Christianity in Turkey

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Greek-Orthodox metropolises in Asia Minor, c. 1880.

Christianity has a long history in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and the Armenian Highlands (now part of Turkey), which is the birthplace of numerous Christian Apostles and Saints, such as Paul of Tarsus, Timothy, Nicholas of Myra, Polycarp of Smyrna and many others.

The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from 20-25 percent in 1914 to 3-5.5 percent in 1927, to 2%[1] today. This was due to events which had a significant impact on the country's demographic structure, such as the First World War, the massacre of Assyrian, Greeks and Armenians, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey,[2] and the emigration of Christians (such as Assyrians, Greeks, Armenians etc.) to foreign countries (mostly in Europe and the Americas) that actually began in the late 19th century and gained pace in the first quarter of the 20th century, especially during World War I.[3][not in citation given] Today there are more than 320,000 people of different Christian denominations, representing less than 0.4 percent of Turkey's population,[4] including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox,[5] 35,000 Catholics,[6] 18,000 Antiochian Greeks,[7] 5,000 Greek Orthodox[5] and 8,000 Protestants, mostly ethnic Turkish. There is also a small group of ethnic Orthodox-Christian Turks (mostly living in Istanbul or Izmir) who follow the Greek Orthodox or Syriac Orthodox church. They are often confused with ethnic Greeks. Some of them actually have a Greek background, but there are ethnic Turks, who never converted to Islam in the history between this population.[8] Currently there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey.[9] The Eastern Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Constantinople since the 4th century.[10][11]

Brief description[edit]

Two out of the five centers (Patriarchates) of the ancient Pentarchy are in Turkey: Constantinople (Istanbul) and Antioch (Antakya). Antioch was also the place where the followers of Jesus were called "Christians" for the first time in history, as well as being the site of one of the earliest and oldest surviving churches, established by Saint Peter himself. For a thousand years, the Hagia Sophia was the largest church in the world.

Turkey is also home to the Seven Churches of Asia, where the Revelation to John was sent. Apostle John is reputed to have taken Virgin Mary to Ephesus in western Turkey, where she spent the last days of her life in a small house, known as the House of the Virgin Mary, which still survives today and has been recognized as a holy site for pilgrimage by the Catholic and Orthodox churches, as well as being a Muslim shrine. The cave of the Seven Sleepers is also located in Ephesus.

All of the first seven Ecumenical Councils which are recognized by both the Western and Eastern churches were held in present-day Turkey. Of these, the Nicene Creed, declared with the First Council of Nicaea (İznik) in 325, is of utmost importance and has provided the essential definitions of present-day Christianity.

Today, however, Turkey has a smaller Christian percentage of its population than any of its neighbours, including Syria, Iraq and even Iran, due to the Assyrian Genocide, Armenian Genocide and Greek Genocide during and after World War I, and the subsequent large scale population transfers of Turkey's Christian population, most notably Greece, and the forced exodus of indigenous Armenians, Assyrians, Greeks and Georgians upon the breakup of the Ottoman Empire. This was followed by the continued emigration of most of the remaining indigenous Christians over the next century.

During the tumultuous period of the first world war and founding of the Turkish republic, up to 3 million indigenous Christians are alleged to have been killed. Prior to this time, the Christian population stood at around 20% of the total.

In the 19th century in Turkey there were nationalistic campaigns against Assyrians which often had the assistance of Kurdish paramilitary support. In 1915, Turks and Kurds massacred tens of thousands Assyrians in Siirt. Assyrians were attacked in the Hakkari mountains by the Turkish army with the help of Kurdish tribes, and many Christians were deported and about a quarter million Assyrians were murdered or died due to persecution. This number doubles if the killings during the 1890s are included.[12] Kurds saw the Assyrians as dangerous foreigners and enforcers of the British colonizers, which made it justifiable to them to commit ethnic cleansing. The Kurds fought the Assyrians also due to fears that the Armenians, or European colonial powers backing them, would assume control in Anatolia.[13] Kurdish military plundered Armenian and other Christian villages.[13]

