Christian population growth
Christian population growth is the population growth of the global Christian community. According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.19 billion Christians around the world in 2010, more than three times as much from the 600 million recorded in 1910, however this rate of growth is slower than the overall population growth over the same time period. According to a 2015 Pew Research Center study, by 2050, the Christian population is expected to be 3.0 billion.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Fertility rate
- 3 Conversion
- 4 By branches
- 5 By country
- 5.1 Africa
- 5.2 America
- 5.3 Asia
- 5.4 Europe
- 6 See also
- 7 References
|Tradition||Followers||% of the Christian population||% of the world population||Follower dynamics||Dynamics in- and outside Christianity|
The Christian fertility rate has varied throughout history, as with other fertility figures. The Christian fertility rate also varies from country to country. In the 20-year period from 1989–2009, the average world fertility rate decreased from 3.50 to 2.58, a fall of 0.92 children per women, or 26%. The weighted average fertility rate for Christian nations decreased in the same period from 3.26 to 2.58, a fall of 0.68 children per women, or 21%. The weighted average fertility rate for Muslim nations decreased in the same period from 5.17 to 3.23, a fall of 1.94 children per women, or 38%. While Muslims have an average of 3.1 children per woman—the highest rate of all religious groups—Christians are second, with 2.7 children per woman.
The gap in fertility between the Christian- and Muslim-dominated nations fell from 67% in 1990 to 17% in 2010. If the trend continues, the Muslim and Christian fertility rates will converge in around 2050.
- According to the World Christian Encyclopedia, approximately 2.7 million people convert to Christianity annually from another religion, with Christianity ranking first in net gains through religious conversion.
- Studies estimate significantly more people have converted from Islam to Christianity in the 21st century than at any other point in Islamic history. Conversion to Christianity has also been well documented, and reports estimate that hundreds of thousands of Muslims convert to Christianity annually. Significant numbers of Muslims converts to Christianity can be found in Afghanistan, Albania, Azerbaijan, Algeria, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Turkey, Kosovo, The United States and Central Asia etc. Many of the Muslims who convert to Christianity faces social rejection or imprisonment and sometimes murder or penalty, for becoming Christians.
- Data from the Pew Research Center show that, as of 2013, about 1.6 million adult American Jews identify themselves as Christians; most are Protestant. According to the same data, most of this group were raised as Jews or are Jews by ancestry. Data from 2013, show that 64,000 Argentine Jews identify themselves as Christians. According to 2012 study 17% of Jews in Russia identify themselves as Christians.
- Conversion into Christianity has significantly increased among Korean, Chinese, and Japanese in the United States. In 2012, the percentage of Christians in these communities were 71%, 30% and 37% respectively.
- Due to conversion, the number of Chinese Christians has increased significantly; from 4 million before 1949 to 67 million in 2010.
- Due to conversion, Christianity has grown in South Korea, from 2.0% in 1945 to 29.3% in 2010.
Roman Catholic Church
- Church membership in 2007 was 1.147 billion people (17% of the global population at the time), increasing from the 1950 figure of 437 million and 654 million in 1970. On 31 December 2008, membership was 1.166 billion, an increase of 11.54% over the same date in 2000, and slightly greater than the rate of increase of the world population (10.77%). The increase was 33.02% in Africa, but only 1.17% in Europe. It was 15.91% in Asia, 11.39% in Oceania, and 10.93% in Americas. As a result, Catholics were 17.77% of the total population in Africa, 63.10% in Americas, 3.05% in Asia, 39.97% in Europe, 26.21% in Oceania, and 17.40% of the world population. Of the world's Catholics, the proportion living in Africa grew from 12.44% in 2000 to 14.84% in 2008, while those living in Europe fell from 26.81% to 24.31%. Membership of the Catholic Church is attained through baptism, and from 1983 to 2009, if someone formally left the Church, that fact was noted in the register of the person's baptism.
- Monsignor Vittorio Formenti, who compiles the Vatican's yearbook, said in an interview with the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano that "For the first time in history, we are no longer at the top: Muslims have overtaken us." He said that Catholics accounted for 17.4 percent of the world population—a stable percentage—while Muslims were at 19.2 percent. "It is true that while Muslim families, as is well known, continue to make a lot of children, Christian ones on the contrary tend to have fewer and fewer," the monsignor said. Muslims in 2010 represented as much as 23.4% of the total world population and this is expected to increase to 26.3% by 2030.
