionally high, including von Schalburg's successor who fell just two days after arriving at the corps. His memory continues to be highly controversial in Denmark.
- "Ægteviede" [Married]. Kirkebog [Parish Register]. 1915-1945 (in Danish). Den Ortodokse Russiske Kirke i København. 1929. p. 116.
- "Fødte Mandkøn" [Born Males]. Kirkebog [Parish Register]. 1915-1945 (in Danish). Den Ortodokse Russiske Kirke i København. 1934. p. 14.
- Politiets Registerblade [Register cards of the Police] (in Danish). Copenhagen: Københavns Stadsarkiv. 1 May 1920. Station 8 (Ydre Nørrebro og Brønshøj-Husum). Filmrulle 0029. Registerblad 2932. ID 2474147.
- Folketælling [Census] (in Danish). Copenhagen. 1 February 1921. Vibevej 14-st.
- Martinsen, K.B. Frikorps Danmarks Kampe [The Battles of Free Corps Denmark]. Forlaget 1944.
- Folketælling [Census] (in Danish). Copenhagen. 5 November 1925. Borups Alle 4-II.
- Christensen, Claus Bundgård; Poulsen, N. B.; Smith, P. S. (2006). Under hagekors og Dannebrog : danskere i Waffen SS 1940–45 [Under Svastika and Dannebrog : Danes in Waffen SS 1940–45] (in Danish). Aschehoug. pp. 139–142. ISBN 978-87-11-11843-6.
- "Ægteviede" [Married]. Kirkebog [Parish Register]. 1915-1945 (in Danish). Den Ortodokse Russiske Kirke i København. 1927. p. 113.
Ungkarl Premier-Løjtnant Grigorij Nikolaevitch Stschrikin, født d. 1. August 1896
- Lægdsruller, 1. Udskrivningskreds [Army Levy Rolls, First Enlistment District]. 1861 - 1931 (in Danish). Copenhagen. 1924. 3975.
- KTAS telefonbog (PDF) (in Danish). Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab. 1930. col. 1526.
Schalburg C F v prløjtn. Trestjerneg. 4 ... Amager 62 54 U
- "Ægteviede" [Married]. Kirkebog [Parish Register]. 1915-1945 (in Danish). Den Ortodokse Russiske Kirke i København. 1935. p. 123.
Ungkarl Assistent Kurt Mogens Billing ... Frøken Magister Filosofie Nina Aleksandrovna de Robertz
- KTAS telefonbog (PDF) (in Danish). Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab. 1935. col. 1772.
Schalburg C F Prløjtn. i den kgl. Livgarde St. Kongensg. 114 .... Palm 58 16 X
- KTAS telefonbog (PDF) (in Danish). Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab. 1936. col. 1846.
Schalburg C F prløjtn. i den kgl. Livgarde Kmjkr. St. Kongensg. 114 ... Palm 58 16 X
- KTAS telefonbog (PDF) (in Danish). Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab. 1937. col. 1920.
Schalburg C F Kaptløjtn. i den kgl. Livgarde kmjkr. Schlegelsallé 8 ... Vester 52 95 X
- KTAS telefonbog (PDF) (in Danish). Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab. 1942. col. 2196.
Schalburg C F Kaptløjtn. i den kgl. Livgarde kmjkr. Brøndstedallé 6 ... Vester 243 Y
- Kirkebæk, M., Schalburg - en patriotisk landsforræder, Nordisk Forlag, 2008 (Hardcover, ISBN 978-87-03-03193-4, p. 130-134). (Danish)
- Christensen, C. B.; Poulsen, N. B.; Smith, P. S., Under hagekors og Dannebrog : danskere i Waffen SS 1940–45, Aschehoug, 2006 (Hardcover, ISBN 978-87-11-11843-6, p.152). (Danish)
- Christensen, C. B.; Poulsen, N. B.; Smith, P. S., Under hagekors og Dannebrog : danskere i Waffen SS 1940–45, Aschehoug, 2006 (Hardcover, ISBN 978-87-11-11843-6, p.155-158). (Danish)
- KTAS telefonbog (PDF) (in Danish). Kjøbenhavns Telefon Aktieselskab. 1943. col. 2382.
Schalburg von Schalburg Helle Kmjkrinde. Brøndstedallé 6 ... Eva 43 39 Schalburg s C F Mindefond Falkonergrdsv. 11. ... Mora 89 40
- Christensen, C. B.; Poulsen, N. B.; Smith, P. S., Under hagekors og Dannebrog : danskere i Waffen SS 1940–45, Aschehoug, 2006 (Hardcover, ISBN 978-87-11-11843-6, p.164). (Danish)