Christian vegetarianism is the practice of keeping to a vegetarian lifestyle for reasons connected to or derived from the Christian faith. The three primary reasons are spiritual, nutritional, and ethical. The ethical reasons may include a concern for God's creation, a concern for animal rights and welfare, or both. Likewise, Christian veganism is the abstaining from the use of all animal products for reasons connected to or derived from the Christian faith.
Some religious orders of various Christian Churches practice strict Christian vegetarianism, including the Franciscans, Trappists, Trappistines, Carthusians and Cistercians. Various Church leaders have recommended vegetarianism, including John Wesley (founder of the Methodist Church), William and Catherine Booth (founders of The Salvation Army), William Cowherd from the Bible Christian Church and Ellen G. White from the Seventh-day Adventists. Cowherd, who founded the Bible Christian Church in 1809, helped to establish the world's first Vegetarian Society in 1847.
Christian vegetarianism has not been a common dietary choice throughout Church history. Some[who?] have argued, however, that "there is a long-standing tradition of vegetarianism in Christian history." The two most prominent forms are a spirituality-based vegetarianism (where vegetarianism is adopted as an ascetic practice, or as a way of opposing the sin of gluttony, in the hope it will draw the person to God) and an ethically-based vegetarianism (where it is adopted for ethical reasons; for example, those to do with the treatment of non-human animals). Christian ethical vegetarianism (or veganism) usually carries with it a commitment to the normative claim that (at least some) Christians should be vegetarians. For this reason, Christian ethical vegetarians often give a scriptural justification for their position. While there are biblical passages which provide support for ethical vegetarianism, there are also passages which seem to imply that eating animals is morally permissible.
One of the most important passages for Christian vegetarians is the first creation narrative in the book of Genesis. After creating humans, God addresses them in chapter 1, verses 29–30 as follows:
God said, "See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food". And it was so.
In this passage, God prescribes a plant-based diet not just for humans, but for all land-based non-human animals. Christian vegetarians and vegans point out that it was this creation—where all creatures ate plants—that God then declared "very good" in verse 31. Moreover, that God's initial creation was a vegan creation suggests that this is how God intended all his creatures to live. This idea—that God intended for all his creatures to eat plants—is sometimes further supported by noting that the vision of the Peaceable Kingdom found in Isaiah suggests that God will one day restore creation to such a state. Isaiah 11:6–9 reads:
The wolf shall live with the lamb, the leopard shall lie down with the kid, the calf and the lion and the fatling together, and a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall graze, their young shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. The nursing child shall play over the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put its hand on the adder’s den. They will not hurt or destroy on all my holy mountain; for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the sea.
Some Christian vegetarians have suggested that this eschatological view provides reasons to adopt a vegetarian or vegan diet here and now. Moreover, the point has often been made that the dominion which humans are given over the non-human animals in Genesis 1:26–28 must be understood in light of Genesis 1:29–30 which decrees a plant-based diet for all creatures. Genesis 1:26–28 has, it is acknowledged by Christian vegetarians, often been used to justify the eating of animals. But this is a mistake, they suggest. Once it is recognized that humans are given dominion over creation, and that in the very next verse humans are prescribed a plant-based diet, it will become apparent that dominion should be understood in terms of servant-hood: humans are called to rule creation in the sense of caring for it and seeking its flourishing, just as a good Sovereign would seek the flourishing of his or her realm. In a survey of the scholarly literature on the relevant Hebrew terms, Carol J. Adams lists governing, ruling, shepherding, caring-for, nurturing, and leading about as potential ways of understanding dominion, and notes that the common characteristic of these concepts "is their benignity".
The opening chapters of Genesis are, of course, only the beginning of the biblical story. And just as there are passages which can be cited in support of a Christian vegetarianism or veganism, so there are passages which suggest that eating animals is morally permissible. The most problematic passages for Christian vegetarians are those which include an explicit permission to eat animals. Genesis 9:3–4 is the first such example. In this verse, God tells Noah and his family that animals will now be their food, although they are not to eat animal flesh which contains blood.[Genesis 9:3–4] This new situation – that of humans eating animals – is then taken largely for granted in much of the biblical narrative. Leviticus 11 records God giving the Israelites rules about what types of meat may be eaten, which implies that certain meats were acceptable. During the Exodus out of Egypt, God commanded that all of the Israelites to slaughter a lamb and eat it, and instituted the Passover as a lasting tradition to remember God's saving them.[Exodus 12:24]
Some Jewish and Christian vegetarians have attempted to minimize the importance of these passages. It has been suggested, for example, that God's permitting Noah and his family to eat meat was only ever intended as a temporary permission, and was given because all the plants had been destroyed as a result of the flood. Others interpret the permission given to Noah and his family in Genesis 9:3–4, not as a free pass to kill animals for food because "no matter what you do you can never remove all the blood from the flesh of a slaughtered animal", but as an invitation to scavenge for and eat dead animals if any are found. These approaches are put under pressure, however, with the sheer number of passages which appear to presuppose the legitimacy of eating animals, and the normalcy with which meat eating is treated.
