Christianity in the 21st century
- 1 Catholic Church
- 2 Eastern Orthodoxy
- 3 Protestantism
- 4 Oriental Orthodoxy
- 5 Ecumenical dialogue
- 6 Timeline
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
With the election of Pope Benedict XVI, there was decentralized beatifications and reverted a decision of John Paul II regarding papal elections. Benedict XVI advocated a return to fundamental Christian values to counter the increased secularisation of many Western countries. He taught the importance of both the Catholic Church and an understanding of God's redemptive love. Pope Benedict also revived a number of traditions, including elevating the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position. He strengthened the relationship between the Catholic Church and art, promoted the use of Latin, and reintroduced traditional papal garments, for which reason he was called "the pope of aesthetics".
Pope Benedict issued the motu proprio Summorum Pontificum, allowing priests to celebrate the Traditional Latin Mass without first having to receive permission from their local ordinary, and the Anglicanorum coetibus, which authorized the establishment of personal ordinariates to allow former Anglican parishes to enter the Catholic fold while retaining some elements of their Anglican heritage and liturgical traditions.
Major lawsuits emerged in 2001, during the pontificate of John Paul II, claiming that priests had sexually abused minors. As a cardinal, Benedict convinced John Paul II to put his Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in charge of all investigations and policies surrounding sexual abuse in order to combat such abuse more efficiently. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI removed Legion of Christ founder Marcial Maciel from active ministry based on the results of an investigation that he had started while head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, before his election as Pope in April 2005. Maciel was ordered "to conduct a reserved life of prayer and penance, renouncing every public ministry." As pope, Benedict defrocked at least 400 priests.
Since the election of Pope Francis in 2013, he has displayed a simpler and less formal approach to the office, choosing to reside in the Vatican guesthouse rather than the papal residence. Following the resignation of Benedict, Francis became the first Jesuit pope, the first pope from the Americas, and the first from the Southern Hemisphere.
On 18 June 2015, Francis released his encyclical Laudato si', in which he critiqued consumerism and irresponsible development, laments environmental degradation and global warming, and calls all people of the world to take "swift and unified global action."
Since 2016, Francis has faced increasingly open criticism, particularly from theological conservatives, on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion with the publication of Amoris Laetitia, and on the question of alleged systematic cover up of clergy sexual abuse.
Among Francis's most notable critics is Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò a former apostolic nuncio who claimed in an open letter that Francis "knew from at least June 23, 2013 that Theodore McCarrick was a serial predator. He knew that he was a corrupt man, he covered for him to the bitter end."  McCarrick submitted his resignation from the College of Cardinals in July 2018, which was quickly accepted by Francis. Francis ordered McCarrick to a life of prayer and penance until a canonical trial could be held. After a church investigation and trial, he was found guilty of sexual crimes against adults and minors and abuse of power, and was dismissed from the clergy in February 2019. McCarrick is the most senior church official in modern times to be laicized – commonly referred to as defrocking – and is believed to be the first cardinal ever laicized for sexual misconduct.
After the fall of Mosul, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant demanded that Assyrian Christians living in the city convert to Islam, pay tribute, or face execution, by 19 July 2014. Al-Baghdadi further noted that Christians who do not agree to follow those terms must "leave the borders of the Islamic Caliphate" within a specified deadline. This resulted in a complete Assyrian Christian exodus from Mosul, marking the end of 1,600 years of continuous Christian presence. A church mass was not held in Mosul for the first time in 1,800 years. On 9 July 2017, Iraqi Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi arrived in preparation to announce the full liberation of Mosul and reclaim the city after three years of ISIL control.
The Pan-Orthodox Council, officially styled the Holy and Great Synod, opened at Crete, on 19 June 2016. The 10 Churches that sent representatives to Crete were the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Orthodox Churches of Alexandria, Jerusalem, Serbia, Romania, Greece, Poland, Albania, Cyprus and the Czech Lands and Slovakia. Of the 14 national Orthodox churches, four did not attend the event, including the Russian Orthodox Church, the Georgian and Bulgarian Orthodox Churches, as well as the Orthodox Church of Antioch. The Council concluded on 26 June 2016, the Sunday of All Saints, with a Patriarchal Concelebration.
