Christian Reconstructionism is a fundamentalist Calvinist theonomic movement, founded by Rousas Rushdoony, that has had an important influence on the Christian Right in the United States. Reconstructionists advocate theonomy and the restoration of certain biblical laws said to have continuing applicability. The movement declined in the 1990s and was declared dead in a 2008 Church History journal article, although Christian Reconstructionist organizations such as the Chalcedon Foundation and American Vision are active today. Christian Reconstructionists are usually postmillennialists and followers of the presuppositional apologetics of Cornelius Van Til.
Christian Reconstructionists advocate a theonomic government and libertarian economic principles. They maintain a distinction of spheres of authority between family, church, and state. For example, the enforcement of moral sanctions under theonomy is carried out by the family and church government, and sanctions for moral offenses are outside the authority of civil government (which is limited to criminal matters, courts and national defense). However, these distinctions become blurred, as the application of theonomy typically increases the authority of the civil government; prominent advocates of Christian Reconstructionism have written that according to their understanding, God's law approves of the death penalty not only for murder, but also for propagators of all forms of idolatry, active homosexuals, adulterers, practitioners of witchcraft, and blasphemers, and perhaps even recalcitrant youths (see the List of capital crimes in the Bible). American Vision's Joel McDurmon responded to these criticisms by denying that Reconstructionists have promoted coercive means.
Conversely, Christian Reconstructionism's founder, Rousas Rushdoony, wrote in The Institutes of Biblical Law (the founding document of reconstructionism) that Old Testament law should be applied to modern society and he advocates the reinstatement of the Mosaic law's penal sanctions. Under such a system, the list of civil crimes which carried a death sentence would include homosexuality, adultery, incest, lying about one's virginity, bestiality, witchcraft, idolatry or apostasy, public blasphemy, false prophesying, kidnapping, rape, and bearing false witness in a capital case.
Kayser points out that the Bible advocates justice, and that biblical punishments prescribed for crimes are the maximum allowable to maintain justice and not the only available option, because lesser punishments are authorized as well.
Views on pluralism
Rousas Rushdoony wrote in his magnum opus, The Institutes of Biblical Law: "The heresy of democracy has since [the days of colonial New England] worked havoc in church and state" and: "Christianity and democracy are inevitably enemies", and he said elsewhere that "Christianity is completely and radically anti-democratic; it is committed to spiritual aristocracy," and characterized democracy as "the great love of the failures and cowards of life". He nevertheless repeatedly expressed his opposition to any sort of violent revolution and advocated instead the gradual reformation (often termed "regeneration" in his writings) of society from the bottom up, beginning with the individual and the family and from there gradually reforming other spheres of authority, including the church and the state.
Influence on the Christian Right in general
Although relatively insignificant in terms of the number of self-described adherents, Christian Reconstructionism has played a role in promoting the trend toward explicitly Christian politics in the larger U.S. Christian Right.[page needed] This is the wider trend to which some critics refer, generally, as Dominionism. They also allegedly have influence disproportionate to their numbers among advocates of the growth of the Christian homeschooling and other Christian education movements that seek independence from the direct oversight or support of the civil government. Because their numbers are so small compared to their influence, they are sometimes accused of being secretive and conspiratorial.[page needed][page needed]
In Matthew 28:18, Jesus says, "All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth." This verse is seen as an announcement by Jesus that he has assumed authority over all earthly authority. In that light, some theologians interpret the Great Commission as a command to exercise that authority in his name, bringing all things (including societies and cultures) into subjection under his commands. Rousas Rushdoony, for example, interpreted the Great Commission as a republication of the "creation mandate", referring to Genesis 1:28
Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing...
The purpose of Christ's coming was in terms of the creation mandate… The redeemed are called to the original purpose of man, to exercise dominion under God, to be covenant-keepers, and to fulfil "the righteousness of the law" (Rom. 8:4)… Man is summoned to create the society God requires.
Elsewhere he wrote:
The man who is being progressively sanctified will inescapably sanctify his home, school, politics, economics, science, and all things else by understanding and interpreting all things in terms of the word of God.
