Christmas in the Philippines

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Parols and Christmas lights on display at night. The parol is regarded as one of the most iconic and important symbols of the Filipino Christmas season.[1][2]

Christmas in the Philippines (Filipino: Pasko sa Pilipinas)[a] is one of the biggest holidays in the country. The Philippines, one of the two predominantly Catholic countries in Asia (the other being East Timor), celebrates the world's longest Christmas season (Filipino: Kapaskuhan).[1][3] With Christmas music played as early as August,[4] the holiday season gradually begins by September, reaches its peak in December during Christmastide, and concludes within the week after New Year's Day;[5] however, festivities could last until the third Sunday of January, the feast day of the Santo Niño de Cebú.[6][7] Liturgically, the Christmas season is observed by the Catholic Church from the first day of Advent (the fourth Sunday before Christmas) to Epiphany (Three Kings' Day), which falls between January 2 and 8.[8][9]

Etymology and nomenclature[edit]

In Filipino and most Philippine languages, the word paskó commonly refers to Christmas.[b] It comes from the Spanish phrase pascua de navidad (lit.'Easter of the Nativity');[11] the latter part, de navidad, fell out of use, leaving the word pascua to be assimilated into the local languages over the years.[12][13] Meanwhile, the Spanish word pascua is descended from Latin pascha, which was borrowed from Ancient Greek πάσχα (páskha), meaning "Passover".[c][14] In other languages spoken in the country, including Chavacano (a Spanish-based creole),[15] Hiligaynon,[16] and Ilocano,[17] the Spanish-derived word pascua is still in use, although its spelling may vary.[d] In Kapampangan, Pasku (also spelled Pascu), a word related to Tagalog Paskó, is used.[18][19] Krismas, a Filipinized rendering of the English word Christmas, is also used occasionally in non-formal contexts.[20][21]

The word Paskó serves as the root word of some Christmas-related terms,[22] such as Kapaskuhán, the name for the Christmas season;[23] namamaskó, a caroller;[24] pamamaskó, the act of caroling;[25][26] pamaskó, a Christmas gift or present;[22][26][27] and pampaskó, or pang-Paskó, which literally means "for Christmas" and may refer to clothing worn on the day of the holiday.[28][29]


The celebrations of Christmas in the Philippines have deep influences of Catholicism, tracing their roots back to Spanish colonial rule from 1521 to 1898. Currently, the Philippines holds the longest running festivity of the Christmas season in the world, which begins on September 1.


The various ethnic groups in the Philippines each observe different Christmas traditions, and the following are generally common.

Christmas traditions[edit]

Simbang Gabi and Misa de Gallo[edit]

Catholic devotees flock to attend the "Simbang Gabi" at the St. Joseph Parish Church, Las Piñas on December 17, 2017.

Simbang Gabi ("Night Mass"; Spanish: Misa de Gallo, "Rooster's Mass", or Misa de Aguinaldo, "Gift Mass")[30] is a novena of dawn Masses from December 16 to 24 (Christmas Eve). The Simbang Gabi is practised mainly by Catholic and Aglipayans, with some Evangelical Christian and independent Protestant churches have adopted the practise of having pre-Christmas dawn services. Attending the Masses is meant to show devotion to God and heightened anticipation for Christ's birth, and folk belief holds that God grants the special wish of a devotee that hears all nine Masses.

Morning observance of Simbang Gabi this holiday begins as early as 03:00 or as late as 05:30 (or rarely, 06:00 or 06:30) PST, while in some parishes, some churches and others, anticipated Masses begin the previous evening at 20:00 PST or as early as 17:00 or as late as 21:00 PST. After hearing Mass, Catholic families buy traditional Filipino holiday fare for breakfast outside the church and eat it either within the church precincts or at home. Vendors offer many native delicacies, including bibingka (rice flour and egg-based cake, cooked using coal burners above and under); putò bumbóng (a purple, sticky rice delicacy steamed in bamboo tubes, buttered then sprinkled with brown sugar and shredded dried coconut meat). Drinks include coffee, salabát (ginger tea) and tsokolate (thick, Spanish-style hot chocolate). Some Aglipayan churches invite the congregation to partake of the "paínit" (literally, "heater"), a post-Mass snack of mostly rice pastries served with coffee or cocoa at the house of the Mass sponsor. The bibingka and putò bumbóng are also served to those attending the anticipated evening Masses together with dinner.

Christmas Eve[edit]

For Catholic Filipinos, Christmas Eve ("Bisperas ng Pasko" Spanish "Víspera de Navidad") on December 24 is celebrated with the Midnight Mass, and the traditional Noche Buena (Filipino Spanish "Good Night") feast.[31] Family members dine together at around midnight on traditional yuletide fare, which includes: queso de bola (Filipino Spanish for "Cheese Ball"), which is made of edam sealed in red paraffin wax); tsokoláte, noodles and pasta, fruit salad, pandesal, relleno and hamón (Christmas ham). Some families would also open presents at this time.


In different provinces and schools, the journey of Joseph and the pregnant Virgin Mary in search of lodging is re-enacted. The pageant, traditionally called the "Panunulúyan", "Pananawágan", or "Pananapátan", is modeled after the Spanish Las Posadas.

The Panunulúyan is performed after dark, with the actors portraying Joseph and the Virgin Mary going to pre-designated houses. They perform a chant meant to rouse the "owners of the house" (also actors) to request for lodging. The owners then cruelly turn them away, sometimes also in song, saying that their house is already filled with other guests. Finally, Joseph and Mary make their way to the parish church where a replica of the stable has been set up. The birth of Jesus is celebrated at midnight with the Misa de Gallo.