According to professor Martin van Bruinessen, relations between Christians and Kurdish and other Muslim peoples were often bitter and during World War I "Christians of Tur Abdin (in Turkey) for instance have been subjected to brutal treatment by Kurdish tribes, who took their land and even their daughters".[14]

Kurdish-dominated Hamidiye units slaughtered Christian Armenians in Tur Abdin region in 1915.[15] It is estimated that ten thousand Assyrians were killed, and reportedly "the skulls of small children were smashed with rocks, the bodies of girls and women who resisted rape were chopped into pieces live, men were mostly beheaded, and the clergy skinned or burnt alive...." [15] In 1915, Turks and Kurds plundered the Assyrian village of Mar-Zaya in Jelu and slaughtered the population, it is estimated that 7,000 Assyrians were slaughtered during this period. In September 1914 more than 30 Armenian and Assyrian villages were burnt by Kurdish and Turkish mobs in the Urmia region.[15] After the Russian army retreated, Turkish troops with Kurdish detachments organized mass slaughters of Assyrians, in the Assyrian village of Haftvan 750 men were beheaded and 5000 assyrian women were taken to kurdish harems.[15] Turks and Kurds also slaughtered Christians in Diarbekir. There was a policy during the Hamidian era to use Kurdish tribes as irregulars (Hamidiye units) against the Armenians.[15]

Demographics[edit]

The vast majority of Christians in Turkey are members of local ethnic groups indigenous to Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) that did not succumb to the cultural Turkification and religious Islamization of the remaining majority of the pre-Turkified pre-Islamized Anatolian population which had been living in the region since the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age.

The ascendant Muslim population which was now Turkish speaking has poor relations with the communities that remained Christian and did not adopt Turkish, be they Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians and Georgians, and the previous killings, deportations and emigrations of these Christian ethnicities, coupled with the emigration of the country's Jews, left most of the remaining population being self-identified Turks and almost exclusively Muslim.

The newspaper Milliyet reported that 35,000 Muslim Turks converted to Christianity in 2008.[16][unreliable source?] There is ethnic Turkish Protestant Christian community in Turkey which number about 7,000-8,000[17][18] adherents most of them came from Muslim Turkish background.[19][20][21][22]

Today the Christian population of Turkey is estimated at more than 320,000 Christians, these include; 60,000 Armenian Apostolic,[5][23] 35,000 Catholics of varying ethnicities, 25,000 ethnic Assyrians, (mostly followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox Church and Chaldean Catholic Church),[24] up to 22,000 Greeks (3,000-4,000 Greek Orthodox,[23] 15,000-18,000 Antiochian Greeks[25][25][26]) and smaller numbers of Bulgarians, Georgians, and Protestants of various ethnicities.

According to Bekir Bozdağ, Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey, there were 349 active churches in Turkey (October 2012). 140 Greek, 58 Assyrian and 52 Armenian.[27]

Christian communities[edit]

  • Constantinople (Istanbul) – The largest Christian population in Turkey is in Istanbul, which comprises a large community of Armenians and Greeks. The Patriarchate of Greek Orthodox Christianity.
  • Antioch (Antakya) – original seat of the namesake Antiochian Orthodox Church, but now the titular see. The area has 7,000 Christians and 14 active churches. The area is known for having religious and ethnic diversity, having a majority Arab rather than Turkish population, a significant Alawite Muslim population and a large Christian community. The city has what has been suggested to be the oldest church in the world as well, the Church of St Peter, founded by the Saint himself.[28]
  • Tur Abdin area is a large area with a multitude of mostly Syriac Orthodox churches, monasteries and ruins. Settlements including:

Churches of the Byzantine rite[edit]

Istanbul is the seat of the patriarchate, one of the oldest of the Eastern Orthodox Churches.