- According to Mark Jürgensmeyer of the University of California, popular Protestantism is one of the most dynamic religious movements in the contemporary world. Changes in worldwide Protestantism over the last century have been significant. Since 1900, due primarily to conversion, Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Latin America.
- There are more than 900 million Protestants worldwide, among approximately 2.4 billion Christians. In 2010, a total of more than 800 million included 300 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in the Americas, 140 million in Asia-Pacific region, 100 million in Europe and 2 million in Middle East-North Africa. Protestants account for nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide and more than one tenth of the total human population.
- Protestantism is growing in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Muslim world, and Oceania, while remaining stable or declining in Anglo America and Europe, with some exceptions such as France, where it was eradicated after the abolition of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau and the following persecution of Huguenots, but now is claimed to be stable in number or even growing slightly. According to some, Russia is another country to see a Protestant revival.
- According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the World Christian Database as of 2007 estimated the six fastest-growing religions of the world to be Islam (1.84%), the Bahá'í Faith (1.7%), Sikhism (1.62%), Jainism (1.57%), Hinduism (1.52%) and Christianity (1.32%). High birth rates were cited as the reason for the growths.
- The U.S. Center for World Mission stated a growth rate of Christianity at 2.3% for the period 1970 to 1996 (slightly higher than the world population growth rate at the time). This increased the claimed percentage of adherents of Christianity from 33.7% to 33.9%.
- The World Christian Database as of 2007 estimated the growth rate of Christianity at 1.32%. High birth rates and conversions were cited as the main reasons.
- Using data from the period 2000–2005 the 2006 Christian World Database estimated that by number of new adherents, Christianity was the fastest growing religion in the world with 30,360,000 new adherents in 2006. This was followed by Islam with 23,920,000 and Hinduism with 13,224,000 estimated new adherents in the same period.
- According to 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there are 2.18 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910.
- According to 2015 Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census study estimates 10,283,700 Muslim converted to Christianity around the world.
- On April 2, 2015, the Pew Research Center published a Demographic Study about “The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050" with projections regarding Christianity. The projection begins with 2010 statistics when "Christianity was by far the world’s largest religion, with an estimated 2.2 billion adherents, nearly a third (31%) of all 6.9 billion people on Earth. Islam was second, with 1.6 billion adherents, or 23% of the global population.”
- Projected growth of Christianity by 2050
- Some of the projections are as follows:
- Over the 2010-2050 period, Christians will remain the largest religious group with 34.1% of the world’s population. However, Islam will grow faster and become 29.7% of the world’s population. Therefore, by 2050 there will be 2.8 billion Muslims compared to 2.9 billion Christians.
- “In the United States, Christians will decline from more than three-quarters of the population in 2010 to two-thirds in 2050.”
- “Four out of every 10 Christians in the world will live in sub-Saharan Africa.”
- Reasons given for the projected growth
- Some of the reasons the Study gives are as follows:
- The change in the world’s religious is “driven primarily by differences in fertility rates and the size of youth populations among the world’s major religions, as well as by people switching faiths.”
- Fertility rates. “Religions with many adherents in developing countries, where birth rates are high, and infant mortality rates generally have been falling, are likely to grow quickly.” Therefore, much of the growth of Christianity is projected to take place in sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, Christians have a birth rate of 2.7 children per woman. But Muslims have a higher rate, namely, an average of 3.1 children per woman. This differential is one of the reasons that the Muslim population is growing faster than the Christian.
- Size of youth population. “In 2010, more than a quarter of the world’s total population (27%) was under the age of 15.” Christian youth under 15 were the same as the 27% global average. But an even higher percentage of Muslims (34%) were younger than 15. This higher youth population is one of the reasons that from 2010-2050 Muslims are projected to grow faster than Christians.
- Size of old population. In 2010, “11% of the world’s population was at least 60 years old,” 14% of the Christian population was over 60 years old, but only 7% of Muslims were over 60. This is another reason that Muslims are projected to grow faster than Christians.
- Switching. A loss of 66 million Christians is projected to come through switching. Most of the loss is projected to come from Christians “joining the ranks of the religiously unaffiliated.”
- The whole Pew Research Center can be read by clicking The Future of World Religions.