Another approach to these texts is to suggest that God reluctantly permitted the eating of animals due to human sinfulness. In other words, God permitted humans to eat non-human animals as a concession to the Fallen state of humanity. Richard Young raises the possibility that both the introduction of animals into the human diet, and the use of animals in religious sacrifices, were concessions to a Fallen humanity that were used to deal with humanity where it was at. This approach allows the Christian vegetarian or vegan to take the entire biblical witness seriously, while also holding that God's preference is for a peace and shalom throughout creation.
Other passages of relevance to the practice of vegetarianism include Numbers 11, where the Israelites tired of manna, a food of which "The Rabbis of the Talmud held that […] had whatever taste and flavor the eater desired at the time of eating" and which probably was not an animal product. Manna was given to the Israelites by God, but they complained about it and wanted meat instead.[Numbers 11:4–10] They were condemned for this, although God relented and gave them meat, which then made them ill.[Numbers 11:32–34] Because of their lust, the place where the incident happened became known as Kibroth Hattaavah.
Some people believe that the Book of Daniel also specifically promotes veganism as empowering. Daniel specifically refuses the king's "meat" (paṯbaḡ, Strong's #5698) and instead requests vegetables (zērōʿîm, Strong's #2235).[Daniel 1:8–16] However, current common theology argues that in this instance Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah are rejecting food that is considered to be unholy by their faith (eating food that had been sacrificed to pagan gods), and not meat per se, despite that "at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the king's meat".[Daniel 1:15]
Philo says that the Essenes, "being more scrupulous than any in the worship of God […] do not sacrifice animals […], but hold it right to dedicate their own hearts as a worthy offering". They maintained that the sacrifices "polluted" the Temple.
The Christian Vegetarian Association of the UK claims that the word "meat" is not used in any one instance in the authorized version of either the Old or New Testament as relating only to animal food (e.g. "flesh"). The CVA states that when the first English translations of the Bible were created, the word for "meat" meant food in general. When any particular kind of food was designated, it was referred to as meal, flour or grain.
According to the CVS, examples of New Testament words that were translated as "meat" include: broma ("that which is eaten"/usage: 16 times ); brosimos ("eatable"/usage: 1 time); brosis ("act of eating; that which is eaten, food; food of the souls/usage: 7 times); prosphagion ("anything eaten with bread; spoken of fish boiled or broiled"/usage: 1 time); sitometron ("a measured portion of grain or food"/usage: 1 time); trapeza ("a table on which food is placed, an eating place"/usage: 1 time); trophe ("food, nourishment"/usage: 13 times); phago ("to eat, to take food, eat a meal, devour, consume"/usage: 3 times).
The case for Christian vegetarianism
Christian vegetarians and vegans often appeal to the ethic that Jesus embodied, and called people to emulate, in making their case for a distinctively Christian vegetarianism. To begin with, Jesus inaugurated the Kingdom of God, but his Kingdom didn't involve the exercise of power as humans tend to think of it. As Andrew Linzey argues, Christ's power is "the power to serve". Human beings are called to have the same mind that was found in Jesus Christ, i.e., the mind to exercise power in service.[Philippians 2:5–9] And by considering Jesus's life, it is possible to get an idea of what that service means. Sarah Withrow King writes that Jesus "loved the unlovable. In first-century Palestine, the unlovable were women, children, sick people, poor people, Roman soldiers, zealots, lepers, the blind, the outcast", and so on. But today, the unlovable should include those non-human animals who are farmed for food in systems which preclude their flourishing and result in their (often painful) deaths.
Christian vegetarians also stress the importance Jesus laid on peace and inclusion. These and other aspects of Jesus's attitudes towards others are used to extract ethical principles which, according to Christian vegetarians and vegans, lead one to a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle. Sarah Withrow King summarizes the point like this:
Aware of the suffering and pain experienced by animals raised and killed for food, with a knowledge of the immense waste of natural resources and subsequent impact on both our fellow humans and the rest of creation, and acknowledging that flesh is not a dietary necessity for the vast majority of Western humans, why would we continue to participate in a system that dishonors God’s creation and perpetuates violence on a truly phenomenal scale?
Luke 24 – Jesus's eating of a fish
There are several passages that appear to count against the idea that vegetarianism or veganism could be mandatory for Christians. Some of the most challenging are those passages which speak of Jesus eating fish,[Luke 24] and Jesus telling his disciples where to catch fish, before cooking it for them to eat.[John 21]
Jesus's eating of fish is supposed to cause a problem for Christian ethical vegetarians and vegans because, if Jesus ate fish, then, since Jesus was without sin, eating fish cannot be wrong. And therefore, so the argument goes, it must be permissible for Jesus's followers to eat fish. The same reasoning could be used to justify the eating of any meats that Jesus ate, if it is assumed that he did indeed eat other kinds of meat (the Bible does not explicitly say Jesus ate any meat other than fish, and some writers have made much of the fact that no lamb is mentioned at the Last Supper.)