Antioch is the official seat of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East. Hatay Province including Antakya is not part of the canonic area of the Church of Constantinople. Most of the local orthodox persons are Arabic-speaking.

  • Turkish Orthodox Church (unrecognized by all other churches in the world) was created by Turkish nationalists who tried to create a Turkish national church to counter the influence of the Ecumenical Patriarchate for political reasons.
Armenian church in Vakifli, Turkey

Churches of the Armenian rite[edit]

Armenians in Turkey prior to the Armenian Genocide were centered in the eastern part of Turkey, known as the Armenian Highlands, or Western Armenia. Now, the majority are concentrated in Istanbul. A couple thousand others live scattered throughout Anatolian Turkey.

There are 35 churches maintained by the religious foundation in Istanbul and its surrounding areas. Besides Surp Asdvadzadzin Patriarchal Church (translation: the Holy Mother-of-God Armenian Patriarchal Church) in Kumkapi, Istanbul, there are tens of Armenian Apostolic churches.[30] There are other churches in Kayseri, Diyarbakır, Derik, İskenderun, and Vakifli Koyu that are claimed by foundations as well. Around 1,000 Armenian churches throughout Turkey sit on public or privately owned land as well, with them all either being re-purposed or abandoned and/or in ruins.

Churches of the West Syriac Rite[edit]

Saffron Monastery, Patriarchal Vicarate of Mardin near Mardin, Turkey

The Christian population of the West Syriac Rite probably has the most regional influence in Turkey, as its population wasn't confined to or was centered in Istanbul like the rest of the Christian communities of Turkey were. Active churches are located in Istanbul, Diyarbakir, Adiyaman, and Elazig.[32] There are many both active and inactive churches in the traditionally Neo-Aramaic area of Tur Abdin, which is a region centered in the western area of(Mardin province, and has areas that go into Sirnak, and Batman Province. Up until the 1980s the Syriac population was concentrated there as well, but a large amount of the population has fled the region to Istanbul or abroad due to the Kurdish-Turkish conflict (1978-present). The Church structure is still organized however, with 12 reverends stationed in churches and monasteries there.[33] Churches were also in several other provinces as well, but in the Assyrian Genocide the churches in those provinces were destroyed or left ruined.

Churches of the West Syriac Rite include:

Churches of the East Syriac Rite[edit]

The Nestorian (Assyrian Church of the East) church in Turkey was completely wiped out in the Assyrian Genocide, although they were originally centered in Hakkari. The Chaldean Branch is based primarily in Istanbul, although its church structure is centered in Diyarbakir.

Churches of the East Syriac Rite include:

Churches of the Latin rite[edit]

Anglican Church[edit]

The Anglicans in Turkey form part of the Eastern Archdeaconry of the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe. In 2008 the Bishop of Europe, Geoffrey Rowell, caused controversy by ordaining a local man to minister to Turkish-speaking Anglicans in Istanbul.[34]

The main churches are at Ankara (St Nicholas), Istanbul (Christ Church) and Izmir (St John the Evangelist).

Lutheran Church[edit]

The Lutheranism has been in Turkey since 1709. The Istanbul Lutheran Church is founded 2004.

Other denominations[edit]

The Armenian Protestants own three Istanbul churches from the 19th century.[35] There is an Alliance of Protestant Churches in Turkey.[36]

There are churches for foreigners in compounds and resorts, although they are not counted in lists of churches as they are only used by Tourists and Expats.