- Christianity has been estimated to be growing rapidly in South America, Africa, and Asia. In Africa, for instance, in 1900, there were only 8.7 million adherents of Christianity; now there are 390 million, and it is expected that by 2025 there will be 600 million Christians in Africa. The number of Catholics in Africa has increased from one million in 1902 to 329,882,000. There are now 1.5 million churches whose congregations account for 46 million people.
- A 2015 study estimates 2,161,000 Muslim Africans that convert to Christianity.
- Converts to Christianity may be investigated and searched by the authorities. Conversions to Christianity have been most common in Kabylie, especially in the wilaya of Tizi-Ouzou.
- A 2015 study estimates 380,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Algeria.
- On 27 March 2010, the Moroccan magazine TelQuel stated that thousands of Moroccans had converted to Christianity. Pointing out the absence of official data, Service de presse Common Ground, cites unspecified sources that stated that about 5,000 Moroccans became Christians between 2005 and 2010. According to the International Religious Freedom Report for 2014 estimate that there may be as many as 8,000 Christian citizens throughout the country, but many reportedly do not meet regularly due to fear of government surveillance and social persecution.
- According to different estimates, there are about 25,000-45,000 Moroccan Christians of Berber or Arab descent mostly converted from Islam. Other sources give a number of a bit more than 1,000. A popular Christian program by Brother Rachid has led many former Muslims in North Africa and the Middle East to convert to Christianity. His programs have been credited with assisting in the conversion of over 150,000 former Muslims to Christianity in Morocco.
- The percentage of Christians in Nigeria grew from 21.4% in 1953 to 48.2% in 2003. This is due to the high number of missionaries in Nigeria.
- ِA 2015 study estimates some 600,000 believers in Christ are from a Muslim background living in Nigeria.
- International Religious Freedom Report for 2007 estimate thousands of Tunisian Muslims who convert to Christianity.
According to the 1991/2001/2011-Census, the number of Christians in Canada has decreased from 22.5 million to 22.1 million.
The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. The survey below, the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008, was a random digit-dialed telephone survey of 54,461 American residential households in the contiguous United States. The 1990 sample size was 113,723; 2001 sample size was 50,281.
Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?" Interviewers did not prompt or offer a suggested list of potential answers. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. If the initial answer was "Protestant" or "Christian" further questions were asked to probe which particular denomination. About one third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions.
Among the Asian population in the United States, conversion into Christianity is significantly increasing among Korean, Chinese, and Japanese. By 2012 the percentage of Christians in these communities was 71%, 31%, and 38% respectively.
Data from the Pew Research Center states that, as of 2013, about 1.6 million adult American Jews identify themselves as Christians, most as Protestants. According to the same data, most of the Jews who identify themselves as some sort of Christian (1.6 million) were raised as Jew or are Jews by ancestry.
A study from 2015 estimated some 450,000 American Muslims convert to Christianity, most of whom belong to an evangelical or Pentecostal community. In 2010 there were approximately 180,000 Arab American and about 130,000 Iranian American who converted from Islam to Christianity, Studies estimated approximately that 20,000 Muslims convert to Christianity annually in the United States.
Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. Adult Population: 1990, 2001, 2008
Figures are not adjusted for refusals to reply; investigators suspect refusals are possibly more representative of "no religion" than any other group.
in % of
|Adult population, total||175,440||207,983||228,182||30.1%|
|Adult population, Responded||171,409||196,683||216,367||26.2%||97.7%||94.6%||94.8%||−2.9%|
|United Church of Christ||438||1,378||736||68.0%||0.2%||0.7%||0.3%||0.1%|
|Protestant – Unspecified||17,214||4,647||5,187||−69.9%||9.8%||2.2%||2.3%||−7.5%|
|Pentecostal – Unspecified||3,116||4,407||5,416||73.8%||1.8%||2.1%||2.4%||0.6%|
|Assemblies of God||617||1,105||810||31.3%||0.4%||0.5%||0.4%||0.0%|
|Church of God||590||943||663||12.4%||0.3%||0.5%||0.3%||0.0%|
|Other Protestant Denominations||4,630||5,949||7,131||54.0%||2.6%||2.9%||3.1%||0.5%|
|Churches of Christ||1,769||2,593||1,921||8.6%||1.0%||1.2%||0.8%||−0.2%|
|Mormon/Latter Day Saints||2,487||2,697||3,158||27.0%||1.4%||1.3%||1.4%||0.0%|
|Total non-Christian religions||5,853||7,740||8,796||50.3%||3.3%||3.7%||3.9%||0.5%|
|New Religious Movements & Others||1,296||1,770||2,804||116.4%||0.7%||0.9%||1.2%||0.5%|
|None/ No religion, total||14,331||29,481||34,169||138.4%||8.2%||14.2%||15.0%||6.8%|
|Did Not Know/ Refused to reply||4,031||11,300||11,815||193.1%||2.3%||5.4%||5.2%||2.9%|
- The ARIS 2008 survey was carried out during February–November 2008 and collected answers from 54,461 respondents who were questioned in English or Spanish.
