Christianity by country

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Christianity by country

As of the early 21st century, Christianity has approximately 2.4 billion adherents, out of about 7.2 billion people.[1][2][3][4][a] The faith represents approximately one-third of the world's population and is the largest religion in the world, with the three largest groups of Christians being the Catholic Church, Protestantism, and the Eastern Orthodox Church.[5] The largest Christian denomination is the Catholic Church, with 1.09 billion adherents.[6] The second largest Christian branch is either Protestantism (if it is considered a single group), or the Eastern Orthodox Church (if Protestants are considered to be divided into multiple denominations).

Christianity is the predominant religion in Europe, Russia, the Americas, the Philippines, East Timor, Southern Africa, Central Africa, East Africa and Oceania.[7] There are also large Christian communities in other parts of the world, such as Central Asia and the Middle East, where Christianity is the second-largest religion after Islam. The United States of America has the largest Christian population in the world, followed by Brazil and Mexico.[8]

Christianity, in one form or another, is the state religion of the following 13 nations: Argentina (Roman Catholic Church),[9] Tuvalu (Church of Tuvalu), Tonga (Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga), Costa Rica (Roman Catholic Church),[10] Kingdom of Denmark (Danish National Church),[11] England (Church of England),[12] Greece (Eastern Orthodoxy), Georgia (Georgian Orthodox Church),[13][14] Iceland (Church of Iceland),[15] Liechtenstein (Roman Catholic Church),[16] Malta (Roman Catholic Church),[17] Monaco (Roman Catholic Church),[18] Norway (Church of Norway),[19] Vatican City (Roman Catholic Church).[20]

Lists[edit]

By country[edit]

Note: Population statistics by religious affiliations are based upon statistical science and are subject to observational error (technically referred to as estimates). The proportion of Christians is based on the proportion of the population in each country who are members of a Christian denomination or who identify themselves as Christian. It says nothing about the proportion of such as believe in God and are regularly in the church. People who mix Christianity with tribal religions are defined in this article as Christians. Most of the percentage of Christian population of each country was taken from the US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report, the CIA World Factbook, Joshua Project, Open doors, Pew Forum and Adherents.com.

Sovereign states and dependent territories[edit]