Christian houses of worship[edit]

Churches of the Byzantine rite[edit]

Church name Picture Status
Saint Andrew in Krisei KocaMustafaPashaMosque20072812 03.jpg converted into a mosque
Chora Church Chora Church Constantinople 2007 panorama 002.jpg converted into a mosque, museum
Church of Christ Pantokrator (Constantinople) Image-ZeyrekCamii20061230 02.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of Christ Pantepoptes (Constantinople) EskiImaretMosque2007.jpg converted into a mosque
Palace of Antiochos ruins
Church of the Virgin of the Pharos ruins
Monastery of Gastria SancaktarMosque20080603 01.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of St. George, Istanbul Stgeorgeistanbul3.JPG active
Hagia Irene Hagia Eirene Constantinople July 2007 002.jpg museum
Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia exterior 2007 002.jpg converted into a mosque, museum
Church of the Holy Apostles demolished, Fatih Mosque build on top
Church of Saint John the Baptist at Lips (Constantinople) FeneriIsaCamiiInIstanbul20070102 1.jpg converted into a mosque
Monastery of Stoudios One of the exterior facades of the St. John Stoudios (Imrahor) Monastery.jpg ruins; closed to visitors; due to be converted into a mosque
Church of Saint John the Baptist en to Trullo (Constantinople) HiramiAmhetPasaMosque20071010 01.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of St. Mary of Blachernae (Istanbul) SaintMaryOfBlachernae20072612 01.jpg active
Church of St. Mary of the Mongols StMaryOfTheMongols20071010 01.jpg active
Myrelaion BodrumCamii20070529 01.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of Saint Nicholas of the Caffariotes (Istanbul) KefeliMescidi20070603 1.jpg converted into a mosque
Pammakaristos Church Pammakaristos Church - exterior - P1030461.JPG converted into a mosque
Church of Sergius and Bacchus LittleHagiaSofia20061231.jpg converted into a mosque
Bulgarian St. Stephen Church İstanbul 6019.jpg active
St. Demetrius Church in Feriköy, Istanbul active
Church of Hagia Thekla tu Palatiu ton Blakhernon Hagios Petros kai Markos.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of Hagios Theodoros (Constantinople) VefaKiliseCamii20070531 01.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of Hagias Theodosias en tois Dexiokratus GülMosque20071011 04.jpg converted into a mosque
Church of the Theotokos Kyriotissa (Constantinople) KalenderhaneMosqueInIstanbul20070407 01.jpg converted into a mosque
Kuştul Monastery ruins
Sümela Monastery Sumela From Across Valley.JPG museum
House of the Virgin Mary House of the Virgin Mary.jpg museum
Meryem Ana Church Patriarcadotur.JPG active
Church of St Nicholas of Myra(Santa Claus) (Demre) ruins,museum

Churches of the Georgian rite[edit]

Turkey's historical Georgian churches are located in the northeast of the country.
Church name Picture Status
Notre Dame de Lourdes (Turkey) (tr) (Bomonti Gürcü Katolik Kilisesi) Notre Dame de Lourdes Georgian Church in Constantinople.jpg active
Oshki (Öşki Manastırı/Öşk Vank/Çamlıyamaç) Oshki1.jpg abandoned
Khakhuli Monastery (Haho/Bağbaşı) Khakhuli1.jpg converted into a mosque
Doliskana (Dolishane/Hamamlıköy) DOLISKANA2.jpg converted into a mosque
Bana cathedral (Penek) Bana, Tao-Klarjeti.jpg ruins
Tbeti Monastery (Cevizli) ტბეთი, 1888 - პავლინოვის ფოტო.jpg ruins
old Georgian Church, Ani Ani georgian church old photo.jpg ruins
Ishkhani (İşhan) 171. ishxani. gumbaTis yeli.jpg protected
Parkhali (Barhal/Altıparmak) Пархали, Тао, Турция. Май 2008.jpg converted into a mosque
Khandzta Khandzta (3).JPG ruins
Ekeki Ekeki (ექექი).jpg ruins
Otkhta Eklesia (Dörtkilise) Otkhta church.jpg abandoned
Parekhi Parekhi2.jpg ruins
Makriali St. George church, Kemalpaşa, Artvin Makriali St. George Georgian Church, Hopa dist., Lazistan - მაკრიალის წმ. გიორგი, ოხვამე.JPG ruins
St. Barlaam Monastery (Barlaham Manastırı), Yayladağı St. Barlaam Georgian Monastery of Antioch, Yayladağı, Hatay.jpg ruins
Ancha monastery Ança.jpg ruins
Okhvame, Ardeşen Ruins of Georgian church in Ardeşen, Rize, Lazistan.jpg ruins
Tskarostavi monastery Tzqarostavi Tskarostavi წყაროსთავი.jpg ruins
Opiza Opiza2011.jpg ruins