2018 Moscow–Constantinople schism
On 11 October 2018, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople announced it would grant autocephaly to the "Church of Ukraine" thus separating it from the canonical jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate. Four days later, the Moscow Patriarchate broke the communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople over the latter's endorsement of the Ukrainian Orthodox church's autocephaly. The decision was made following a meeting of the Russian Holy Synod in Minsk, the capital of Belarus. Metropolitan Hilarion announced that the Moscow Patriarchate had taken the decision to "rupture full communion with the Constantinople Patriarchate", meaning that priests from the two churches will not be able to serve together while worshippers of one cannot take communion in the other.
Two months later, on 15 December 2018, a unification council was convoked by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople at St Sophia's Cathedral in Kiev, during which the Kiev Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and parts of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) were united into a single church: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Metropolitan Epiphanius was elected the first Metropolitan of Kiev and All Ukraine of the newly unified Ukrainian church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow denounced the new Ukrainian Church as "a union of two schismatic groups."
On 5 January 2019, Patriarch Bartholomew signed a tomos officially granting autocephaly to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. The tomos was signed at St. George's Cathedral in the presence of Petro Poroshenko, the President of Ukraine, and was presented to Metropolitan Epiphanius to be brought to Kiev in time for Christmas, the first liturgy celebrated by the united Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
Postmodern Christianity has influenced the emerging church movement, with proponents challenging the mainstream Christianity on issues such as: institutional structures, systematic theology, propositional teaching methods, a perceived preoccupation with buildings, an attractional understanding of mission, professional clergy, and a perceived preoccupation with the political process and unhelpful jargon ("Christian-ese").
Mark Driscoll, a leader in the emerging church movement, had more than 12,000 followers at Mars Hill Church in Seattle, Washington before controversy led to Driscoll's resignation in 2014 and Mars Hill's dissolution. Like other churches in the emerging church movement, Mars Hill combined alternative worship with Calvinist theology. In 2015, not without controversy, a video featuring Driscoll was featured at a Hillsong Church conference in Sydney, Australia. Hillsong Church is a megachurch, founded in 1983, that has grown to over 100,000 followers. Their 2013 song "Oceans (Where Feet May Fail)" was released and spent 61 weeks atop the Billboard Hot Christian Songs chart, longer than any other song.
Globally, megachurches are a significant development in Protestant Christianity. In the United States, the phenomenon has more than quadrupled in the past two decades. It has since spread worldwide. In 2007, five of the ten largest Protestant churches were in South Korea. The largest megachurch in the United States is Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas with more than 40,000 members every weekend and the current largest megachurch in the world is South Korea's Yoido Full Gospel Church, an Assemblies of God church, with more than 830,000 members as of 2007.
One month prior to the Lambeth Conference, the ten-yearly gathering of Anglican Communion bishops, a seven-day conference of conservative Anglican bishops and leaders held in Jerusalem from 22 to 29 June 2008 to address the growing controversy of the divisions in the Anglican Communion, the rise of secularism, as well as concerns with HIV/AIDS and poverty. As a result of the conference, the Jerusalem Declaration was issued and the Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans was created. The conference participants also called for the creation of the Anglican Church in North America (ANCA), as an alternative to the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada, and declared that recognition by the Archbishop of Canterbury is not necessary to Anglican identity. Follow-up conferences have been held every five years since 2008.
The conventions of four dioceses of the Episcopal Church voted in 2007 and 2008 to leave that church and to join the Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of America. Twelve other jurisdictions, serving an estimated 100,000 persons at that time, formed the ACNA on December 3–4, 2008. The ACNA is seeking official recognition as a province within the Anglican Communion. The Anglican Church of Nigeria declared itself in communion with the new church in March 2009 and the Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans recognized it as well. In June 2009, the Anglican Church of Uganda also declared itself in full communion with ACNA, and the Anglican Church of Sudan followed suit in December 2011.
Two of the major events which contributed to the Anglican realignment were the 2002 decision of the Diocese of New Westminster in Canada to authorise a rite of blessing for same-sex unions, and the nomination of two openly gay priests in 2003 to become bishops. Jeffrey John, an openly gay priest with a long-time partner, was appointed to be the next Bishop of Reading in the Church of England and the General Convention of the Episcopal Church ratified the election of Gene Robinson, an openly gay non-celibate man, as Bishop of New Hampshire. Jeffrey John ultimately declined the appointment due to pressure.