Christianity by country
Country Christians  % Christian  % Catholic  % Protestant/ Orthodox/ Other GDP/Capita PPP World Bank 2012
 Afghanistan (details) 6,250 0.02% 1,399
 Albania (details) 580,000 17.0% 10% 7% 9,443
 Algeria (details) 270,000 2% 1% 1% 8,515
 American Samoa (details) 70,000 98.3% 20% 78%
 Andorra (details) 78,000 94.0% 90.1% 3.9%
 Angola (details) 17,094,000 75% 50% 25% 6,105
 Anguilla (details) 15,000 90.5% 3% 87%
 Antigua and Barbuda (details) 66,000 74.0% 10% 64% 19,964
 Argentina (details) 37,561,000 90% 77% 13% 12,034
 Armenia (details) 3,250,000 98.7% 3% 95% 6,645
 Aruba (details) 98,000 88% 80.8% 7.8%
 Australia (details) 14,000,990 63% 25.8% 37% 44,462
 Austria (details) 6,119,000 71.4% 61.4% 10% 43,324
 Azerbaijan (details) 450,000 4.8% 4.8% 10,624
 Bahamas (details) 350,000 81% 13.5% 67.6% 31,629
 Bahrain (details) 77,000 9.0% 9.0% 23,886
 Bangladesh (details) 420,000 0.3% 0.3% 1,883
 Barbados (details) 244,000 74% 4.2% 70% 18,805
 Belarus (details) 5,265,109 55.4%[21] 7.1% 48.3% 15,579
 Belgium (details) 6,860,000 64.1% 57% 7% 38,884
 Belize (details) 247,000 76.7% 40% 36.7% 7,529
 Benin (details) 3,943,000 42.8% 27% 15% 1,583
 Bermuda (details) 44,004 64.7% 15% 50%
 Bhutan (details) 7,000 1.0% 0.1% 0.9% 6,699
 Bolivia (details) 9,730,000 89.0% 76% 13% 5,281
 Bosnia and Herzegovina (details) 2,120,000 52.0% 15% 37% 9,235
 Botswana (details) 1,416,000 71.6% 5% 66% 16,986
 Brazil (details) 175,770,000 90.2% 63% 27% 11,909
 British Virgin Islands (details) 23,000 94.0% 85% 9%
 Brunei (details) 45,000 11.0% 53,348
 Bulgaria (details) 6,364,000 84.0% 1% 83% 15,933
 Burkina Faso (details) 3,746,000 22.0% 18% 4% 1,513
 Burundi (details) 7,662,000 75.0% 60% 15% 560
 Cambodia (details) 148,000 1.0% 0.15% 0.85% 2,494
 Cameroon (details) 13,390,000 65.0% 38.4% 26.3% 2,324
 Canada (details) 22,102,700 67.3%[22] 38.7% 29% 42,693
 Cape Verde (details) 487,000 97.0% 93% 4% 4,430
 Cayman Islands (details) 42,000 73.8%
 Central African Republic (details) 2,302,000 80% 29% 51% 857
 Chad (details) 3,833,000 35.0% 20% 15% 1,493
 Chile (details) 13,500,000 78%[23] 59% 19% 22,655
 People's Republic of China (details) 31,219,740[24] 2.3% 0.3% 2% 9,233
 Colombia (details) 47,000,000 90% 75% 15% 10,587
 Comoros (details) 15,000 2.1% 1,230
 Cook Islands (details) 19,000 86% 16.8% 69.6%
 Congo, Republic of (details) 3,409,000 90.7% 50% 40% 4,426
 Congo, Democratic Republic of (details) 63,150,000 92% 50% 42% 422
 Costa Rica (details) 3,912,000 83% 69% 14% 12,943
 Côte d'Ivoire (details) 7,075,000 32.8% 28.9% 3.9% 2,039
 Croatia (details) 4,107,000 91.06% 86.28% 4.78% 20,532
 Cuba (details) 9,523,000 85.0% 85%
 Cyprus (details) 863,000 79.3% 75% 30,597
 Czech Republic (details) 1,175,091 11.2% 10.4% 0.8% 26,426
 Denmark (details) 4,610,000 81% 1% 80% 41,388
 Djibouti (details) 53,000 6.0% 1% 5% 2,784
 Dominica (details) 59,000 88.7% 61% 27% 12,643
 Dominican Republic (details) 9,734,000 95.2% 80% 10,204
 East Timor (details) 1,152,000 98.4% 98% 1%
 Ecuador (details) 14,099,000 94.0% 74% 20% 9,738
 Egypt (details) 13,892,000 18.0% 18% 6,723
 El Salvador (details) 5,073,000 81.9% 52.6% 29.3% 7,069
 Equatorial Guinea (details) 683,000 98.6% 98% 30,233
 Eritrea (details) 3,310,000 62.9% 60% 2% 566
 Estonia (details) 310,481 23.9% 23% 23,024
 Ethiopia (details) 52,580,000 63.4% 63.4% 1,139
 Falkland Islands (details) 3,000 94.3% 94%
 Faroe Islands (details) 46,000 94.0% 94%
 Fiji (details) 540,000 64.4% 8.9% 55.5% 4,943
 Finland (details) 4,380,000 81.6% 81% 38,230
 France (details) 27,683,920-39,560,000 44%[25]-54%[26] 41%-51%[27] 3% 35,845
 Gabon (details) 1,081,000 72.0% 50% 22% 16,086
 Gambia (details) 158,000 9.0% 2% 7% 1,948
 Georgia (details) 3,930,000 88.6% 0.9% 87.7% 5,902
 Germany (details) 50,000,000 62% 30% 32% 40,394
 Ghana (details) 16,741,000 68.8% 13.1% 55.5% 2,048
 Greece (details) 10,815,187 97.0% 97% 24,667
 Greenland (details) 55,000 96.6% 96.6%
 Grenada (details) 101,000 97.3% 53% 45% 10,827
 Guatemala (details) 14,018,000 87% 47% 40% 5,100
 Guinea (details) 1,032,000 10.0% 5% 5% 1,069
 Guinea-Bissau (details) 165,000 10.0% 10% 1,192
 Guyana (details) 434,000 57.0% 8% 49% 3,399
 Haiti (details) 9,597,000 96.0% 80.0% 16% 1,228
 Honduras (details) 6,660,000 88% 47% 41% 4,194
 Hong Kong (details) 710,000 10.1% 5% 5% 51,946
 Hungary (details) 2,431,528[28] 53.0%[28] 39.0%[28] 14.9%[28] 21,570
 Iceland (details) 300,000 95.0% 2.5% 92.5% 37,533
 India (details) 31,850,000 2.6% 1.6% 1 3,876
 Indonesia (details) 24,000,000 10% 3% 7% 4,956
 Iran (details) 300,000 0.4% 0.4% 11,395
 Iraq (details) 944,000 3.0% 3% 4,246
 Ireland (details) 4,220,000 94.1% 82% 12% 42,662
 Israel (details) 266,000 3.5% 3.5% 28,809
 Italy (details) 53,230,000[29] 85.1% 85.0% 32,512
 Jamaica (details) 1,784,000 65.3% 2% 63.3% 7,083
 Japan (details) 3,548,000 2.0% 1% 1% 35,204
 Jordan (details) 388,000 6.0% 6,148