- The American population self-identifies as predominantly Christian but Americans are slowly becoming less Christian.
- 86% of American adults identified as Christians in 1990 and 76% in 2008.
- The historic Mainline churches and denominations have experienced the steepest declines while the non-denominational Christian identity has been trending upward particularly since 2001.
- The challenge to Christianity in the U.S. does not come from other religions but rather from a rejection of all forms of organized religion.
- 34% of American adults considered themselves "Born Again or Evangelical Christians" in 2008.
- The U. S. population continues to show signs of becoming less religious, with one out of every seven Americans failing to indicate a religious identity in 2008.
- The "Nones" (no stated religious preference, atheist, or agnostic) continue to grow, though at a much slower pace than in the 1990s, from 8.2% in 1990, to 14.1% in 2001, to 15.0% in 2008.
- Asian Americans are substantially more likely to indicate no religious identity than other racial or ethnic groups.
- One sign of the lack of attachment of Americans to religion is that 27% do not expect a religious funeral at their death.
- Based on their stated beliefs rather than their religious identification in 2008, 70% of Americans believe in a personal God, roughly 12% of Americans are atheist (no God) or agnostic (unknowable or unsure), and another 12% are deistic (a higher power but no personal God).
- America's religious geography has been transformed since 1990. Religious switching along with Hispanic immigration has significantly changed the religious profile of some states and regions. Between 1990 and 2008, the Catholic population proportion of the New England states fell from 50% to 36% and in New York it fell from 44% to 37%, while it rose in California from 29% to 37% and in Texas from 23% to 32%.
- Overall the 1990–2008 ARIS time series shows that changes in religious self-identification in the first decade of the 21st century have been moderate in comparison to the 1990s, which was a period of significant shifts in the religious composition of the United States.
- The United States Department of State estimated the numbers of the Muslim Afghan who convert to Christianity between 500-8,000.
- According to reports there is about 5,000 ethnic Azerbaijani Protestant community most of them came from Muslim backgrounds.
- A 2015 study estimates some 130,000 Christians from a Muslim background residing in the Bangladesh, though not all are necessarily citizens.
- In recent years, the number of Chinese Christians has increased significantly, particularly since the easing of restrictions on religious activity during economic reforms in the late 1970s; Christians were 4 million before 1949 (3 million Catholics and 1 million Protestants), and are reaching 67 million today. Various statistical analyses have found that between 2% and 4% of the Chinese identify as Christian.
- Christianity is reportedly the fastest growing religion in China with average annual rate of 7%.
- A 2015 study estimates some 40,000 Christian believers from a Muslim background in the country, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism.
- According to the World Christian Encyclopedia, between 1965-1985 about 2.5 million Indonesian converted from Islam to Christianity.
- According to Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census study found that between 1960-2015 about 6.5 million Indonesian Muslims convert to Christianity.
- Some reports also show that many of the Chinese Indonesians minority convert to Christianity. Demographer Aris Ananta reported in 2008 that "anecdotal evidence suggests that more Buddhist Chinese have become Christians as they increased their standards of education".
- Christianity is reportedly the fastest growing religion in Iran with an average annual rate of 5.2%. A 2015 study estimates between 100,000 and 500,000 believers Christians from a Muslim background living in Iran, most of them evangelical Christians.
- Several thousand Israelis practice Messianic Jewish denominations, which are often considered as Christian sects. The Messianic Jews usually combine Jewish and Christian practices, but do recognize Jesus as the Messiah. There are no exact numbers on those communities, but it is believed that several hundred to several thousand ethnic Jews belong to this tradition as well as several thousand Israelis of mixed ancestry (mostly mixed Jewish and Slavic).