According to sociologist and professor of religion William Martin, author of With God on Our Side:
It is difficult to assess the influence of Reconstructionist thought with any accuracy. Because it is so genuinely radical, most leaders of the Religious Right are careful to distance themselves from it. At the same time, it clearly holds some appeal for many of them. One undoubtedly spoke for others when he confessed, 'Though we hide their books under the bed, we read them just the same.' In addition, several key leaders have acknowledged an intellectual debt to the theonomists. Jerry Falwell and D. James Kennedy have endorsed Reconstructionist books. Rushdoony has appeared on Kennedy's television program and the 700 Club several times. Pat Robertson makes frequent use of 'dominion' language; his book, The Secret Kingdom, has often been cited for its theonomy elements; and pluralists were made uncomfortable when, during his presidential campaign, he said he 'would only bring Christians and Jews into the government,' as well as when he later wrote, 'There will never be world peace until God's house and God's people are given their rightful place of leadership at the top of the world.' And Jay Grimstead, who leads the Coalition on Revival, which brings Reconstructionists together with more mainstream evangelicals, has said, 'I don't call myself [a Reconstructionist],' but 'A lot of us are coming to realize that the Bible is God's standard of morality … in all points of history … and for all societies, Christian and non-Christian alike… It so happens that Rushdoony, Bahnsen, and North understood that sooner.' He added, 'There are a lot of us floating around in Christian leadership—James Kennedy is one of them—who don't go all the way with the theonomy thing, but who want to rebuild America based on the Bible.'
Michael Horton of Westminster Seminary California has warned against the seductiveness of power-religion. The Christian rhetoric of the movement is weak, he argues, against the logic of its authoritarian and legalistic program, which will always drive Reconstructionism toward sub-Christian ideas about sin, and the perfectibility of human nature (such as to imagine that, if Christians are in power, they won't be inclined to do evil). On the contrary, Horton and others maintain, God's Law can, often has been, and will be put to evil uses by Christians and others, in the state, in churches, in the marketplace, and in families; and these crimes are aggravated, because to oppose a wrong committed through abuse of God's law, a critic must bear being labeled an enemy of God's law.
J. Ligon Duncan of the Department of Systematic Theology of Reformed Theological Seminary in Jackson, MS warns that "Theonomy, in gross violation of biblical patterns and common sense, ignores the context of the giving of the law to the redemptive community of the Old Testament. This constitutes an approach to the nature of the civil law very different from Calvin and the rest of the Reformed tradition, which sees the civil law as God's application of his eternal standards to the particular exigencies of his people." Duncan rejects the Reconstructionist's insistence that "the Old Testament civil case law is normative for the civil magistrate and government in the New Covenant era". He views their denial of the threefold distinction between moral, civil, and ceremonial law as representing one of the severe flaws in the Reconstructionist hermeneutic.
Professor Meredith Kline, whose own theology has influenced the method of several Reconstructionist theologians, has adamantly maintained that Reconstructionism makes the mistake of failing to understand the special prophetic role of Biblical Israel, including the laws and sanctions, calling it "a delusive and grotesque perversion of the teachings of scripture." Kline's student, Lee Irons, furthers the critique:
According to the Reformed theocrats apparently… the only satisfactory goal is that America become a Christian nation.
Ironically... it is the wholesale rejection (not revival) of theocratic principles that is desperately needed today if the church is to be faithful to the task of gospel witness entrusted to her in the present age… It is only as the church… puts aside the lust for worldly influence and power – that she will be a positive presence in society.
In an April 2009 article in Christianity Today about controversial theologian and writer Douglas Wilson, the magazine described Reconstructionism as outside the 'mainstream' views of evangelical Christians. It also stated that it "borders on a call for outright theocracy".
George M. Marsden, a Professor of History at the University of Notre Dame, has remarked in Christianity Today that "Reconstructionism in its pure form is a radical movement". He also wrote, "[t]he positive proposals of Reconstructionists are so far out of line with American evangelical commitments to American republican ideals such as religious freedom that the number of true believers in the movement is small."