Although it is a question commonly posed to Christian vegetarians, Jesus's eating of fish (and potentially other meat) does not straightforwardly justify the eating of meat today. Many Christians in the West, for example, would consider the eating of cats and dogs morally wrong. Moreover, they would not change their judgement if it were claimed that the cats and dogs had "had a good life", or had been treated well prior to being slaughtered. But any Christian who thinks that eating a cat or a dog is wrong, cannot appeal to Jesus's eating of fish (and possibly other meat) as providing a blanket permission to eat meat. The same point can be made by appealing to the fact that many meat-eating Christians think that foods such as foie gras or veal should not be eaten because their production involves great cruelty. Foie gras, for example, is produced by over-feeding—often by force-feeding—ducks and geese so that their livers become artificially enlarged beyond their natural size. This controversial practice is illegal in the UK, Germany, and many other countries in Europe, as well as in Argentina, Australia, Israel, and several US states. Any Christian who agrees that the production and eating of foie gras is immoral cannot at the same time appeal to Jesus's eating of fish (possibly other meat) as a blanket permission to eat any meat whatever. The point can be put like this: the fact that Jesus ate fish (and possibly other meat) shows that, in some circumstances, it is sometimes permissible to eat some meats. But Jesus's eating of fish (possibly meat) doesn't show that eating meat is always justified. At this point in the debate, Christian vegetarians and vegans are likely to point to practices in the modern, industrialized farming system, which they think make the eating of meat produced in such farms morally problematic—practices such as, to give just one example, the mass killing of day-old male chicks from laying hens.
Some Christian vegetarians and vegans have appealed to biblical scholarship to argue that biblical passages often need nuanced interpretation, and to guard against a wooden literalism. Andy Alexis-Baker, for example, points to the work of Gerald O'Collins, SJ, who suggests that differences between the way Luke describes this appearance in Luke 24:41–43 and in Acts 1, and a tension between Luke 24:41–43 and 1 Corinthians 6, preclude us from reading this verse literally. This serves to caution readers of the Bible about drawing ethical conclusions from such biblical passages too quickly.
Acts 10 – Peter's vision
In the tenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, there is an account of a vision given to the Apostle Peter. In this vision, Peter is shown a large sheet being lowered from heaven by its four corners. The sheet is said to contain animals of all kinds, and Peter then hears a voice (which he interprets as a command from God) saying, "Get up, Peter; kill and eat".[Acts 10:13] Peter refuses, and the voice says "What God has made clean, you must not call profane".[Acts 10:13]
Many see this passage as teaching that it is permissible for Christians to eat any creatures, and that therefore while it is still permissible for Christians to follow a vegetarian or vegan diet if they wish, such a diet cannot be obligatory for any Christians.
Christian vegetarians and vegans put forward another interpretation. To understand the meaning of Peter's vision, it is necessary to read Acts chapter 10 in its entirety. The opening of the chapter recounts how a Roman Centurion named Cornelius, a devout God-fearing Gentile, himself had a vision in which he is instructed to send someone to Peter. Cornelius obeys. The text then recounts how the next day Peter became hungry while he was praying.[Acts 10:9–10] While waiting for his food, he fell into a trance and it is at this point that he receives the aforementioned vision.
While Peter is puzzling over the meaning of the vision, the men that Cornelius sent to Peter arrive at the house where Peter is staying. Peter is instructed to go with them,[Acts 10:19] and he does so. This is significant because Peter was a Jew, and it was against the Jewish law for Jews to associate with Gentiles.[Acts 10:29] And so, what the text seems to be saying is that the vision Peter received about eating unclean animals was actually about the message of the Gospel and how it was for everyone, even "unclean" Gentiles. The text appears to report Peter himself as recognizing this. After Cornelius tells Peter of the vision that he received, and how he sent men to find Peter as a result of the angel's message to him, Peter exclaims: "I truly understand that God shows no partiality, but in every nation anyone who fears him and does what is right is acceptable to him."[Acts 10:34–35]
Christian vegetarians and vegans, in other words, tend to say that this passage is not about which animals one may or may not eat, but it is about who the Gospel is for, as Laura Hobgood-Oster puts it:
The vision, it seems, is not about eating animals; rather it is about extending hospitality to all humans. While animals in sacred texts are often real animals and should be considered as such, in this particular case it seems that in Peter’s vision animals symbolized human categories that exclude other humans from community.
Sarah Withrow King writes that God uses this vision to remind Peter that he is to "remove barriers of fellowship and to reconcile with those from whom we have been separated in order to further the reign of God on earth.... the vision is one of radical inclusion". This interpretation is supported by (1) noting that there is no better way to get the attention of a hungry person than to use a vision involving food, and (2) there is no mention in the passage of what food is actually served, so we cannot assume that the vision is telling Peter that he must eat the unclean food when he visits Cornelius's house.
John Vujicic agrees with the interpretation above and supports it with two further observations. First, he notes that after receiving the vision, Peter did not eat anything. But, Vujicic writes, "In the sheet were also so called CLEAN animals. Peter could have at least selected some sheep or cattle and killed but he didn’t." Second, according to Vujicic, the reason Peter didn't simply take up and eat a clean animal was because Peter was in fact a vegetarian. Peter is reported as describing himself as a vegetarian in the Clementine Homilies. This last point will be unconvincing to many Christians, because the Clementine Homilies are not canonical literature.