- The Christian population in Israel has increased significantly with the immigration of many mixed families from the former Soviet Union (1989-late 1990s).
- According to a poll conducted by the Gallup Organization in 2006, Christianity has increased significantly in Japan, particularly among youth, and a high numbers of teens are becoming Christians.
- According to a Hindu organization,[which?] 130,000 people[verification needed] converted from Hinduism to Christianity between 1965 and 1990. Around 97,000 joined the Methodist Church and the rest mostly joined various Protestant denominations, with 2,500 joining the Catholic Church.[unreliable source?]
- There is no well researched agreement on the actual number of Malaysian Muslim converts to Christianity in Malaysia. But according to Tan Sri Dr Harussani Zakaria, they are 260,000.
- According to the Christian missionary group Barnabas Fund,[unreliable source?] the number of Christians in Mongolia grew from just four in 1989 to around 40,000 as of 2008.
A 2015 study estimates 60,000 Muslims converted to Christianity in Saudi Arabia.
- The percentage of Christians among Singaporeans increased from 12.7% in 1990 to 17.5% in 2010.
- In South Korea, Christianity has grown from 20.7% in 1985 to 29.5% in 2005 according to the World Christian Database.
- In spite of persecution of converts from Islam to Christianity, a 2015 study estimates some 60,000 believers in Christ from a Muslim background residing in Kazakhstan.
- A 2015 study estimates some 19,000 Christians from a Muslim background residing in Kyrgyzstan.
- According to the newspaper, "Milliyet" reports 35,000 Muslim Turks convert into Christianity in 2008. A 2015 study estimates some 4,500 believers in Christ from a Muslim background in Turkey, most of them Turks. The ethnic Turkish Protestant Christian community in Turkey number about 4,000-5,000 adherents most of them came from Muslim Turkish background.
- The US Department of State estimates that Protestant Christianity may have grown 600% over the last decade in Vietnam.
- Reports estimated that thousands of Muslims (mostly Bulgarian Turks) convert every year to Christianity in Bulgaria. A 2015 study estimates 45,000 Christian believers from a Muslim background in the country, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism.
- Protestants have increased as a percentage of total population from 1% in 1987 to 3% in 2009.
- Reports form Le Monde estimated that 15,000 Muslims convert every year to Christianity.
- It is estimated that Orthodoxy is the fastest growing religious faith in Norway, due to immigration from other countries, with a growth rate from 2000 to 2009 at 231.1%.
- Reports estimated that thousands of Muslims convert every year to Christianity in the Netherlands.
- According to Roman Silantyev the executive secretary of the Inter-religious Council in Russia, about 2 million Muslims in Russia have converted to Christianity between during the last fifteen years while only 2,500 Russians converted to Islam.
- According to a 2012 study, 17% of Jews in Russia identify themselves as Christians.
- Muslim population growth
- Claims to be the fastest-growing religion
- Christian views on contraception
- Christian mission
- Christianity by country
- Christian emigration
- "Pewforum: Christianity (2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- The Future of World Religions: Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050
- Milne, Bruce (2010). Know the Truth: A Handbook of Christian Belief. InterVarsity Press. p. 332. ISBN 0-83082-576-2. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
- "Global Christianity – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population". 19 December 2011.
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2007). "United Nations World Population Prospects: 2006 revision, Table A.15" (PDF). New York: UN. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
- David B. Barrett; George Thomas Kurian; Todd M. Johnson, eds. (February 15, 2001). World Christian Encyclopedia p.360. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0195079639.
- Garrison, David; 2014; "A Wind In The House Of Islam: How God Is Drawing Muslims Around The World To Faith In Jesus Christ"; WIGTake Resources
- Albanian Government. "L'Albania oggi" (in Italian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "5,000 Azerbaijanis adopted Christianity" (in Russian). Day.az. 7 July 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- "Christian Missionaries Becoming Active in Azerbaijan" (in Azerbaijani). Tehran Radio. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Algeria: Situation of Christians, including the treatment of Christians by society and by the authorities
- In Europe, many Muslims renounce Islam, embrace Christianity: Report
- "Structure of the population by confession". NSI.