United Methodist Church
Like many other mainline Protestant denominations in the United States, the United Methodist Church has experienced significant membership losses in recent decades. By the opening of the 2008 General Conference, total UMC membership was estimated at 11.4 million, with about 7.9 million in the US and 3.5 million overseas. Significantly, about 20 percent of the conference delegates were from Africa, with Filipinos and Europeans making up another 10 percent. During the conference, the delegates voted to finalize the induction of the Methodist Church of the Ivory Coast and its 700,000 members into the denomination. One Congolese bishop has estimated that typical Sunday attendance of the UMC is higher in his country than in the entire United States.
Given current trends in the UMC, with overseas churches growing, especially in Africa, and US churches collectively losing about 1,000 members a week, American influence on the UMC is declining. In February 2019, a Special Session of the General Conference of the United Methodist Church was held in St. Louis, Missouri, to examine church teachings on human sexuality. While most American delegates at the General Conference supported the One Church Plan, a resolution that would have made the UMC open and affirming on LGBT issues, allowing individual conferences to allow same-sex marriage and openly gay clergy, the resolution failed. In its place, the Traditional Plan, opposed by most American delegates but supported by the African delegates, was passed by the conference. Pending approval from the UMC Judicial Council in April 2019, the Traditional Plan reaffirms traditional teachings on sexuality, will penalize UMC clergy who conduct same-sex marriages or ordain openly gay clergy beginning in 2020.
Some conferences have allowed both same-sex marriage and openly gay clergy for years. One conference in the American Southwest has a lesbian bishop, Karen Oliveto. It is unknown how these clergy will be affected by the rule change. A similar General Conference decision in 1984 led to the early retirement of some openly gay clergy, including Paul Abels. Many progressive clergy have vowed to ignore the new rules if and when they come into effect, and many clergy and congregations are openly contemplating the idea of a schism within the United Methodist Church.
In October 2013 Father Asoghik Karapetyan, the director of the Museum of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, stated on television that an atheist Armenian is not a "true Armenian". A spokesperson for the Armenian Apostolic Church stated that it is his personal view. The statement received considerable criticism, though Asoghik did not retract his statement. In an editorial in the liberal Aravot daily Aram Abrahamyan suggested that religious identity should not be equated with national (ethnic) identity and it is up to every individual to decide whether they are Armenian or not, regardless of religion. According to a 2018 survey by the Pew Research Center, in Armenia 82% of respondents say it is very or somewhat important to be a Christian to be truly Armenian.
On 23 April 2015, the Armenian Apostolic Church canonized all of the victims of the Armenian Genocide as martyrs, which began a hundred years prior to the following day on 24 April 1915; this service is believed to be the largest canonization service in history. It was the first canonization by the Armenian Apostolic Church in four hundred years.
In Tahrir Square, Cairo, on Wednesday 2 February 2011, Coptic Christians joined hands to provide a protective cordon around their Muslim neighbors during salat (prayers) in the midst of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.
On 17 March 2012, the Coptic Orthodox Pope, Pope Shenouda III died, leaving many Copts mourning and worrying as tensions rose with Muslims. Pope Shenouda III constantly met with Muslim leaders in order to create peace. Many were worried about Muslims controlling Egypt as the Muslim Brotherhood won 70% of the parliamentary elections. Pope Tawadros II was chosen to replace him on 4 November 2012.
In January 2017, following twin terrorist attacks that killed at least 27 Coptic Egyptians at St. Peter and St. Paul’s Church in Cairo in December 2016, the President of Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi commissioned the construction of the country’s largest mosque and church in the new administrative capital to become symbols of coexistence and national unity. For decades, the building of churches in Egypt was restricted to avoid offending Islam. The Cathedral of the Nativity in Cairo was inaugurated on 6 January 2019 by President el-Sisi and Pope Tawadros II. On the same day of the inauguration, Divine Liturgy was celebrated in the chapel of the cathedral with the participation of some 3,000 people that included representatives from all over the country.