Theocracy compared to neofascism
Popular religious author, feminist, and former Roman Catholic nun Karen Armstrong sees a potential for "fascism" in Christian Reconstructionism, and sees theologians RJ Rushdoony and Gary North as: "totalitarian. There is no room for any other view or policy, no democratic tolerance for rival parties, no individual freedom." Berlet and Lyons have written that the movement is a "new form of clerical fascist politics."[page needed]
Relation to Dominionism
Some sociologists and critics refer to Reconstructionism as a type of "Dominionism". These critics claim that the frequent use of the word "dominion" by Reconstructionist writers, strongly associates the critical term Dominionism with this movement. As an ideological form of Dominionism, Reconstructionism is sometimes held up as the most typical form of Dominion Theology.[page needed][page needed][page needed][page needed]
The Protestant theologian Francis Schaeffer is linked with the movement by some critics, but some Reconstructionist thinkers are highly critical of Schaeffer's positions and he himself disavowed any connection or affiliation with Reconstructionism, though he did cordially correspond with Rushdoony on occasion. Authors Sara Diamond and Fred Clarkson suggest that Schaeffer shared with Reconstructionism the tendency toward Dominionism.[page needed]
Christian Reconstructionists object to the "Dominionism" and the "Dominion Theology" labels, which they say misrepresent their views. Some separate Christian cultural and political movements object to being described with the label Dominionism, because in their mind the word implies attachment to Reconstructionism. In Reconstructionism the idea of godly dominion, subject to God, is contrasted with the autonomous dominion of mankind in rebellion against God.
Dominionism and Dominion Theology are pejorative terms that are applied by critics, and not generally adopted by a group to describe itself.
- Christian libertarianism
- Summary of Christian eschatological differences
- Duncan, J. Ligon, III (October 15, 1994). Moses' Law for Modern Government. Annual national meeting of the Social Science History Association. Atlanta, GA. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- Clarkson, Frederick (1995). "Christian Reconstructionism". In Berlet, Chip. Eyes Right!: Challenging the Right Wing Backlash. Boston: South End Press. p. 73.
- Ingersoll, Julie (2009). "Mobilizing Evangelicals: Christian Reconstructionism and the Roots of the Religious Right". In Brint, Steven; Schroedel, Jean Reith. Evangelicals and Democracy in America: Religion and politics. 2. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. p. 180.
- Worthen, Molly (2008). "The Chalcedon Problem: Rousas John Rushdoony and the Origins of Christian Reconstructionism". Church History. 77 (2). doi:10.1017/S0009640708000590.
- Sanford, James C. (15 May 2014). Blueprint for Theocracy: The Christian Right's Vision for America. Metacomet Books. p. 118. ISBN 9780974704241.
The few bona fide Christian Reconstructionists still on the scene, notably Gary DeMar at American Vision, Inc. in Atlanta and a few holdouts at the Chalcedon Foundation in Vallecito, consider themselves a separate movement and seem to exert little direct influence on the Religious Right.
- Kyle, Richard G (1 August 2012). Apocalyptic Fever: End-Time Prophecies in Modern America. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 211. ISBN 9781621894100.
There are several Christian Reconstructionist organizations but the key centers are as follows: Rushdoony's Chalcedon Foundation in Vallecito, California; his son in-law Gary North's Institute of Christian Economics in Tyler, Texas; and Gary DeMar's American Vision organization in Atlanta, Georgia.
- Misztal, Bronislaw; Shupe, Anson D. (1 January 1992). Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: Revival of Religious Fundamentalism in East and West. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 85. ISBN 9780275942182.
Reconstructionists are separated by geography, and sometimes by their stances on certain issues, into various formal organizations. Among their key centers are Rushdoony's Chalcedon Foundation in Vallecito, California; North's Institute for Christian Economics in Tyler, Texas; and Gary DeMar's American Vision organization in Atlanta, Georgia.