Mark 7 – Jesus declares all foods clean
In Mark 7:14–15, Jesus says the following: "'Listen to me, all of you, and understand: there is nothing outside a person that by going in can defile, but the things that come out are what defile.'". His disciples fail to understand, so once they are alone with Jesus, they ask him about it, and Jesus elaborates as follows: "Do you not see that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile, since it enters, not the heart but the stomach, and goes out into the sewer? ... It is what comes out of a person that defiles. For it is from within, from the human heart, that evil intentions come."[Mark 7:18–21] In the middle of this speech, the author of the Gospel of Mark writes explicitly that in saying these things, Jesus "declared all foods clean".
In this passage, Jesus is teaching that his followers do not need to obey the Jewish dietary laws. The context also makes clear that Jesus's focus is on the status of the human heart, which he sees as the source of evil intentions, and not the mere observing of rules. In the opening verses of Mark chapter 7, Jesus is challenged by the "Pharisees and scribes" who "live according to the tradition of the elders".[Mark 7:5–6] Jesus's reply is that following religious rules and traditions is often done as a way of avoiding following God and God's commandments.[Mark 7:9] Jesus's teaching that all foods were now clean was a continuation of this: what matters is the human heart, not external observance to religious rules.
Some Christians and Christian groups suggest that Jesus's teaching in Mark 7 demonstrates that Christians can eat whatever they want, that dietary choices are a matter of "Christian liberty", and that therefore vegetarianism or veganism could never be obligatory for Christians.
Christian vegetarians and vegans counter, however, that the point of Jesus's teaching in Mark 7 is that his followers should concern themselves with the status of their heart which "informs our relationship with God, with each other, and the world". At most, we could deduce that when Jesus declared all foods clean, he was implicitly accepting the permissibility for his immediate audience of eating the meat that was available to them in Israel in the first-century. But it doesn't follow from this that all Christians everywhere can eat whatever they like.
Christian vegetarians and vegans might make the point described above in the discussion of Luke 24, namely, that few Christians in the West think it is okay to eat cats, dogs, or foods such as foie gras. If, however, it is morally problematic to eat cats, dogs or foie gras, then Jesus's declaring all foods clean doesn't make eating animals purely a matter of "Christian liberty", if by that is meant that each person can decide for him- or herself what to eat. Quite the opposite appears to be true. If Jesus's point in this passage was that the source of human evil comes from the intentions within the human heart, then Jesus's followers should seek to avoid behaviors and practices which involve intentionally inflicting cruelty on the non-human animals that God has created.
Vegetarianism appears to have been a point of contention within some early Christian circles, notably in Rome. Within the Bible's New Testament, the Apostle Paul states that people of "weak faith" "eat only vegetables",[Romans 14:1–4] although he also warns both meat-eaters and vegetarians to "stop passing judgment on one another" when it comes to food in verse 13 and "[It is] good neither to eat flesh" in verse 21. Paul also said, "The Spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and things taught by demons. Such teachings come through hypocritical liars, whose consciences have been seared as with a hot iron. They […] order […] to abstain from certain foods".[1Timothy 4:1–3] According to the Christian Vegetarian Association, Paul was not referring to vegetarianism, which they say was not an issue in those times, but to the practice of not eating meat from the meat market because of fear that (like the above issue involving Daniel) it was sacrificed to an idol.[1Corinthians 10:19–29] "Wherefore, if meat [brōma, Strong's #1033, 'anything used as food'] make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend."1Corinthians 8:13
In the 4th Century some Jewish Christian groups maintained that Jesus was himself a vegetarian. Epiphanius quotes the Gospel of the Ebionites where Jesus has a confrontation with the high priest. Jesus chastises the leadership saying, "I am come to end the sacrifices and feasts of blood; and if ye cease not offering and eating of flesh and blood, the wrath of God shall not cease from you; even as it came to your fathers in the wilderness, who lusted for flesh, and did sate to their content, and were filled with rottenness, and the plague consumed them."
According to Lightfoot, "the Christianized Essennes […] condemned the slaughter of victims on grounds very different from those alleged in the Epistle of Hebrews, not because they have been superseded by the Atonement, but because they are in their very nature repulsive to God; not because they have ceased to be right, but because they never were right from the beginning".
Other early Christian historical documents observe that many influential Christians during the formative centuries of Christianity were vegetarian, though certainly not all. The Clementine homilies, a second-century work purportedly based on the teachings of the Apostle Peter, states, "The unnatural eating of flesh meats is as polluting as the heathen worship of devils, with its sacrifices and its impure feasts, through participation in it a man becomes a fellow eater with devils."
Although early Christian vegetarianism appears to have been downplayed in favor of more "modern" Christian culture, the practice of vegetarianism appears to have been very widespread in early Christianity, both in the leadership and among the laity. Origen's work Contra Celsum quotes Celsus commenting vegetarian practices among Christians he had contact with. Although not vegetarian himself and vehemently against the idea that Christians must be vegetarians, Augustine nevertheless wrote that those Christians who "abstain both from flesh and from wine" are "without number".