Patriarch Abune Paulos died on 16 August 2012, followed four days later by Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi. On 28 February 2013, a college of electors assembled in Addis Ababa and elected Abune Mathias to be the 6th Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
On 25 July 2018, delegates from the Patriarchate in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and those in the United States, declared reunification in Washington, D.C., with the assistance of Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. Declaring the end of a 26 year old schism, which began in 1991 when the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front seized power in Ethiopia and exiled the patriarch, the Church announced that it now acknowledges two patriarchs: His Holiness Abune Merkorios, the 4th Patriarch of Ethiopia, and His Holiness Abune Mathias, the 6th Patriarch of Ethiopia.
The first Patriarch of the newly independent Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Abune Phillipos, died in 2002 and was succeeded by Abune Yacob. The reign of Abune Yacob as Patriarch of Eritrea was very brief as he died not long after his enthronement, and he was succeeded by Abune Antonios as the 3rd Patriarch of Eritrea. Abune Antonios was elected on 5 March 2004, and enthroned as the third Patriarch of Eritrea on 24 April 2004. Coptic Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria presided at the ceremony in Asmara, together with the Holy Synod of the Eritrean Orthodox Church and a Coptic Orthodox Church delegation.
In August 2005, Abune Antonios, the Patriarch of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, was confined to a strictly ceremonial role. In a letter dated 13 January 2006, Patriarch Abune Antonios was informed that following several sessions of the church's Holy Synod, he had been formally deposed. In a written response that was widely published, the Patriarch rejected the grounds of his dismissal, questioned the legitimacy of the synod, and excommunicated two signatories to the 13 January 2006 letter, including Yoftahe Dimetros, whom the Patriarch identified as being responsible for the church's recent upheavals. Patriarch Antonios also appealed his case to the Council of the Monasteries of the Eritrean Orthodox Church and to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Abune Antonios was deposed by the Eritrean Holy Synod supposedly under pressure from the Eritrean government and he remains under house arrest. Abuna Antonios was replaced by Abune Dioskoros as the 4th Patriarch of Eritrea. Many believe that Abune Antonios was wrongly deposed and still consider him Patriarch. Many Eritrean Orthodox followers disagree with the Eritrean government making decisions in religious matters. The ruling Patriarch Abuna Dioskoros died on 21 December 2015. No successor has been elected to date and the seat of the patriarchate remains sede vacante.
In the summer of 2001, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria agreed to mutually recognize baptisms performed in each other's churches, making re-baptisms unnecessary, and to recognize the sacrament of marriage as celebrated by the other.
There was the Patriarch's partial participation in the Eucharistic liturgy; full participation in the liturgy of the Word, joint proclamation of the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed in Greek, and as the conclusion, the final Blessing imparted by both the Pope and the Patriarch.
In June 2004, the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I's visit to Rome afforded a meeting with Pope John Paul II, for conversations with the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and for taking part in the celebration for the feast day in St. Peter's Basilica.
The Ravenna Document in 2007 re-stated the notion that the bishop of Rome is indeed the protos, although future discussions are to be held on the concrete ecclesiological exercise of papal primacy.
Patriarch Bartholomew attended the Papal inauguration of Pope Francis on 19 March 2013, paving the way for better Catholic–Orthodox relations. It was the first time that the spiritual head of Eastern Orthodox Christians had attended a papal inauguration since the Great Schism in 1054. After, he invited Pope Francis to travel with him to the Holy Land in 2014 to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the embrace between Patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI.
On 12 February 2016, Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill of Moscow met in a VIP room at José Martí International Airport near Havana, Cuba. Francis arrived at 2 pm local time, and the two leaders embraced and kissed. A 2-hour private meeting was followed by the signing of a joint declaration, which had been prepared in advance. The 30-point declaration contained a joint call by the two church primates for an end to the persecution of Christians in the Middle East and to wars in the region, expressing their hope that the meeting might contribute to the re-establishment of Christian unity between the two churches. A range of other issues are mentioned in the declaration, including atheism, secularism, consumerism, migrants and refugees, the importance of marriage and the family, and concerns relating to abortion and euthanasia.