 Kazakhstan (details) 8,152,000 51.0% 0.16 50% 13,892
 Kenya (details) 34,774,000 85.1% 23.4% 61.7% 1,761
 Korea, North (details) 480,000 4.0%
 Korea, South (details) 14,601,297 29.2% 10.9% 18.3% 30,722
 Kuwait (details) 458,000 15.0% 3.2% 12.8% 49,001
 Kyrgyzstan (details) 944,000 17.0% 17% 2,409
 Laos (details) 145,000 2.2% 1% 1% 2,926
 Latvia (details) 1,250,000 57% 25% 32.2% 21,005
 Lebanon (details) 1,647,000 41.0% 26% 15% 16,610
 Lesotho (details) 1,876,000 90.0% 45% 45% 1,963
 Liberia (details) 1,391,000 85.5%[30] 85.5% 655
 Libya (details) 131,000 2.0% 0.5% 1.5% 17,665
 Liechtenstein (details) 30,000 89% 75.9% 12.8%
 Lithuania (details) 2,827,000 84.9% 77.2% 7.6% 23,487
 Luxembourg (details) 360,000 71% 69% 2 88,318
 Macedonia, Republic of (details) 1,334,000 65.1% 11,710
 Madagascar (details) 8,260,000 41.0% 978
 Malawi (details) 12,538,000 79.9% 902
 Malaysia (details) 2,820,000 9.2%[31] 17,143
 Maldives (details) 300 0.08% 9,072
 Mali (details) 726,000 5.0% 1,214
 Malta (details) 400,000 97.0% 97.0% 29,013
 Mauritania (details) 5,000 0.14% 2,603
 Mauritius (details) 418,000 32.2% 15,649
 Mexico (details) 107,780,000 92% 82.7% 9.7% 16,676
 Micronesia, Federated States of (details) 106,000 95.4% 3,824
 Moldova (details) 3,480,000 97.53% 93% 3,424
 Monaco (details) 30,000 86.0%
 Mongolia (details) 58,000 2.1% 5,462
 Montenegro (details) 500,000 78.8% 3.4% 72.07% 14,206
 Morocco (details) 651,000 2.1% 0.1% 2% 5,193
 Mozambique (details) 13,120,717 56.1% 28.4% 27.7% 1,024
 Myanmar (details) 3,790,000 7.9% 1% 6.9%
 Namibia (details) 1,991,000 90.0% 13.7% 76.3% 7,488
   Nepal (details) 269,000 0.9% 0.1% 0.8% 1,484
 Netherlands (details) 5,750,297 34% 23.7%[32] 10.2%[33] 42,938
 New Zealand (details) 2,000,000 43% 11% 32% 31,499
 Nicaragua (details) 5,217,000 84.6% 58.8% 25.8% 4,072
 Niger (details) 795,000 5.0% 5% 665
 Nigeria (details) 80,510,000 50% 14% 36% 2,661
 Norway (details) 4,210,000 86.2% 3% 83.5% 62,767
 Oman (details) 73,000 2.5% 2.1% 0.4% 27,015
 Pakistan (details) 2,500,000 1.6% 0.8% 0.8% 2,891
 Palau (details) 16,000 77.9% 65% 12.9% 19,031
 Panama (details) 3,057,000 92.0% 80% 12% 16,615
 Papua New Guinea (details) 6,800,000 97% 27% 70% 2,898
 Paraguay (details) 6,260,000 96% 88% 7.9% 6,138
 Peru (details) 27,635,000 96% 81% 15% 10,940
 Philippines (details) 86,500,000 85%[34][35] 80% 5% 4,413
 Pitcairn Islands (details) 50 100.0% 100%
 Poland (details) 36,090,000 94.3% 86.3% 8% 21,903
 Portugal (details) 10,110,000[36] 84% 81% 3.3% 25,305
 Puerto Rico (details) 3,878,000 97.0% 50% 47%
 Qatar (details) 262,675 13.8% 86,507
 Romania (details) 21,380,000 99.5% 5.7% 93.8% 16,518
 Russia (details) 66,000,000-99,775,000[37][38] 46.6%[39]-77.0%[40][41] <0.1% 46.6%-77.0% 23,549
 Rwanda (details) 9,619,000 93.6% 56.9 26 1,354
 San Marino (details) 31,000 97.0% 97%
 Saudi Arabia (details) 1,500,000 5%[42]
 Senegal (details) 900,000 7.0% 4.2% 3% 1,944
 Serbia (details) 7,260,000 93.5% 4.97% 79.4% 11,544
 Seychelles (details) 80,000 94.7% 82% 15.2% 27,008
 Sierra Leone (details) 1,751,000 30.0% 3% 27% 1,359
 Singapore (details) 900,000 18.0%[1] 5.7% 12% 61,803
 Slovakia (details) 4,730,000 86.5% 75.2% 11.3% 24,896
 Slovenia (details) 1,610,000 79.2% 57% 22.2% 26,801
 Somalia (details) 1,000[43] 0.01% 0.0002% 0.01%
 South Africa (details) 40,243,000 80% 5% 75% 11,440
 South Sudan (details) 6,010,000[44] 60.5%[45] 30% 30%
 Spain (details) 36,240,000 73% 71% 2% 32,129
 Sri Lanka (details) 1,531,000 7.5% 6.1% 1.4% 6,247
 Sudan (details)  ? 2%
 Suriname (details) 308,000 50.3% 8,858
 Swaziland (details) 994,000 82.7% 25% 57.7% 5,246
 Sweden (details) 6,320,000 67.2% 2% 65% 42,217
  Switzerland (details) 5,700,000 71% 38% 33% 5,246
 Syria (details) 2,251,000 10.0% 10% 5,436
 Tajikistan (details) 99,000 1.4% 0.1% 1.3% 2,247
 Tanzania (details) 27,118,000 62.0% 1,601
 Thailand (details) 778,000 1.2% 0.6% 0.6% 9,815
 Togo (details) 1,966,000 29.0% 1,051
 Tonga (details) 84,000 81.0% 16% 65% 5,026
 Trinidad and Tobago (details) 774,000 57.6% 21.5% 33.4% 26,647
 Tunisia (details) 24,000 0.2% 0.2% 9,795
 Turkey (details) 120,000[46] 0.2% 17,651
 Turkmenistan (details) 466,000 9.0% 9% 10,583
 Uganda (details) 29,943,000 88.6% 41.9% 46.7% 1,352
 Ukraine (details) 15,070,965[47] 33.6% 5.9% 27.7% 7,418
 United Arab Emirates (details) 424,000 9.0% 7% 2% 42,384
 United Kingdom (details)[48] 33,200,417 59.3% 8.9% 50% 35,819
 United States (details) 246,780,000 73% 22% 51% 49,965
 Uruguay (details) 2,127,000 58.4% 47% 11% 16,037
 Uzbekistan (details) 710,000 2.6% 2.6%
  Vatican City (details) 836 100.0% 100%
 Venezuela (details) 28,340,000 87.0% 79% 8% 13,475
 Vietnam (details) 703,000 8.0% 7% 1% 3,635
 Western Sahara (details) 200 0.04% 0.04%
 Yemen (details) 3,000 0.013% 0.013% 2,489
 Zambia (details) 12,939,000 97.6% 25% 72% 1712
 Zimbabwe (details) 10,747,000 85.0% 7% 77% 559
Total[49] 2,384,311,733 33% 17% 16% -