Churches of the Armenian rite[edit]

Church name Picture Status
Church of the Apparition of the Holy Cross (Kuruçeşme, Istanbul)
Yerevman Surp Haç Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Archangels Armenian Church (Balat, Istanbul)
Surp Hıreşdagabed Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Cross Armenian Church (Kartal, Istanbul)
Surp Nişan Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Cross Armenian Church (Üskudar, Istanbul)
Surp Haç Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Hripsimiants Virgins Armenian Church (Büyükdere, Istanbul)
Surp Hripsimyants Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Mother-of-God Armenian Apostolic Church (Bakırköy, Istanbul)
Surp Asdvadzadzin Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Mother-of-God Armenian Church (Beşiktaş, Istanbul)
Surp Asdvadzadzin Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Mother-of-God Armenian Church (Eyüp, Istanbul)
Surp Asdvadzadzin Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Mother-of-God Armenian Church (Ortaköy, Istanbul)
Surp Asdvadzadzin Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Mother-of-God Armenian Church (Yeniköy, Istanbul)
Surp Asdvadzadzin Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Resurrection Armenian Church (Kumkapı, Istanbul)
Surp Harutyun Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Resurrection Armenian Church (Taksim, Istanbul)
Surp Harutyun Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Three Youths Armenian Church (Boyacıköy, Istanbul)
Surp Yerits Mangants Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Trinity Armenian Church (Galatasaray, Istanbul)
Surp Yerrortutyun Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Narlıkapı Armenian Apostolic Church (Narlıkapı, Istanbul)
Surp Hovhannes Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Elijah The Prophet Armenian Church (Eyüp, Istanbul)
Surp Yeğya Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Garabed Armenian Church (Üsküdar, Istanbul)
Surp Garabet Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. John the Baptist Armenian Church (Uskudar) unknown
St. John The Evangelist Armenian Church (Gedikpaşa, Istanbul)
Surp Hovhannes Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. George (Sourp Kevork) Armenian Church (Samatya, Istanbul) unknown
St. Gregory The Enlightener Armenian Church (Galata, Istanbul) active
St. Gregory The Enlightener Armenian Church (Kuzguncuk, Istanbul)