On 12 April 2015, on Divine Mercy Sunday, during a Mass for the centennial of the Armenian Genocide at St. Peter's Basilica, Pope Francis officially proclaimed Saint Gregory of Narek as Doctor of the Church in attendance of Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan, Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II, Catholicos of Cilicia Aram I, and Armenian Catholic Patriarch Nerses Bedros XIX Tarmouni. He became the 36th and the first Armenian Doctor of the Church. He is also the only Doctor "who was not in communion with the Catholic Church during his lifetime."
Cathedral of the Holy Martyrs (Armenian: Սրբոց Նահատակաց եկեղեցի) in Gyumri, Armenia, the cathedral for the Armenian Catholic Ordinariate for Armenia, Georgia, Russia, and Eastern Europe was consecrated by Krikor Bedros XX Gabroyan, Catholicos-Patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church, and Cardinal Leonardo Sandri, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, on 24 September 2015. The ceremony was held as part of the commemoration of the centennial of the Armenian Genocide. The cathedral is named "Holy Martyrs" in memory of victims of the Armenian Genocide, as the Armenian Apostolic Church canonized them as martyrs. On 25 June 2016, Pope Francis, accompanied by Catholicos Karekin II, visited the cathedral.
On 26 June 2016, Catholicos Karekin II and Pope Francis signed a joint declaration on the family. It stated that the secularization of society and its "alienation from the spiritual and divine" are damaging to the family, and affirmed that the Catholic and Armenian Apostolic churches share a marriage–based view of the family. The declaration also took note of various positive steps taken towards unity between the two leaders' churches, and "acknowledged the successful 'new phase' in relations" between them. It also lamented "immense tragedy" of the widespread persecution of Christians in the Middle East; the Pope and the Catholicos prayed "for a change of heart in all those who commit such crimes and those who are in a position to stop the violence".
In 2016, on the 499th anniversary of the start of the Protestant Reformation, Pope Francis travelled to Sweden (where the Lutheran Church is the national Church) to commemorate the Reformation at Lund Cathedral, which serves as the seat for the Lutheran Bishop of Lund. An official press release from the Holy See stated:
The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) and Roman Catholic Church joint event will highlight the 50 years of continuous ecumenical dialogue between Catholics and Lutherans and the joint gifts of this collaboration. The Catholic-Lutheran commemoration of 500 years of the Reformation is structured around the themes of thanksgiving, repentance and commitment to common witness. The aim is to express the gifts of the Reformation and ask forgiveness for division perpetuated by Christians from the two traditions.
An ecumenical service was presided over by Munib Younan, the president of the Lutheran World Federation, Martin Junge, the General Secretary of the LWF, as well as Pope Francis. Representatives from the Anglican Communion, Baptist World Alliance, Eastern Orthodox Church, and Salvation Army also participated in the predominantly Lutheran and Roman Catholic event. Pope Francis, in a joint statement with Munib Younan, stated that "With gratitude we acknowledge that the Reformation helped give a greater centrality to sacred Scripture in the Church's life".
On 28 April 2017, Pope Francis and Coptic Pope Tawadros ll agreed that they would not require re-baptism for Roman Catholics who seek to join the Coptic Orthodox Church, and vice versa. The Roman Catholic Church baptizes by sprinkling and the Coptic Orthodox Church baptizes by immersion, but this declaration opens the way for the two churches to recognize each other's baptism sacrament.
This section needs to be updated.July 2019)(
- Genocide of Christians by ISIL
- History of Christianity
- History of Eastern Orthodox Churches in the 20th century
- History of Protestantism
- History of the Roman Catholic Church#Catholicism today
- History of Christian theology#Postmodern Christianity
- Timeline of Christianity#21st century
- Timeline of Christian missions#2000 to present
- Timeline of the Roman Catholic Church#21st century
- Moto Proprio, De Aliquibus Mutationibus, June 11, 2007
- Johnston, Jerry Earl (18 February 2006). "Benedict's encyclical offers hope for world". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2010. WebCitation archive
- Gledhill, Ruth "Pope set to bring back Latin Mass that divided the Church"The Times 11 October 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2010
- Tom Kington in Rome (31 August 2012). "Pope Benedict to open new Latin academy in the Vatican". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Allen, Charlotte (17 February 2013). "Pope Benedict XVI, the pontiff of aesthetics". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Bruni, A Gospel of Shame (2002), p. 336
- Pancevski, Bojan; Follain, John (4 April 2010). "John Paul 'ignored abuse of 2,000 boys'". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Catholic order to be overhauled after founder's abuse". BBC News. 2010-05-01. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Lee, Trymaine. "Pope Benedict defrocked 400 priests". MSNBC. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- Vallely, Paul (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis profile: Jorge Mario Bergoglio, a humble man who moved out of a palace into an apartment, cooks his own meals and travels by bus". The Independent. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Cardinal Walter Kasper Says Pope Francis Will Bring New Life To Vatican II
- Yardley, Jim; Goodstein, Laurie (18 June 2015). "Pope Francis, in Sweeping Encyclical, Calls for Swift Action on Climate Change". The New York Times.
