Christian nationalism

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Christian nationalism is Christianity-affiliated religious nationalism.[1] Christian nationalists primarily focus on internal politics, such as passing laws that reflect their view of Christianity and its role in political and social life. In countries with a state Church, Christian nationalists, in seeking to preserve the status of a Christian state, uphold an antidisestablishmentarian position.[2][3][4]

Christian nationalists support the presence of Christian symbols and statuary in the public square, as well as state patronage for the display of religion, such as school prayer and the exhibition of nativity scenes during Christmastide or the Christian Cross on Good Friday.[5][6]

Christian nationalists draw support from the broader Christian right.[7]

By country[edit]

Canada[edit]

The COVID-19 pandemic saw a rise in Christian nationalist activity with many groups using anti-lockdown sentiments to expand their reach to more people.[8] The group Liberty Coalition Canada has garnered support from many elected politicians across Canada.[9] In their founding documents they argue that "it is only in Christianized nations that religious freedom has ever flourished."[10] This group has garnered support from various groups, including supporters of far-right hate groups. Their rallies have attracted supporters of Alex Jones and Canada First, a spin-off of Nick Fuentes' group America First.[11] Many of Liberty Coalition Canada's leaders are pastors that have racked up millions in potential fines for violating COVID protocols and some of them express ultra-conservative views.[12]

Russia[edit]

President of Russia Vladimir Putin has been described as a global leader of the Christian nationalist and Christian right movements.[13][14] As President, Putin has increased the power of the Russian Orthodox Church and demonstrated his staunch belief in Eastern Orthodoxy,[15] as well as maintaining close contacts with Patriarchs of Moscow and all Rus' Alexy II and Kirill.

United States[edit]

A monument of the Ten Commandments at the Texas State Capitol

The Christian Liberty Party is a political party that sees the United States as a Christian country.[16]

Christian nationalists believe that the US is meant to be a Christian nation and want to "take back" the US for God.[17] Experts say that Christian-associated support for right-wing politicians and social policies, such as legislation related to immigration, gun control and poverty is best understood as Christian nationalism, rather than as evangelicalism per se.[17][18] Some studies of white evangelicals show that, among people who self-identify as evangelical Christians, the more they attend church, the more they pray, and the more they read the Bible, the less support they have for nationalist (though not socially conservative) policies.[18] Non-nationalistic evangelicals agree ideologically with Christian nationalists in areas such as patriarchal policies, gender roles, and sexuality.[18]

Andrew Whitehead and Samuel Perry summarize Christian nationalism with the following statements:[19]

  1. The federal government should declare the United States a Christian nation.
  2. The federal government should advocate Christian values.
  3. The federal government should not enforce the strict separation of church and state.
  4. The federal government should allow religious symbols in public spaces.
  5. The success of the United States is part of God's plan.
  6. The federal government should allow prayer in public schools.

Congresswoman Marjorie Taylor Greene has referred to herself as a Christian nationalist. Fellow congresswoman Lauren Boebert has also expressed support for Christian nationalism.[20] Kris Kobach has described himself as a Christian nationalist. White nationalist Nick Fuentes has expressed support for Christian nationalism. [21]

Yugoslavia[edit]