Churches and movements
The Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in 1809 followed a vegetarian diet. Cowherd was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society. Cowherd encouraged members to abstain from eating of meat as a form of temperance. Cowherd emphasized that vegetarianism was good for health, whilst eating meat was unnatural and likely to cause aggression. Later he is reputed to have said "If God had meant us to eat meat, then it would have come to us in edible form [as is the ripened fruit]."
The Seventh-day Adventists present a health message that recommends vegetarianism and expects abstinence from pork, shellfish and other foods proscribed as "unclean" in Leviticus. A number of the founders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, including Joseph Bates and Ellen White adopted a vegetarian diet during the nineteenth century, and Ellen White reportedly received visions regarding the health benefits of a vegetarian diet. More recently, members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in California have been involved in research into longevity due to their healthy lifestyle, which includes maintaining a vegetarian diet. This research has been included within a National Geographic article. Another denomination with common origin, the Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement recommends vegetarianism as a part of fellowship, with many of its members being practicing vegans as well. Typically, however, these sabbatarian pro-vegetarian Christian fellowships do not "require vegetarianism as a test of fellowship."
The Word of Wisdom is a dietary law given to adherents of the Latter Day Saint movement (also known as Mormonism), which states that "flesh also of beasts and of fowls of the air... are to be used sparingly," and that "it is pleasing unto [God] that they should not be used, only in times of winter, or of cold, or famine". Unlike injunctions against tobacco and alcohol, compliance with this part of the Doctrine and Covenants has never been made mandatory by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the largest Latter Day Saint denomination. Many LDS Church leaders have expressed their views on the subject of meat, but since Joseph F. Smith became church president in 1901, emphasis on refraining from meat has largely been dropped. An official church publication states, "[m]odern methods of refrigeration now make it possible to preserve meat in any season". As recently as 2012, official church spokesperson Michael Otterson stated "the church has also encouraged limiting meat consumption in favor of grains, fruits and vegetables." Of note is that the LDS Church owns and operates Deseret Ranches in central Florida, which is one of the largest cow-calf operations in the United States.
Some members of the Religious Society of Friends (also known as Quakers) practice vegetarianism or veganism as a reflection of the Peace Testimony, extending non-violence towards animals. Historically, the early vegetarian movement had many Quaker promoters. Some Ranter groups – non-conformist Christian groups that existed in 17th-century England – were vegetarian.
Roman Catholic monastic orders such as the Carthusians and Cistercians follow a strict vegetarian diet. Carmelites and others following the Rule of St. Albert also maintain a vegetarian diet, although the old and sick are permitted to eat meat according to this rule of life.
The Christian Vegetarian Association (CVA) is an international, non-denominational Christian vegetarian organization that promotes responsible stewardship of God's creation through plant-based eating. The CVA produced the 2006 film Honoring God’s Creation.
Sarx is a UK-based organization which aims to "empower Christians to champion the cause of animals and live peacefully with all God’s creatures". Sarx publishes interviews with Christian vegans and vegetarians on its website, and provides people to speak at Churches in the UK on topics such as Christianity and veganism, animal welfare and faith, creation and animals.
CreatureKind is an organization which exists "to encourage Christians to recognize faith-based reasons for caring about the well-being of fellow animal creatures used for food, and to take practical action in response". It was founded by David Clough, Professor of Theological Ethics at the University of Chester, and is directed by Clough and Sarah Withrow King, an American author and deputy directory of the Sider Center at Eastern University. CreatureKind produces a course for churches to do which facilitates church groups to think through how Christians should respond to and treat animals.
Catholic Concern for Animals (CCA) is a charity which calls Catholics "to cherish and care for all of [God's] creation". CCA has for "many years" promoted a vegetarian/vegan diet as a way of caring for creation, in particular animals.
The group Evangelicals for Social Action have suggested that a vegan diet is a way of demonstrating Christian love and compassion to farmed animals, and argue in particular that this is what a consistently pro-life ethic looks like.
Christian Vegetarians and Vegans UK is an organization seeking to promote a vegetarian/vegan lifestyle in the Church in the UK.
Partial fasting and temporary abstinence
During Lent some Christian communities, such as Orthodox Christians in the Middle East, undertake partial fasting eating only one light meal per day. For strict Greek Orthodox Christians and Copts, all meals during this 40-day period are prepared without animal products and are essentially vegan. Unlike veganism, however, abstaining from animal products during Lent is intended to be only temporary and not a permanent way of life.
Eastern Orthodox laity traditionally abstains from animal products on Wednesdays (because, according to Christian tradition, Judas betrayed Jesus on the Wednesday prior to the Crucifixion of Jesus) and Fridays (because Jesus is thought to have been crucified on the subsequent Friday), as well as during the four major fasting periods of the year: Great Lent, the Apostles' Fast, the Dormition Fast and the Nativity Fast. Catholic laity traditionally abstain from animal flesh on Fridays and through the Lenten season leading up to Easter (sometimes being required to do so by law, see fasting and abstinence in the Roman Catholic Church), some also, as a matter of private piety, observe Wednesday abstinence. Fish is not considered proper meat in any case (see pescetarianism, though the Eastern Orthodox allow fish only on days on which the fasting is lessened but meat still not allowed). For these practices, "animal rights" are no motivation and positive environmental or individual health effects only a surplus benefit; the actual reason is to practice mortification and some marginal asceticism.
Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic monastics abstain from meat year-round, and many abstain from dairy and seafood as well. Through obedience to the Orthodox Church and its ascetic practices, the Orthodox Christian seeks to rid himself or herself of the passions, or the disposition to sin.
According to Canon Law, Roman Catholics are required to abstain from meat (defined as all animal flesh and organs, excluding water animals) on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday. Ash Wednesday and Good Friday are also fast days for Catholics ages 18 to 60, in which one main meal and two half-meals are eaten, with no snacking. Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent (excluding certain holy days) unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted. Exceptions are allowed for health and necessity like manual labor and not causing offense when being a guest. The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat. In 1966, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops the conference of bishops has made substitution of a different penitential or charitable act an option for ordinary Fridays in their territory. After previous abolition, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales restored the meatless ordinary Friday requirement for their territory effective September, 2011. A popular misconception is that Pope Gregory I (who ruled from 590 to 604, and who is also a canonized saint) declared that rabbits were not meat. This is apparently a corruption of a manuscript in which Saint Gregory of Tours described one person (who was also ill and might not have been Catholic) eating a rabbit fetus during Lent. The rules are widely ignored; a 2016 survey found that only 62% of U.S. Catholics said they avoid meat on Fridays during Lent.
- Christian Vegetarian Association UK. "Why a Vegetarian Diet?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2011.
- Christian Ecology Link. "Vegetarianism".
- Walters, Kerry S.; Portmess, Lisa. Religious Vegetarianism: From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama. SUNY Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780791490679.
- Stagnaro, Angelo (10 May 2016). "Being Vegetarian for the Lord". National Catholic Register. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
However, most people, Catholic and otherwise, don't realize that many Catholic monastic orders such as the Franciscan nuns, Trappists, Trappistines, Carthusians and Cistercians are strictly vegetarian. Carmelites and other communities that follow the Rule of St. Albert similarly restrict themselves to a vegetarian diet except in the case of elderly and infirmed members. Eastern Catholic monks and nuns also completely abstain from meat—some even abstain from dairy and seafood also—for the sake of mortification, prayer and asceticism. (Rom 8:17, Php 1:29, 2Th 1:5, 2Ti 1:8, 2Ti 2:3, 2Ti 4:5, Heb 2:10, Heb 12:7)
- Null, Gary (15 May 1996). The Vegetarian Handbook: Eating Right for Total Health. St. Martin's Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780312144418.
Also, John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, who promoted the idea that vegetarianism was a more healthful way to live.
- "Famous Christian Vegetarians". The Christian Vegetarian Association. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
It is a great delusion to suppose that flesh-meat of any kind is essential to health.
- "The Bible Christian Church". International Vegetarian Union.
- Karen Iacobbo; Michael Iacobbo (2004). Vegetarian America: A History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 97. ISBN 9780275975197.
- "History of Vegetarianism - Early Ideas". The Vegetarian Society. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2008.; Gregory, James (2007) Of Victorians and Vegetarians. London: I. B. Tauris pp. 30–35.
- "Christian Vegetarian Association (CVA) | Engaged Projects | Christianity | Religion | Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology". Yale University. 1999. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- Parker-Pope, Tara (11 March 2011). "Going Vegan for Lent". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
- Calvert, Samantha Jane (2008). "'Ours is the food that Eden Knew': Themes in the Theology and Practice of Modern Christian Vegetarians". In Grummet, David; Muers, Rachel (eds.). Eating and Believing. London: T&T Clark. p. 123.
- Adams, Carol J. (2012). "1. What about Dominion in Genesis?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. p. 3.
- Withrow-King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 18.
- Barad, Judith (2012). "2. What about the Covenant with Noah?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. p. 13.
- Withrow-King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. pp. 21–24.
- Withrow-King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 26.
- Adams, Carol J. (2012). "1. What about Dominion in Genesis?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. p. 8.
- "A Vegetarian View of the Torah". Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
- 'administrator'/John Vujicic. "Did God allow Noah to eat meat?". bewaredeception.com. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- John Vujicic. "Commentary on Genesis 9:2–4 – : Comments and Discussions". All-creatures.org. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Keith Akers (2000). The Lost Religion of Jesus. p. 240. ISBN 9781930051263.
Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.1.26, reports an early Christian martyr who interpreted the prohibition of the blood of animals to imply vegetarianism. Minucius Felix refers to bloodshed in the arena and the blood of animals in the same breath (Octavius 29.6). Tertullian points out that Christians are forbidden both human and animal blood (Apology 9). Sandmel states that blood could refer either to the blood of a sacrificed animal or to human violence: Judaism and Christian Beginnings, p. 408.
- Withrow-King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 50.
- Barad, Judith (2012). "2. What about the Covenant with Noah?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. pp. 18–19.