- Pentin, Edward (August 25, 2018). "Ex-nuncio accuses Pope Francis of failing to act on McCarrick's abuse reports". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
- Pullella, Philip (September 7, 2018). "Can the pope's accusers force him to resign?". Reuters.
- US prelate McCarrick resigns from College of Cardinals (AP)
- "Comunicato della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede, 16.02.2019" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
- "BBC News - Iraqi Christians flee after Isis issue Mosul ultimatum". BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- van Tets, Fernande (7 August 2014). "Isis takes Iraq's largest Christian town as residents told – 'leave, convert or die'". The Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- Jadallah, Ahmed (18 July 2014). "Convert, pay tax, or die, Islamic State warns Christians". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- Erb, Kelly Phillips (19 July 2014). "Islamic State Warns Christians: Convert, Pay Tax, Leave Or Die". Forbes. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Convert, pay tax, or die, Islamic State warns Christians". Reuters. 18 July 2014.
It said that Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, had set a Saturday deadline for Christians who did not want to stay and live under those terms to "leave the borders of the Islamic Caliphate". "After this date, there is nothing between us and them but the sword," it said.
- "For the first time in 1,800 years, no Masses said in Mosul". Catholicworldreport.com. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Iraqi Christian church burnings confirmed by EU delegation". Iraq news, the latest Iraq news. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Mosul: Iraq PM to celebrate victory over IS in the city BBC, 9 July 2017
- "Announcement (11/10/2018). – Announcements – The Ecumenical Patriarchate". patriarchate.org. 11 October 2018. Retrieved 2018-10-30.
- "Russian Orthodox Church Breaks Ties With Orthodoxy's Leader". U.S. News. 15 October 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (2018-10-15). "Russia Takes Further Step Toward Major Schism in Orthodox Church". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
- "Russian Orthodox Church Breaks Ties With Constantinople Patriarchate". RFERL. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "Russian Church breaks with Orthodox body". BBC News. 2018-10-16. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (December 15, 2018). "Amid Russia Tensions, Ukraine Moves Toward Separate Church". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
- "Unification Council elects head of Ukrainian Orthodox Church". Kyiv Post. December 15, 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- "Ukraine's newly independent church holds 'historic' first service". AFP. Yahoo. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- "Ukraine Orthodox Church granted independence from Russian Church". BBC News. 5 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- Perry, Simon. "Emerging Worship". Retrieved 2012-06-27.
- Welch, Craig (September 7, 2014). "More trouble for Mars Hill: cutting jobs, merging churches". Seattle Times. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Rick Warren Tells Mars Hill Congregation On Its Final Sunday: Don't Be Bitter".
- "Hillsong Church gives platform for 'penis house' preacher Mark Driscol". news.com.au. 1 July 2015.
- "2017 Annual Report". Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- Herb Longs (26 April 2016). "Kari Jobe Performs 'Oceans' With Hillsong Worship On Outcry Tour". The Christian Beat. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Anne C. Loveland, Otis B. Wheeler, From Meetinghouse to Megachurch: A Material and Cultural History, University of Missouri Press, USA, 2003, p. 3
- "Redirect". www.SecularHumanism.org. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "O come all ye faithful". Special Report on Religion and Public Life. The Economist. November 3, 2007. p. 6. Retrieved November 5, 2007.