Surp Krikor Lusaroviç Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Gregory The Enlightener Armenian Church (Karaköy, Istanbul)
Surp Krikor Lusavoriç Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Gregory The Enlightener (Kınalıada, Istanbul)Armenial Church
Surp Krikor Lusavoriç Ermeni Kilisesi
active
[[St. James Armenian Church (Altımermer, Istanbul)]]
Surp Hagop Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Nicholas Armenian Church (Beykoz, Istanbul)
Surp Nigoğayos Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Nicholas Armenian Church (Topkapı, Istanbul)
Surp Nigoğayos Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Santoukht Armenian Church (Rumelihisarı, Istanbul)
Surp Santuht Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Saviour Armenian Chapel (Yedikule, Istanbul)
Surp Pırgiç Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Sergius Armenian Chapel (Balıklı, Istanbul)
Surp Sarkis Anıt Mezar Şapeli
active
St. Stephen Armenian Church (Karaköy, Istanbul)
Surp Istepanos Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Stephen Armenian Church (Yeşilköy, Istanbul)
Surp Istepanos Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Takavor Armenian Apostolic Church (Kadıkoy, Istanbul)
Surp Takavor Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Saints Thaddeus and Barholomew Armenian Church (Yenikapı, Istanbul)
Surp Tateos Partoğomeos Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Vartanants Armenian Church (Feriköy, Istanbul)
Surp Vartanants Ermeni Kilisesi
active
The Twelve Holy Apostles Armenian Church (Kandilli, Istanbul)
Surp Yergodasan Arakelots Ermeni Kilisesi
active
Holy Forty Martyrs of Sebastea Armenian Church (Iskenderun, Hatay)
Surp Karasun Manuk Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. George Armenian Church (Derik, Mardin)
Surp Kevork Ermeni Kilisesi
active
St. Gregory The Enlightener Armenian Church (Kayseri)
Surp Krikor Lusavoriç Ermeni Kilisesi
services held once or twice a year
St. Gregory The Enligtener Armenian Church (Kırıkhan, Hatay)
Surp Krikor Lusavoriç Kilisesi
active
St. Giragos Armenian Church (Diyarbakır)
Surp Giragos Ermeni Kilisesi
Սուրբ Կիրակոս եկեղեցի (Դիարբեքիր) (3).JPG closed - confiscated by the Turkish State
Cathedral of Ani The Cathedral of Ani.jpg ruins
Cathedral of Kars Kars Church Of The Apostles 2009.JPG converted into a mosque
Cathedral of Mren Mren Cathedral.jpg ruins
Holy Apostles Monastery Arakelots Monastery - 5-17 c. (1900).png ruins
Horomos The Monastery of Horomos.jpg ruins
Karmravank (Vaspurakan) Karmravank Armenian monastery (Lake Van).JPG ruins
Kaymaklı Monastery ruins
Khtzkonk Monastery ruins
Ktuts monastery Ktuts monastery 1986.jpg abandoned
Varagavank Varagavank.PNG ruins,protected
Narekavank Narekavank.jpg destroyed, mosque build on the site
Saint Bartholomew Monastery ruins
Saint Karapet Monastery destroyed, village buily on the site
St. Marineh Church, Mush ruins
St. Stepanos Church destroyed
Tekor Basilica Tekor Basilica in an 1840s engraving.jpg destroyed
Armenian church in Vakıflı
Vakıflıköy Ermeni Kilisesi
Vakifli church-DCP 8791 25p.jpg active

Churches of the Syriac rite[edit]

Church name Picture Status
Mor Sharbel Syriac Orthodox church in Midyat MidyatChurch.jpg active
Mor Gabriel Monastery Morgabrieltowers.jpg active
Mor Hananyo Monastery Mor Hananyo.jpg active

Catholic church buildings[edit]

Church name Picture Status
Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, Istanbul Pope Benedict XV statue.jpg active
St. Anthony of Padua Church in Istanbul S. Antonio di Padova, Istanbul.jpg active
Cathedral of the Annunciation, İskenderun active
Church of St. Anthony, Mersin Sent Antuan Katolik Kilisesi, Mersin (2).jpg active
St. John's Cathedral, Izmir St. John's Cathedral (RC), Izmir.JPG active
Church of St Peter Antioch Saint Pierre Church Front.JPG museum
Church of San Domenico (Constantinople) ArapMosque1.JPG converted into a mosque
Church of SS Peter and Paul, Istanbul İstanbul - Sen Piyer Kilisesi Karaköy - Mart 2013.JPG active

[37]

Anglican churches[edit]

Church name Picture Status
Christ Church, Istanbul Crimean Memorial Church - illustration.jpg active
St. John the Evangelist's Anglican Church, Izmir StJohntheEvangelistIzmir.jpg active

Persecution by Muslims[edit]

A number of high-profile cases of Christian persecution have occurred since the modern Turkish Republic was founded in 1923.