- Young, Richard (2012). Is God a Vegetarian?. p. 56.
- Richard H. Schwartz (2001). Judaism and vegetarianism (3, revised ed.). Lantern Books. pp. 6, 7. ISBN 978-1-930051-24-9.
- bdb, p. 834.
- bdb, p. 283.
- J.B. Lightfoot (1875). St. Paul's epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon : a revised text with introductions, notes, and dissertations. London: Macmillan. p. 135. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Meat www.christian-vegetariansvegans.org.uk, accessed 27 December 2019
- An Exegesis of "Meat" in the New Testament Archive of Comments and Discussions – Questions and Answers From All-Creatures.org www.all-creatures.org, accessed 27 December 2019
- Linzey, Andrew (2009). Why Animal Suffering Matters. OUP USA. p. 15.
- Withrow King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 36.
- Camosy, Charles (2013). For the Love of Animals: Christian Ethics, Consistent Action. Franciscan Media. p. 4.
- Withrow King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. pp. 41–43.
- Withrow King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 44.
- Webb, Stephen H. (2012). "5. Didn't Jesus Eat Lamb?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. pp. 53–63.
- Clough, David (2017). "Consuming Animal Creatures". Studies in Christian Ethics. 30 (1): 30–44. doi:10.1177/0953946816674147. hdl:10034/620200.
- Withrow King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. pp. 76, 109–111.
- Alexis-Baker, Andy (2012). "6. Didn't Jesus Eat Fish?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. p. 66.
- John Vujicic. "Did Jesus Eat Fish? (Luke 24:41–43)". Retrieved 20 January 2011. Also available on the author's website; retrieved 2011-09-23.
- Christian Vegetarian Association. "Honoring God's Creation – Replies". www.all-creatures.org. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Hobgood-Oster, Laura (2012). "7. Does Christian Hospitality Require that We Eat Meat?". In York, Tripp; Alexis-Baker, Andy (eds.). A Faith Embracing All Creatures. p. 82.
- Withrow King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 52.
- John Vujicic (17 September 2009). "Did Jesus Eat Fish? (Luke 24:41–43) Comments". Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Focus on the Family. "Vegans, Vegetarians, and the Bible". Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Withrow King, Sarah (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Wipf and Stock. p. 51.
- "1 Corinthians 8:13". BibleLexicon.org. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament. 1887. Translated by Joseph Henry Thayer.
- Gabriel Cousens (2000). Conscious Eating. North Atlantic Books. pp. 385–386. ISBN 9781556432859.
- Homily XII
- Gerald Schlabach. "Celsus' view of Christians and Christianity". Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
If in obedience to the traditions of their fathers they abstain from such victims, they must also abstain from all animal food, in accordance with the opinions of Pythagoras, who thus showed his respect for the soul and its bodily organs. But if, as they say, they abstain that they may not eat along with demons, I admire their wisdom, in having at length discovered, that whenever they eat they eat with demons, although they only refuse to do so when they are looking upon a slain victim; for when they eat bread, or drink wine, or taste fruits, do they not receive these things, as well as the water they drink and the air they breathe, from certain demons, to whom have been assigned these different provinces of nature?
- On the Morals of the Catholic Church 33. Apud Keith Akers. "Was Jesus a Vegetarian?". Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "William Cowherd (brief information)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
- Caring for Creation – A Statement on the Environment
- White, Arthur. Ellen G. White Volume 2: The Progressive Years 1862–1876, Review & Herald Publishing, 1986.
- Loma Linda University Adventist Health Study: Mortality www.llu.edu accessed 28 December 2019
- Longevity, The Secrets of Long Life – National Geographic Magazine
- These traditional diets can lead to long lives www.nationalgeographic.com, accessed 28 December 2019
- Thomas G. Alexander, "The Word of Wisdom: From Principle to Requirement", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 14:3 (1981) pp. 78–88.
- "Section 89 The Word of Wisdom", Doctrine and Covenants Student Manual (Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church, 2002), pp. 206–11.
- Tumulty, Karen (20 June 2012), "Mormonism good for the body as well as the soul?", The Washington Post
- "Culture Clash". Host: Brian Unger. How the States Got Their Shapes. A&E Television Networks. The History Channel. 5-Jul-11. 44 minutes in.
- VegetarianFriends.net. "Vegetarian Friends".
- "Liberal Catholic Church". Cross Denominational Mission. Quote: "[The Liberal Catholic Church] encourages its priests and its bishops to have a vegetarian diet and to refrain from using tobacco as well as alcohol."
- "History of Vegetarianism – Leo Tolstoy". www.ivu.org. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Hennacy, Ammon (1965). The Book of Ammon. Hennacy. p. 125.
I had been vegetarian since 1910
- Geological Society of London (2007). Four centuries of geological travel. ISBN 9781862392342.
Monod became a vegetarian and an ardent pacifist
- Samantha Jane Calvert (2007). "A Taste of Eden: Modern Christianity and Vegetarianism". The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 58 (3): 461–481. doi:10.1017/s0022046906008906.