- "In Pictures: America's 10 Biggest Megachurches". Forbes. June 26, 2009.
- "The Complete Jerusalem Statement". Global Anglican Future | GAFCON. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
- "Conservatives form rival group to Episcopal Church". USA Today. December 4, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "RESOLUTION OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE REGARDING THE ANGLICAN CHURCH IN NORTH AMERICA". Church of Nigeria Anglican Communion. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- "Communiqué from the GAFCON/FCA Primates' Council". Church of Nigeria Anglican Communion. April 16, 2009. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
- Church of Uganda. "Church of Uganda Declares itself in Full Communion with Anglican Church in North America". Anglican Church in North America. Archived from the original on 2009-06-28. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
- "Advent Letter from Archbishop Duncan". Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- BBC - US Church 'unfairly criticised' 01 Jan 2008 Bishop Schori "He [Robinson] is alone in being the only gay partnered bishop who's open about that status." (But see Otis Charles).
- The issue is less sexual orientation than sexual practice. Many conservative Anglicans disapprove of his being openly sexually active more than his sexual attractions as such. 
- Tooley, Mark (May 21, 2010). "Resenting African Christianity". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- Gilbert, Kathy; Hahn, Heather; Butler, Joey (26 February 2019). "2019 General Conference passes Traditional Plan". United Methodist News. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Adamo, S. J. (May 11, 1984). "Gay Methodist Minister Picks Retirement". Philadelphia Daily News. p. 85.
- Lovett, Ian (3 March 2019). "Rift Within Methodist Church Grows in Wake of Vote on Gay Marriage". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- http://en.hayernaysor.am/2015/11/04/ Archived 2015-11-24 at the Wayback Machine Construction of St. Mary Mother Cathedral of Stepanakert
- "Աթեիստ հայը հայ չէ՞. Մայր Աթոռը չի ցանկանում մեկնաբանել Տեր Ասողիկի խոսքերը". news.am (in Armenian). 14 October 2013.
- Hunanyan, Samvel (1 November 2013). "Ցանկացած մարդ, ով իրեն հայ է համարում, նա հայ է, վերջացավ". Asparez (in Armenian).
- Hakobyan, Gohar (19 May 2014). "Տեր Ասողիկը հետ չի կանգնում իր խոսքերից. "Աթեիստ հայը լիարժեք հայ չէ"". Aravot (in Armenian).
- Abrahamyan, Aram (15 October 2013). "Բոլորը հայ են, ովքեր իրենց հայ են համարում". Aravot (in Armenian).
- "Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues". Pew Research Center. 29 October 2018.
- Davlashyan, Naira. "Armenian Church makes saints of 1.5 million genocide victims – Yahoo News". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- "Armenian Genocide victims canonized in Holy Etchmiadzin". Panarmenian.Net. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
- "Canonized: Armenian Church proclaims collective martyrdom of Genocide victims – Genocide". ArmeniaNow.com. 2015-04-23.
- "After 400 years, new saints for the Armenian Church". Risu.org.ua. 2015-04-23.
- Tchilingirian, Hratch. "Historic Ordination of a Deaconess in the Tehran Diocese of the Armenian Church". Civilnet.am. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- Christians protect Muslims during prayer in Cairo's dangerous Tahrir square, Nevine Zaki, 3 February 2011, accessed 9 February 2011
- Fahim, Kareem (20 March 2012). "Coptic Pope Shenouda III's Death Adds to Fears in Egypt". The New York Times.
- "Muslim Brotherhood Sweeps Up Over One-Third Of Votes In Egyptian Elections". Huffington Post. 4 December 2011.
- "Coptic Church Recognizes Martyrdom of 21 Coptic Christians". 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Pope Tawadros II to lead first ever mass at Egypt's new Nativity of Christ Cathedral". Nile TV.
- "Egypt's Copts prepare for opening of cathedral in new administrative capital". The National. 4 January 2018.
- "Egypt's new cathedral may be a big target for ISIS, Coptic Christians fear". USA TODAY.
- "WRAP-UP: Sisi celebrates Christmas with Copts at Christ Cathedral". 7 January 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Ethiopian church patriarch Abune Paulos dies". BBC News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Ethiopian church appoints Abune Mathias as patriarch". BBC News. 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Orthodox patriarch of Eritrea sacked". 2006-02-01. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-02-05.