- "Ethnic minority communities". NSI.
- France: Muslims convert to Christianity
- 'Our second mother': Iran's converted Christians find sanctuary in Germany
- History of Christianity in Indonesia. pp. 527-569
- Miller, Duane Alexander (October 2009). "The Conversion Narrative of Samira: From Shi'a Islam to Mary, her Church, and her Son" (PDF). St Francis Magazine. 5 (5): 81–92.
- Miller, Duane Alexander (April 2012). "The Secret World of God: Aesthetics, Relationships, and the Conversion of 'Frances' from Shi'a Islam to Christianity" (PDF). Global Missiology. 9 (3).
- Nasser, David (2009). Jumping through Fires. Grand Rapids: Baker.
- Rabiipour, Saiid (2009). Farewell to Islam. Xulon.
- "Нац состав.rar". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11 (10): 1–19. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- AHMAD FAROUK MUSA; MOHD RADZIQ JALALUDDIN; AHMAD FUAD RAHMAT; EDRY FAIZAL EDDY YUSUF (22 October 2011). "What is Himpun about?". The Star. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Christian Converts in Morocco Fear Fatwa Calling for Their Execution
- House-Churches' and Silent Masses —The Converted Christians of Morocco Are Praying in Secret
- Netherlands: Muslim converts to Christianity live in fear
- 2 million ethnic Muslims adopted baptism in Russia while only 2,5 thousand Russians converted to Islam - expert
- Cookson, Catharine (2003). Encyclopedia of religious freedom. Taylor & Francis. p. 207. ISBN 0-415-94181-4.
- International Religious Freedom Report 2007: Tunisia. United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (September 14, 2007). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "TURKEY - Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom - The Christian Century". The Christian Century. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "TURKEY: Protestant church closed down - Church In Chains - Ireland :: An Irish voice for suffering, persecuted Christians Worldwide". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- khadijabibi (30 October 2009). "35,000 Muslims convert into Christianity each year in Turkey". Chowk.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Christians in Kosovo Conversion rate
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- Jeni Mitchell. "FREEradicals – Targeting Christians in Central Asia". Icsr.info. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Despite Government Set-backs, Christianity Is Alive in Central Asia". Opendoorsusa.org. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- How When Muslims become Christians.
- "How many Jews are there in the United States?". Pew Research Center.
- "A PORTRAIT OF JEWISH AMERICANS: Chapter 1: Population Estimates". Pew Research Center.
- "American-Jewish Population Rises to 6.8 Million". haaretz.
- World Jewish Population, 2013
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Yoo, David; Ruth H. Chung (2008). Religion and spirituality in Korean America. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07474-5.
- Leave China, Study in America, Find Jesus | Foreign Policy
- Brian Niiya (1993). Japanese American History: An A-To-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present. VNR AG. p. 28.
- "Japanese Americans - Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- "Global Christianity: Regional Distribution of Christians". Pew Research Center. December 19, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
- Miller, 2006. pp. 185-186
- Korean Overseas Information Service, A Handbook of Korea (1993) p, 132
- "Vatican: Priest numbers show steady, moderate increase". Catholic News Service. 2 March 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- Froehle, pp. 4–5
- Bazar, Emily (16 April 2008). "Immigrants Make Pilgrimage to Pope". USA Today. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- Bazar, Emily (16 April 2008). "Immigrants Make Pilgrimage to Pope". USA Today. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- "World's Catholic population steady". Catholic Culture.org. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Number of Catholics on the Rise". Zenit News Agency. 27 April 2010. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.. For greater details on numbers of Catholics and priests and their distribution by continent and for changes between 2000 and 2008, see "Annuario Statistico della Chiesa dell'anno 2008". Holy See Press Office. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.[permanent dead link] (in Italian)
- Code of Canon Law, canon 11. Archived 13 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 March 2008
- "– Vatican: Islam Surpasses Roman Catholicism as World's Largest Religion – International News | News of the World | Middle East News | Europe News". Foxnews.com. 30 March 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 27 January 2011.
- Religion in Global Civil Society by Santa Barbara Mark Juergensmeyer Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global and International Studies Program University of California
- Hillerbrand, Hans J., "Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set", p. 1815, "Observers carefully comparing all these figures in the total context will have observed the even more startling finding that for the first itime ever in the history of Protestantism, Wider Protestants will by 2050 have become almost exactly as numerous as Roman Catholics - each with just over 1.5 billion followers, or 17 percent of the world, with Protestants growing considerably faster than Catholics each year."