Istanbul Pogrom of 1955[edit]

During the Istanbul pogrom of 1955, members of the Christian community of Istanbul (primarily Turks of Greek descent) were attacked, harassed and killed by Turkish Muslim mobs. Christian cemeteries were ransacked and desecrated, Christian women were raped and members of the Christian community forcefully Islamized through mob induced circumcision.[38]

A man who was fearful of being beaten, lynched or cut into pieces would imply and try to prove that he was both a Turk and a Muslim. "Pull it out and let us see," they would reply. The poor man would peel off his trousers and show his "Muslimness" and "Turkishness": And what was the proof? That he had been circumcised. If the man was circumcised, he was saved. If not, he was doomed. Indeed, having lied, he could not be saved from a beating. For one of those aggressive young men would draw his knife and circumcise him in the middle of the street and amid the chaos. A difference of two or three centimetres does not justify such a commotion. That night, many men shouting and screaming were Islamized forcefully by the cruel knife. Among those circumcised there was also a priest.[39]

Zirve Publishing House Massacre[edit]

The Zirve Publishing House massacre took place on April 18, 2007 in Malatya, Turkey. Three members of the Christian community, one German and two Turkish converts from Islam, were severely tortured and subsequently killed by five Turkish Muslims. The perpetrators all carried the same note which read: "We did this for our country...they were attacking our religion."[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Chapter The refugees question in Greece (1821-1930) in "Θέματα Νεοελληνικής Ιστορίας", ΟΕΔΒ ("Topics from Modern Greek History"). 8th edition" (PDF). Nikolaos Andriotis. 2008. 
  3. ^ "'Editors' Introduction: Why a Special Issue?: Disappearing Christians of the Middle East" (PDF). Editors' Introduction. 2001. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "Religions". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  6. ^ "Statistics by Country". www.catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  7. ^ "Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte" (PDF). 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom". www.christiancentury.org. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  9. ^ "Life, Culture, Religion". Official Tourism Portal of Turkey. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  10. ^ William G. Rusch (2013). The Witness of Bartholomew I, Ecumenical Patriarch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8028-6717-9. Constantinople has been the seat of an archiepiscopal see since the fourth century; its ruling hierarch has had the title of"Ecumenical Patriarch" ... 
  11. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2001). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 978-90-04-11695-5. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is the ranking church within the communion of ... Between the 4th and 15th centuries, the activities of the patriarchate took place within the context of an empire that not only was ... 
  12. ^ Hannibal Travis, “The Assyrian Genocide, a Tale of Oblivion and Denial,” Forgotten Genocides, Oblivion, Denial, and Memory, ed. René Lemarchand (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).""; and https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=akron1464911392&disposition=inline ""THE SIMELE MASSACRE AS A CAUSE OF IRAQI NATIONALISM: HOW AN ASSYRIAN GENOCIDE CREATED IRAQI MARTIAL NATIONALISM ""
  13. ^ a b Klein, The Margins of Empire, and https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=akron1464911392&disposition=inline ""THE SIMELE MASSACRE AS A CAUSE OF IRAQI NATIONALISM: HOW AN ASSYRIAN GENOCIDE CREATED IRAQI MARTIAL NATIONALISM "
  14. ^ http://www.hum.uu.nl/medewerkers/m.vanbruinessen/publications/Bruinessen_Religion_in_Kurdistan.pdf
  15. ^ a b c d e The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies, Richard G. Hovannisian, Transaction Publishers
  16. ^ 35,000 Turks convert into Christianity each year in Turkey!
  17. ^ Johnstone, Patrick; Miller, Duane Alexander (2015). "Believers in Christ from a Muslim Background: A Global Census". Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 11: 17. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  18. ^ "International Institute for Religious Freedom: Single Post". Iirf.eu. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
  19. ^ Jonathan Luxmoore (2011-03-04). "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom". The Christian Century. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
  20. ^ "TURKEY - Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening". Hurriyetdailynews.com. 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
  21. ^ Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks - Jenny White. Books.google.it. 2014-04-27. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
  22. ^ "TURKEY: Protestant church closed down | Church In Chains - Ireland :: An Irish voice for suffering, persecuted Christians Worldwide". Churchinchains.ie. 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
  23. ^ a b [1]
  24. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Turkey : Assyrians". Refworld. Retrieved 2015-08-11. 
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