- McVicar, Michael J (Fall 2007), "The Libertarian Theocrats: The Long, Strange History of RJ Rushdoony and Christian Reconstructionism", Public Eye, 22 (3), archived from the original on August 23, 2013, retrieved August 24, 2013
- *Brown, Mark D. R.O.S.E.S. - The Five Points of Christian Reconstruction (PDF). Omaha, Nebraska: Biblical Blueprints. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
His laws are to be obeyed by every human individual as well as by every human institution. [… T]he Bible does recognize several other legitimate human governments that God has established. […] These governments are under His sovereignty and are also separate from one another. Each one has its moral authority ordained by God within its limited sphere of jurisdiction. […] The Family […] The Church […] The State […] Historically, human civilizations have brought tremendous suffering and judgment upon themselves because they have blurred the distinctions between these separate governments, have failed to submit to the biblical requirements for these governments, and have over-extended the authority of one or more of these governments.
- Rushdoony 1973, pp. 38–39.
- Bahnsen, Greg L, Interview, CMF now.
- DeMar, Gary, Ruler of the Nations, Free books, p. 212.
- North, Gary, Unconditional Surrender: God's Program for Victory, US: Online home, p. 118.
- Einwechter, William (January–February 2003), "Stoning Disobedient Children?", The Christian Statesman, 146 (1).
- McDurmon, Joel (April 17, 2009). "Begg-ing the Question on Christian Politics". Retrieved August 17, 2010.
- Durand, Greg Loren, Judicial Warfare: Christian Reconstruction's Blueprints For Dominion, Chapter 13, Toccoa, Ga.: Sola Fide Publishers, 2014.
- Kayser, Phillip G. Is the Death Penalty Just? (PDF). Omaha, NE: Biblical Blueprints. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
What is the legitimate punishment for a crime? [… W]hat would stop a tyrannical state from once again imposing the death penalty for petty theft as was repeatedly practiced in England? On the other hand, what would hinder the state from simply fining a murderer $100? […] Without an objective standard of justice from God, how can we discern justice? […] Is it unjust to cut off the hand of a thief as is prescribed in the Koran? The Bible would say, yes. In America people are placed into jail for years for thefts that could have been paid off by means of Biblical restitution in much less time. With the biblical penalty, the criminal is rehabilitated and the victim is compensated. It is easy to see how the Biblical penalties designed to be restorative would be a wonderful alternative to present penalties. But some people have questioned whether the Biblical death penalty should be implemented. It is acknowledged that the penalty for murder is not restorative. But it is the contention of this booklet that the (maximum) penalty of death for every other crime was designed to restore sinners to repentance. […] Theonomists have tended to treat [the Hebrew phrase "möt yumat"] as a mandate for the death penalty. I argue that this is impossible, since God Himself authorized lesser penalties.
- Quoted in: Johnson, Dale A. (2010). Is God Dead Yet? I hope so!. Lulu.com. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9780557336043. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
In colonial New England the covenantal concept of church and state was applied. [...] The heresy of democracy has since then worked havoc in church and state, and it has worked towards reducing society to anarchy.
- In Extremis – Rousas Rushdoony and his Connections, British Centre for Science Education, retrieved December 12, 2007.
- Dream of Total Justice, Chalcedon Foundation, retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Martin 1996.
- Diamond, Sara. 1995. Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-864-4.
- Clarkson 1997.
- Diamond, Sara. 1989. Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right. Boston: South End Press.
- Berlet & Lyons 2000.
- Rushdoony 1973, p. 729.
- Rushdoony 1973, pp. 3–4.
- Rushdoony, Rousas John, "Foreword", in Bahnsen, Greg, Theonomy in Christian Ethics (3rd ed.), p. xii.
- Martin 1996, p. 354.
- Horton, Michael (Sep–Oct 1994), "In God's Name: Guidelines for Proper Political Involvement", Modern Reformation Magazine, 3 (5), archived from the original on April 15, 2007.
- Duncan, J Ligon (1994). "Moses' Law for Modern Government: The Intellectual and Sociological Origins of the Christian Reconstructionist Movement". Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- Kline, Meredith (Fall 1978), "Comments on an Old-New Error", Westminster Theological Journal (41): 172–89
- Irons, Lee (2002). "The Reformed Theocrats: A Biblical Theological Response". Retrieved March 30, 2008.
- Clapp, Rodney (February 20, 1987). "Democracy as Heresy". Christianity Today. 31 (3). pp. 17–23.
