Christmas Island Immigration Reception and Processing Centre

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The Immigration Detention Centre in 2008 (Image by DIAC)

Christmas Island Immigration Reception and Processing Centre or commonly just Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre, is an Australian immigration detention facility located on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.


Temporary facilities for asylum seekers were established on Christmas Island at Phosphate Hill in late 2001. This temporary facility was found inadequate in terms of size, amenity and security. On 12 March 2002, the Australian Government announced the replacement of the existing temporary facility and the construction of a purpose designed and built IRPC on Christmas Island with a capacity of 1200 people. In June 2002, after a tender process, a contractor was appointed to design and construct the facility on a fast track basis.

Due to the reduction in the number of boat arrivals in 2001 and 2002 (boat arrivals had reached the Australian mainland since mid-2001), the Australian Government announced on 19 February 2003 to scale back the proposed 1200 person IRPC to 800 places. The existing construction contract was terminated.

In September 2003, it was decided to proceed with the construction of the centre with accommodation capacity for approximately 800 people; 416 housed in purpose-designed and built accommodation units, and a further 384 in basic contingency accommodation.[1]


Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre

The centre was constructed on a 40 ha (99-acre) site, formerly a phosphate mining lease, at the north-western end of Christmas Island, next to the Christmas Island National Park. The A$208 million centre was built by Baulderstone from January 2005 until August 2006, for the Department of Finance and Administration. It consists of eight accommodation units, education and recreation building, tennis courts and central sports area. Central facilities include induction/visiting area, main reception, administration centre, conference centre, kitchen, laundry and stores, medical centre and utilities building. External facilities include warehouse and visitor processing building.[2]

In 2009, the capacity of the centre was increased to 1800 places and in early 2010 to 2040 places.[3] In February 2010, the Federal Government announced to further increase the capacity to between 2200 and 2300 places "within a couple of weeks".[4] In April 2010 there were 2208 people in detention.[3]

In June 2013 a surge of asylum-seekers resulted in the detention facilities exceeding their designed capacity. Regular operating capacity is 1094 people, with a 'contingency capacity' of 2724. After the interception of four boats in six days carrying 350, the Immigration Department said there were 2960 "irregular maritime arrivals" being held.[5]

Serco, a private contractor, manages the operations of immigration detention centres on behalf of the Australian government.[6] Property services are provided by CI Resources, which also operates a phosphate mine on the Island.[7]


As of 30 June 2014 there were 1,077 asylum seekers held in the centre.[8]


There have been several protests staged over conditions at the Christmas Island centre.

In 2011, more than 250 detainees hurled rocks at staff and set fire to the accommodation block causing millions of dollars' worth of damage. They were controlled by tear gas and bean bag rounds, one of the first times bean bag bullets have been used in Australia. The protest was against the conditions and length of time people are held there.[9]

In early 2012, about 375 detainees went on a hunger strike, seven stitching their lips together as a cry for freedom and a sign of solidarity for Iranian asylum seeker Reza Barati.[10]

Further unrest occurred in 2014 after mothers concerned about the living conditions at Construction Camp for their babies, had a meeting with immigration officials. The mothers were reportedly told "You will never be settled in Australia. You will be going to Nauru or Manus Island and that's the end of the story."[11] Following this message it was reported that the mothers started screaming and threatened to set fire to the camp and were arrested.[12] DIBP confirmed that following this arrest seven individuals made threats of self-harm and four committed self-harm. Ten mothers were placed on "guided supportive and monitoring engagement" under the PSP, requiring 24 hour surveillance by a Serco officer.[13]

On 9 November 2015, a riot began at the centre after the death of an asylum seeker.[14] The man escaped the centre and was found at the bottom of a cliff. Those involved in the rioting included criminals facing deportation.[15] Damage to the centre may be as high as $10 million. Detainees involved were flown to Perth and placed in a maximum security prison.[16]

Legal proceedings[edit]

On 26 August 2014, a class action was filed in the Supreme Court of Victoria by law firm Maurice Blackburn on behalf of a six-year-old girl against the Australian Government, claiming negligence in providing health care for Christmas Island detainees. The girl claims to have developed a dental infection, stammer, separation anxiety and has begun wetting her bed while detained on Christmas Island for over a year.[17] The claim if successful could provide potential redress for over a thousand asylum seekers.[18]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Proposed Christmas Island Immigration, Reception and Processing Centre" (PDF). Department of Finance and Administration. September 2003. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  2. ^ "Christmas Island Immigration, Reception and Processing Centre". Baulderstone. Retrieved 5 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Department of Immigration sends 184 asylum-seekers to Darwin". Paige Taylor (The Australian). 20 April 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2010. 
  4. ^ "Bring asylum seekers to mainland - Greens". Courier Mail. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  5. ^ Rintoul, Stuart (20 June 2013). "Pre-election surge pushes island centres far beyond capacity". The Australian. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  6. ^ "Detention Infrastructure". Global Detention Project. July 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Operation Sovereign Borders—Monthly Operational Update: JUNE 2014". Australian Customs and Border Protection Service. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  9. ^ Christmas Island Protests,
  10. ^ "Asylum Seekers stitch lips together in hunger strike". The Sydney Morning Herald (Faifax Media). AAP. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  11. ^ Elizabeth J. Elliott (31 July 2014). "Report to the Australian Human Rights Commission Inquiry into the Impact of Immigration Detention on Children" (doc). p. 12. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  12. ^ Australian Human Rights Commission, National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, Inquiry team interviews with three language groups, File note, 15 July 2014.
  13. ^ C Hatswell, Assistant Director AHRC Inquiry Taskforce, Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Correspondence to the Commission, National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention 2014, 22 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Christmas Island detention centre 'calm' after 'stand-off' with authorities following refugee's death: Immigration Department". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)). 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015. 
  15. ^ Robertson, Joshua (10 November 2015). "Christmas Island detention centre 'under control' after riot police move in". The Guardian (Australia) (Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  16. ^ Anderson, Stephanie. "Christmas Island riot: Dutton confirms $10m damage bill as more detainees moved from centre to Perth". ABC News (ABC (Australia)). Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  17. ^ [1], Injured Asylum Seekers Sue Australian Government
  18. ^ [2], Maurice Blackburn Class Action Christmas Island Asylum Seekers

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 10°28′15.95″S 105°34′32.06″E / 10.4710972°S 105.5755722°E / -10.4710972; 105.5755722