- "Eritrea Imposes New Controls on Orthodox Church". Compass Direct News. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
- "Excommunication Notice from the Union of Eritrean Orthodox Monasteries". The Orthodox Church News. 1 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- "Eritrean Orthodox Christian patriarch dies: government". Daily Mail. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Pastoral Agreement between the Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria". Orthodox Unity (Orthodox Joint Commission). 2001. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
- Eleuterio, F. Fortino. "Report on Catholic-Orthodox Relations". www.ewtn.com. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
- Pope sets tone for humbler papacy, calls for defense of the weak. Reuters. Published: 19 March 2013
- Pelowski, Alton J. (May 2013). "Our Eastern Brothers". Columbia. pp. 20–23.
- Yardley, Jim (12 February 2016). "Pope and Russian Orthodox Leader Meet in Historic Step". New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- "Unity call as Pope Francis holds historic talks with Russian Orthodox Patriarch". BBC. 13 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- "Meeting of His Holiness Pope Francis with His Holiness Kirill, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia". w2.vatican.va. The Holy See. 12 February 2016. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-14.
- "Historic Mass dedicated to 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide begins at the Vatican (live)". Armenpress. 12 April 2015.
- "St. Gregory of Narek is classified among the doctors of the church of the Catholic Church". 1tv.am. Public Television of Armenia. 12 April 2015. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016.
- Del Cogliano, Mark (8 October 2015). "A New Doctor of the Church: St. Gregory of Narek". theology matters. University of St. Thomas Department of Theology.
- Holy Martyrs Armenian Catholic Church consecrated
- Armenian Church makes saints of 1.5 million genocide victims
- Schneible, Ann (26 June 2016). "Pope Francis and Catholicos Karekin II Sign Joint Declaration on Family, Unity and Solidarity". National Catholic Register. EWTN News, Inc. Retrieved 27 June 2016 – via EWTN News / Catholic News Agency.
- MacKinnon, Angus (25 January 2016). "500 years after reformation, Pope knocks on Lutherans' door". Yahoo News. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
Pope Francis will celebrate the 500th anniversary of the Reformation by attending an ecumenical service in Sweden as a guest of the Lutheran Church, the Vatican said Monday. In a highly symbolic act of reconciliation that would even recently have been unthinkable for a Catholic pontiff, Francis will visit the Swedish city of Lund on 31 October for a commemoration jointly organised by his own inter-faith agency and the Lutheran World Federation (LWF).
- "Preparations to commemorate 500 years since the Reformation". Holy See Press Office. 1 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "Pope Francis to travel to Sweden for joint Reformation commemoration". Vatican Radio. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Agnew, Paddy (25 January 2016). "Pope to attend ceremony marking 500 years since Reformation". The Irish Times. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Anderson, Christina (31 October 2016). "Pope Francis, in Sweden, Urges Catholic-Lutheran Reconciliation". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Miller, Andrew. "Catholics and Copts Recognize Shared Baptism". The Trumpet. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- Methodist coverage of vote
- "Catholic coverage of vote". Archived from the original on 2006-07-25. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
- Bible translated into Kriol
- "No Mass said in Mosul for first time in 1,600 years, says Archbishop". Christian Today.
- Farrell, Joseph P. God, History, & Dialectic: The Theological Foundations of the Two Europes and Their Cultural Consequences. Bound edition 1997. Electronic edition 2008.
- González, Justo L. (1985). The Story of Christianity, Vol. 2: The Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-063316-6.
- Hastings, Adrian (1999). A World History of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4875-3.
- Latourette, Kenneth Scott (1975). A History of Christianity, Volume 2. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-064953-4.
- Nichols, Aidan. Rome and the Eastern Churches: a Study in Schism. 1992
- Shelley, Bruce L. (1996). Church History in Plain Language (2nd ed.). ISBN 0-8499-3861-9.
- History of Christianity Reading Room:[permanent dead link] Extensive online resources for the study of global church history (Tyndale Seminary).
- "Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Christianity in History". Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). pp. 330–345. .
- "Historical Christianity, A time line with references to the descendants of the early church". Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2017.