- North, Gary (1987). "Honest Reporting as Heresy". Westminster's Confession. pp. 317–41.
- Worthen, Molly (April 2009), "The Controversialist", Christianity Today, 53 (4), retrieved June 16, 2009.
- The Sword of the Lord. Christianity Today. Published March 1, 2006.
- Armstrong, The Battle for God, pp. 361–2
- Right-Wing Populism in America, p. 249
- DeMar 1988.
- Bahnsen, Greg; Gentry, Kenneth (1989), House Divided: The Breakup of Dispensational Theology, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics.
- Selbrede, Martin G (September–October 2007), "Answering Tough Questions About Christian Reconstruction", Faith For All of Life, Chalcedon, archived from the original (article) on May 8, 2008.
- Barron 1992.
- Did Francis Schaeffer believe Rushdoony?, Chalcedon, archived from the original on February 13, 2010
- Barron, Bruce (1992). Heaven on Earth? The Social & Political Agendas of Dominion Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-53611-1.
- Berlet, Chip; Lyons, Matthew N. (2000). Right–Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-562-2.
- Clarkson, Frederick (1997). Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy. Monroe, ME: Common Courage. ISBN 1-56751-088-4.
- Martin, William (1996), With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America, New York: Broadway Books
- DeMar, Gary (1988), The Debate Over Christian Reconstruction, Ft. Worth, TX: Dominion Press, ISBN 0-930462-33-5
- North, Gary; DeMar, Gary (1991), Christian Reconstruction: What It Is, What It Isn't, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-53-2.
- Rushdoony, Rousas John (1973), The Institutes of Biblical Law, Nutley, NJ: P&R (Craig Press), ISBN 0-87552-410-9.
- Primary sources by Christian Reconstructionists
- Bahnsen, Greg L (2002) , Theonomy in Christian Ethics (3rd ed.), Nacogdoches, TX: Covenant, ISBN 0-9678317-3-3.
- ——————— (Winter 1979), "MG Kline on Theonomic Politics: An Evaluation of His Reply", Journal of Christian Reconstruction, CMF Now.
- ——————— (1991), By This Standard: The Authority of God's Law Today, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-06-0.
- ——————— (1991), No Other Standard: Theonomy and Its Critics, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-56-7.
- DeMar, Gary; Leithart, Peter (1990) , Reduction of Christianity: A Biblical Response to Dave Hunt, Ft. Worth, TX: Dominion Press, ISBN 0-930462-63-7
- Gentry, Kenneth (1992), He Shall Have Dominion: A Postmillennial Eschatology, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-62-1.
- North, Gary (1989), Political Polytheism: The Myth of Pluralism, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-32-X.
- ————— (1990), Tools of Dominion: The Case Laws of Exodus, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-10-9.
- ————— (1991), Theonomy: An Informed Response, Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, ISBN 0-930464-59-1.
- Rushdoony, Rousas John (1978), The Nature of the American System, Fairfax, VA: Thoburn Press.
- Secondary sources and critiques
- Clark, R. Scott (2006). "Reconstructionism". In Campbell-Jack, W.C.; McGrath, Gavin J. The New Dictionary of Christian Apologetics. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0830824510.
- Duncan, J. Ligon, III (October 15, 1994), Moses' Law for Modern Government, Atlanta, GA, archived from the original on November 30, 2012, retrieved August 23, 2013
- Durand, Greg Loren (2014), Judicial Warfare: Christian Reconstruction and Its Blueprints For Dominion (third ed.), Toccoa, GA: Sola Fide Publishers
- McVicar, Michael J. (2015). Christian Reconstruction: R. J. Rushdoony and American Religious Conservatism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 1469622742.
- Moyers, Bill (producer) (January 1, 1987). "On Earth as It Is in Heaven". God and Politics. Episode 3. ASIN B006RLPCC2. Acorn Media.
- Smith, Chris (Fall 2012), "His Truth is Marching On", California, archived from the original on April 15, 2013, retrieved August 23, 2013
- Sugg, John (December 2005), "A Nation Under God", Mother Jones, archived from the original on June 22, 2013, retrieved August 23, 2013