Christian Vegetarian Association
- Honoring God's Creation www.godtube.com accessed 28 December 2019
- "About Sarx". sarx.org.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "About CreatureKind". www.becreaturekind.org. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "About CCA". catholic-animals.com. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "Veganuary 2017". catholic-animals.com. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Bishop John Arnold Calls for Urgent Action on Climate Change, including a Move to More Plant Based Diets". catholic-animals.com. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- "Animal Protection". www.evangelicalsforsocialaction.org. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- CHRISTIAN VEGETARIANS & VEGANS UK www.christian-vegetariansvegans.org.uk, accessed 27 December 2019
- Cecile Yazbek (2011). Mezze to Milk Tart. p. 1. ISBN 9781862549210.
- Noel James Debien (26 February 2012). "The Goodlife: Egyptian Christians (Copts) on Lenten fasting and penance". ABC Local Radio.
The vegan lenten fast of Egypt's native Christian community
- Disclaimer: "The meaning of asceticism discourses is complex." The word, however, is frequently used in a derogatory way against the veg(etari)an movement. Characterizing veganism as asceticism, pp. 141–142. In: Matthew Cole; Karen Morgan (2011). "Vegaphobia: derogatory discourses of veganism and the reproduction of speciesism in UK national newspapers". The British Journal of Sociology. 62 (1): 134–153. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2010.01348.x. PMID 21361905.
- "Fast and Abstinence". EWTN. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Cathy Caridi, J.C.L. (5 March 2009). "Are Catholics Supposed to Abstain from Meat Every Friday?". catholicexchange.com. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- William Oddie (16 May 2011). "The restoration of the Friday fast is a historic day for English and Welsh Catholics". Catholic Herald. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- James Gorman (13 February 2018). "Debunked: The Strange Tale of Pope Gregory and the Rabbits". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- "Sacraments Today Updated". nineteensixty-four.blogspot.com. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- David Clough (2012). On Animals I: Systematic Theology, London: T&T Clark. ISBN 0567171213.
- David Clough (2018). On Animals II: Theological Ethics, London: T&T Clark. ISBN 0567660869.
- John M. Gilheany (2010). Familiar Strangers: The Church and the Vegetarian Movement in Britain (1809–2009), Ascendant Press. ISBN 978-0-9552945-1-8
- David Grumett and Rachel Muers (2010). Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet, Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-49683-4. A systematic and historical assessment of Christian attitudes to food and its role in shaping Christian identity.
- Stephen R. Kaufman and Nathan Braun (2002). Good News for All Creation, Vegetarian Advocates Press. ISBN 0-9716676-0-8. Overview of contemporary Christian vegetarianism.
- Kristin Johnston Largen (2009). "A Christian Rationale for vegetarianism". Dialog. 48 (2): 147–157. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6385.2009.00450.x.
- Andrew Linzey (1995). Animal Theology, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252064674.
- Andrew Linzey (1998). Animal Gospel: Christian Faith as though Animals Mattered. Hodder & Stoughton Religious.
- Andrew Linzey (2009). Why Animal Suffering Matters: Philosophy, Theology, and Practical Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0195379772.
- Holly H. Roberts (2004). Vegetarian Christian Saints. Anjeli, ISBN 0-9754844-0-0. The life stories of 150 individuals canonized into sainthood who were committed to vegetarianism.
- Niki Behrikis Shanahan (2002). There is Eternal Life for Animals, Pete. ISBN 0-9720301-0-7.
- Tristram Stuart (2007). The Bloodless Revolution, ISBN 978-0-393-05220-6. A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times (Quaker reference)
- Stephen H. Webb (2001). Good Eating, Brazos Press. ISBN 1-58743-015-0, A sound and informative view on Biblical and Christian vegetarianism, from Genesis to modern day saints.
- Sarah Withrow King (2016). Animals Are Not Ours: An Evangelical Animal Liberation Theology. Cascade Books.
- Tripp York and Andy Alexis-Baker ed. (2012). A Faith Embracing All Creatures: Addressing Commonly Asked Questions about Christian Care for Animals, Wipf & Stock. ISBN 978-1610977012
- Richard A. Young (1998). Is God a Vegetarian?: Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights, Open Court Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8126-9393-0
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Christian vegetarianism|
- Christian Vegetarian Association
- All-Creatures – A project of the Christian Vegetarian Association
- Christian Vegetarians & Vegans UK
- Biblical Vegetarianism (The Nazarene Way of Essenic Studies)
- Christian Vegetarianism – An Archive (Archive of British publications from the 1800s)
- Christianity and Animals: An Interview with Andrew Linzey (1996)
- Christianity and Vegetarianism PowerPoint presentation, by God's Creatures Ministry
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Vegetarianism
- Sarx – Christian Animal Welfare (An organization seeking to engage the contemporary Church on issues of animal welfare)
- Society of Ethical and Religious Vegetarians (An Interfaith Peace Effect for Plant-based, Nonviolent Nutrition)
- The Fellowship of Life (Organization encouraging vegetarianism as a Christian way of life)
- Why all Christians should go vegan – Charles Camosy (Article in the Washington Post summarizing some reasons why Christians might go vegan)