Unrecognised states[edit]

Note: Includes non-United Nations member states not recognized by any state, non-UN member states recognized only by non-UN members and non-UN member states recognized by at least one UN member.

Country Christians  % Christian
 Abkhazia (details) 130,000 68.0%
 Kosovo (details) 150,000 8.3%
 Nagorno-Karabakh (details) 136,000 96.0%
 Palestine (details) 173,000 11.1%
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (details) 200 0.03%
 South Ossetia (details) 69,000 96.4%
 Republic of China (details) 902,000 3.9%
 Transnistria (details) 510,000 95.0%

Top ten[edit]

On the left: A list of the top ten countries by largest number of Christians. On the right: a list of the top ten countries by highest percentage of the population that is Christian.[50]

Rank Country Christians  % Christian Country  % Christian Christians
 European Union 373,656,000 74.2%
1  United States 246,780,000 79.5%   Vatican City 100% 800
2  Brazil 175,700,000 91.4%  Romania 99% 21,490,000
3  Mexico 113,500,000 93%  Papua New Guinea 99% 6,860,000
4  Russia 105,775,000 73.6%  Tonga 99% 100,000
5  Nigeria 92,281,000 52.8%  Armenia 98.5% 3,090,000
6  Philippines 86,500,000 85.8%  Namibia 97.6% 2,280,000
7  Congo, Democratic Republic of 68,558,000 95.6%  Marshall Islands 97.5% 50,000
8  Ethiopia 54,978,000 64.5%  Moldova 97.5% 3,570,000
9  Italy 54,070,000 91.5%  Zambia 97.5% 13,090,000
10  Germany 50,000,000 62%  Solomon Islands 97.5% 540,000
Percent (%) Christians Number of countries Population
100 2 850
90 - 99 49 739,568,000
80 - 89 28 312,790,200
70 - 79 20 599,319,000
60 - 69 11 177,608,000
50 - 59 16 132,349,929
40 - 49 3 13,594,000
30 - 39 6 15,497,000
20 - 29 5 23,657,000
10 - 19 10 43,409,000
1 - 9 34 124,755,000
- 1 13 1,823,750