- Encyclopedia of Protestantism
- "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
- Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "CCC - Global Statistics". Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- The World's Religions. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Protestantism. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Protestantism: A Very Short Introduction. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- 33.39% of 7.174 billion world population (under the section "People and Society") "World". CIA world facts.
- "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- "Study: Christianity growth soars in Africa – USATODAY.com". USATODAY.COM. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Ostling, Richard N. (24 June 2001). "The Battle for Latin America's Soul". TIME.com. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "In China, Protestantism's Simplicity Yields More Converts Than Catholicism". International Business Times. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Chris Arsenault. "Evangelicals rise in Latin America". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census
- The Teachings of Modern Protestantism on Law, Politics, and Human Nature. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Religion in a Secularizing Society. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Religious Newcomers and the Nation State. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- "Moscow Church Spearheads Russia Revival". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Protestantism in Postsoviet Russia: An Unacknowledged Triumph
- Felix Corley; Geraldine Fagan. "Growing Protestants, Catholics Draw Ire". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Staff (May 2007). "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions". Foreign Policy. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
- "GROWTH RATE OF CHRISTIANITY & ISLAM Which will be the dominant religion in the future?".
- "The List: The World's Fastest-Growing Religions". Foreign Policy. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. May 2007.
- "What is the fastest growing religion in the world? A Secularist Evaluation". FastestGrowingReligion.tk. 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2008.
- World Religions Population Growth Projections, 2010-2050 (2015). Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- World Religions Population :Growth Projections, 2010-2050 (2015). Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- "Echorouk Online - A postal executive in Tlemcen province under security investigation into the shady circumstances surrounding his decision to embrace Christianity". Retrieved 2011-01-03.
- *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001
- Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008-2011)
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2011 – Morocco". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
- Maroc : La conversion de musulmans au christianisme soulève la colère dans le pays
- Osservatorio Internazionale: "La tentazione di Cristo" Archived 5 September 2014 at Archive.is April 2010
- Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11: 14. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Religious Demographic Profiles – Pew Forum Archived 21 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2018-05-15.
- Why Are Millions of Muslims Becoming Christian?
- Barry A. Kosmin; Ariela Keysar (2009). "AMERICAN RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION SURVEY (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
- USSD Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2009). "International Religious Freedom Report 2009". Retrieved 2010-03-06.
- China accused of trying to 'co-opt and emasculate' Christianity, The Guardian, Tuesday 17 November 2015
- Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". IJRR. 11: 14. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- David B. Barrett; George Thomas Kurian; Todd M. Johnson, eds. (February 15, 2001). World Christian Encyclopedia p.374. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0195079639.
- In Indonesia, Lunar New Year an old practice for young Christians.
- In Indonesia, the Chinese go to church.
- "In Indonesia, Lunar New Year an old practice for young Christians". Agence France-Presse. 7 February 2008. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Religion and Religious Freedom". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 11: 8. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- CHRISTIANITY ON UPSWING IN JAPAN
- "160,000 Have Converted Out of Hinduism in Malaysia in 25 Years - Christian Aggression". christianaggression.org. Archived from the original on 2007-11-23.
- "Religions in Mongolia". mongolia-attractions.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011.
- "Better-educated S'pore residents look to religion". asiaone.com.
- "Presidential Election in South Korea Highlights Influence of Christian Community". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 12 December 2007.
- 35,000 Turks convert into Christianity each year in Turkey!
- Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 11: 17. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "International Institute for Religious Freedom: Single Post". Iirf.eu. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- Jonathan Luxmoore (2011-03-04). "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom". The Christian Century. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- "TURKEY - Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening". Hurriyetdailynews.com. 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks - Jenny White. Books.google.it. 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- "TURKEY: Protestant church closed down | Church In Chains - Ireland :: An Irish voice for suffering, persecuted Christians Worldwide". Churchinchains.ie. 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2015-08-11.
- "Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 2005 – Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. 30 June 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2007.
- IFOP press document retrieved 4 March 2013
- Out of hiding, some Kosovars embrace Christianity | Reuters
- "Religious communities and life stance communities - SSB". ssb.no.