The fascist Yugoslav National Movement (1935–45) has been described as Christian nationalist.[22][23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perry, Samuel L.; Whitehead, Andrew L.; Grubbs, Joshua B. (Winter 2021). Baker, Joseph O. (ed.). "Save the Economy, Liberty, and Yourself: Christian Nationalism and Americans' Views on Government COVID-19 Restrictions". Sociology of Religion. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association for the Sociology of Religion. 82 (4): 426–446. doi:10.1093/socrel/sraa047. ISSN 1759-8818. S2CID 231699494.
  2. ^ Bloomberg, Charles (1989). Christian Nationalism and the Rise of the Afrikaner Broederbond in South Africa, 1918-48. New York: Springer. p. xxiii-11. ISBN 978-1-349-10694-3.
  3. ^ Jenkins, Jack (2 August 2019). "Christian leaders condemn Christian nationalism in new letter". Religion News Service. Retrieved 14 March 2020. Christian nationalism demands Christianity be privileged by the State...
  4. ^ Kymlicka, Will (19 April 2018). "Is there a Christian Pluralist Approach to Immigration?". Comment Magazine. Retrieved 14 March 2020. As against both Christian nationalists who wanted an established church and French-republican-style secular nationalists who wanted a homogenous public square devoid of religion, Dutch pluralists led by Kuyper defended a model of institutional pluralism or "sphere sovereignty."
  5. ^ Perry, Samuel L.; Whitehead, Andrew L. (2020). Taking America Back for God: Christian Nationalism in the United States. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–10. ISBN 978-0-19-005789-3.
  6. ^ Bean, Lydia (2016). The Politics of Evangelical Identity: Local Churches and Partisan Divides in the United States and Canada. Princeton, New Jersey and Woodstock, Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-691-17370-2.
  7. ^ Greenberg, Udi (22 October 2019). "Can Christian Democracy Save Us?". Boston Review. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  8. ^ "COVID-19 conspiracy theories are spreading online like a virus. An inside look at a dangerous misinformation movement that's spilling into the real world". thestar.com. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  9. ^ "End the Lockdowns Caucus | Liberty Coalition Canada". Liberty Coalition. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  10. ^ "FAQ". Niagara Declaration. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Canada First Exposed: Months Inside One of Canada's Biggest, Youngest, and Newest White Supremacist Chatrooms". Canadian Anti-Hate Network. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  12. ^ "Excommunicated Politicians Partner With Christian Nationalists In COVID Conspiracy Movement". Canadian Anti-Hate Network. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  13. ^ Stanley, Jason (26 February 2022). "The antisemitism animating Putin's claim to 'denazify' Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  14. ^ Michel, Casey (9 February 2017). "How Russia Became the Leader of the Global Christian Right". Politico. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  15. ^ Paterson, Tom (9 November 2021). "Why Putin Goes to Church". The Cambridge Language Collective. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  16. ^ McKeen, Leah A D, "Canadian Christian Nationalism?: The Religiosity and Politics of the Christian Heritage Party of Canada" (2015). Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive). 1740.
  17. ^ a b Bailey, Sarah Pulliam (26 October 2020). "Seeking power in Jesus' name: Trump sparks a rise of Patriot Churches". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  18. ^ a b c Sutton, Matthew Avery (16 July 2020). "The Truth About Trump's Evangelical Support". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  19. ^ Whitehead, Andrew L.; Perry, Samuel L. (2020). Taking America Back for God: Christian Nationalism in the United States. Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9780190057893. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  20. ^ Tyler, Amanda (27 July 2022). "Opinion: Marjorie Taylor Greene's words on Christian nationalism are a wake-up call". CNN. Retrieved 29 July 2022. “We need to be the party of nationalism and I’m a Christian, and I say it proudly, we should be Christian nationalists,” Greene said in an interview while attending the Turning Point USA Student Action Summit in Florida on Saturday. She is not alone in doing so. Greene’s embrace of Christian nationalism follows closely after troubling remarks from Colorado Republican Rep. Lauren Boebert: “The church is supposed to direct the government, the government is not supposed to direct the church,” she said at a church two days before her primary election (and victory) in late June. “I’m tired of this separation of church and state junk.”
  21. ^ "They Love Jesus, Bon Iver, and Incels. Inside America's New Ultranationalist Youth Movement". Vice.com. Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  22. ^ Rebecca Haynes; Martyn Rady (30 November 2013). In the Shadow of Hitler: Personalities of the Right in Central and Eastern Europe. I. B. Tauris. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-78076-808-3.
  23. ^ Jovan Byford (2008). Denial and Repression of Antisemitism: Post-communist Remembrance of the Serbian Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. Central European University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-963-9776-15-9.

Further reading[edit]