In total, 126 countries (including the United States) have a Christian majority, while 71 countries (which includes China) have a Christian minority.

According to Pew Research study, of the 232 countries and territories , 157 have Christian majorities.[51]

Population growth[edit]

Further information: Christian population growth

See also[edit]

Other religions:

General:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Current sources are in general agreement that Christians make up about 33% of the world's population—slightly over 2.4 billion adherents in mid-2015.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 33.39% of ~7.2 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World". CIA world facts. 
  2. ^ "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  3. ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  4. ^ ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  5. ^ Hinnells, The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, p. 441.
  6. ^ "Universal Church sees increase in seminarians, reports Pontifical Yearbook". Catholic News Agency. February 20, 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  7. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica table of religions, by region; retrieved November 2007
  8. ^ Largest Christian Population in the world; retrieved April 2009
  9. ^ "Argentina". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  10. ^ "Costa Rica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  11. ^ "Denmark". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  12. ^ "Church and State in Britain: The Church of privilege". Centre for Citizenship. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  13. ^ The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity Up to 1300, E. Glenn Hinson, p 223
  14. ^ Georgian Reader, George Hewitt, p. xii
  15. ^ "Iceland". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  16. ^ "Liechtenstein". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  17. ^ "Malta". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  18. ^ "Monaco". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  19. ^ "Norway". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  20. ^ "Vatican". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  21. ^ "Religion and denominations in the Republic of Belarus" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  22. ^ "Religions in Canada—Census 2011". Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada. 
  23. ^ "Religión en Chile - 2014" (PDF) (in Spanish). Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. 
  24. ^ Chinese Family Panel Studies's survey of 2012. Published in The World Religious Cultures issue 2014: 卢云峰:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据. p. 13, reporting the results of the Renmin University's Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) for the years 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, and their average. Note: according to the researchers of CFPS, only 6.3% of the Chinese are not religious in the sense of atheism; the others are not religious in the sense that they do not belong to an organised religion, while they pray to or worship gods and ancestors in the manner of the traditional popular religion.
  25. ^ "Eurobarometer on Biotechnology – page 381" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-02-01. 
  26. ^ (Romanian) Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolică, Cotidianul 11 January 2007
  27. ^ La Vie, issue 3209, 1 March 2007 (French)
  28. ^ a b c d 2011 Hungary Census Report
  29. ^ See: http://www.istat.it/it/popolazione
  30. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2010: Liberia". United States Department of State. November 17, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2011. 
  31. ^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  32. ^ Kaski: Cijfers Rooms-Katholieke Kerk.
  33. ^ Kaski: Kerncijfers 2012.
  34. ^ "CHRISTIANITY IN THE PHILIPPINES". Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  35. ^ "Christianity in the Philippines". Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  36. ^ "Global Christianity Interactive – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". 19 December 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2012. 
  37. ^ http://fom.ru/obshchestvo/10953 Public Opinion Foundation
  38. ^ http://www.levada.ru/17-12-2012/v-rossii-74-pravoslavnykh-i-7-musulman Levada Center
  39. ^ Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. 2012 National Survey of Religions in Russia. Sreda.org
  40. ^ http://wciom.ru/index.php?id=268&uid=13365 VTSIOM
  41. ^ http://www.pewforum.org/2011/12/19/global-christianity-exec/ Pew
  42. ^ House, Karen Elliott (2012). On Saudi Arabia : Its People, past, Religion, Fault Lines and Future. Knopf. p. 235. 
  43. ^ "Almost expunged: Somalia's Embattled Christians". 2009-10-22. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  44. ^ "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Numbers". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  45. ^ "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  46. ^ "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2011. 
  47. ^ "What religious group do you belong to?". Sociology poll by Razumkov Centre about the religious situation in Ukraine (2006)
  48. ^ "2011 Census, Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales - ONS". Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  49. ^ "Global Christianity" (PDF). Pew Research Center. December 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  50. ^ PEW research center
  51. ^ "Christians". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2015.