Christmas Carols

At the beginning of Simbang Gabi / Misa de Gallo is when Filipinos form groups and go from house to house singing Christmas carols for the residents. This is known as "caroling", just as in the U.S. and other countries.[32] They creatively in use recyclable materials to make makeshift instruments like drums and tambourines. Households give small amounts of money as a sign of appreciation for the carolers and as donations church choirs.

Christmas Day[edit]

Christmas Day in the Philippines is primarily a family affair. The Misa de Gallo is celebrated on December 25 and is usually one of several Masses that all family members (including non-churchgoers) are present. The Misa de Gallo is often celebrated between 10 pm and midnight, a schedule preferred by many Filipinos who stay up late on Christmas Eve for the night-long celebration of the Noche Buena. Fireworks and most merrymaking devices are sometimes used at the start of Christmas.

Preferably in the morning, Filipinos typically visit their extended family, especially to pay their respects to senior relatives. This custom of giving respect is enacted through the "Págmamáno". A supplicant takes the back of an elder's hand and presses it against the forehead while giving the greeting, Máno, pô (lit. "[Thy] hand, please"). The elder often responds by reciting a blessing or simply acknowledging the gesture, and in return gives "Aguinaldo" or money in the form of crisp banknotes, often placed in a sealed envelope such as an ang pao. Godparents in particular are socially obligated to give presents or aguinaldo to their godchildren, to whom they often give larger amounts compared to other younger relatives.

A festive lunch may follow the "Págmamáno". The menu is heavily dependent upon the finances of the family with richer families preparing grand feasts, while poorer families choose to cook simple yet special dishes. Some families choose to open presents on this day after the lunch.

When nighttime falls, members of the family usually return home or linger to drink, play parlor games, and chat. Some may opt to have another feast for dinner, while a minority spend the entire day at home to rest after the previous days' festivities.

Niños Inocentes[edit]

Holy Innocents' Day or Childermas is commemorated on December 28 as Niños Inocentes. Filipinos once celebrated the day by playing practical jokes on one another, similar to April Fool's Day.[33] One of the widely practiced pranks on this day is to borrow money without the intention of paying back. Creditors are usually helpless in getting remuneration from borrower, and are instead forewarned not to lend money on this day. Victims of such pranks were once called out, "Na-Niños Inocentes ka!"

New Year's Eve[edit]

Fireworks entertain visitors of the Quezon Memorial Circle in Quezon City on January 1, 2023.

On December 31 (Bisperas ng Bagong Taón), Filipino families gather for the Media Noche a lavish midnight feast that supposedly symbolizes their hopes for prosperity in the coming year, and lasts until the following morning as with the Noche Buena taken on Christmas Eve.

Filipinos make noise both to greet the New Year and in the belief that the din exorcises their surroundings of malevolent spirits. In spite of the yearly ban (due to the national government restrictions), people in most towns and cities customarily light firecrackers, or employ safer methods of merrymaking such as banging on pots and pans and blowing car horns.

Other traditions and beliefs include encouraging children to jump at the stroke of midnight to increase their height; displaying circular fruit such as oranges; wearing clothes with dots and other circular designs to symbolize coins and money; eating twelve grapes at midnight for good luck in the twelve months of the year (a Spanish custom); and opening all windows and doors to let in the blessings on the first day of the year.

Three Kings' Day[edit]

Christmas officially ends on the Feast of the Epiphany, more commonly known as Three Kings' Day (Spanish: Día de los Tres Reyes; Tagalog: Araw ng Tatlóng Harì), which falls on the first Sunday of January.

A dying tradition is the Hispanic custom of children leaving their shoes out by the window or the door, so that the Three Kings can leave small gifts like candy or money inside upon their descent on Twelfth Night.

Feast of the Black Nazarene[edit]

Feast of the Black Nazarene procession in Quiapo, Manila on January 9, 2012

The Black Nazarene, whose devotees are primarily centered in Manila and Cagayan de Oro, is borne in procession on January 9 after a novena in its honor. The date commemorates the image's 1787 Traslación (solemn transfer) from its original location in what is now Rizal Park to its present shrine in the Quiapo District of the city.

Feast of the Santo Niño[edit]

The latest date for the end of popular Christmas celebrations is the Feast of the Santo Niño (Christ Child) on the third Sunday of January. The image depiction most associated with this day is the purportedly miraculous Santo Niño de Cebú, the first Christian icon brought to the islands. In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan came to Cebú and gave the image as a present to Humamay, chief consort of the local monarch, Raja Humabon, when she, together with her husband and a number of his subjects, were baptized into the Catholic faith. Tradition holds that Humamay—who received the Christian name Juana after Joan of Castile—danced for joy upon receiving the Santo Niño, providing a legendary origin for the fervent religious dancing during the Sinulog held in honor of the Christ Child. Celebrations are mostly focused in Cebu, where the Sinulog Festival is held, while there are other celebrations held nationwide in its honor, including the Ati-Atihan Festival in Aklan Province, the Dinagyang in Iloilo, the Kahimunan in Butuan, and the feasts of the Holy Child in the districts of Tondo and Pandacan in Manila. The National Cathedral or the Central Church of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente or Aglipayans is dedicated to the Santo Niño and other several parishes and missions around the country.

Santo Niño feasts in the Philippines

The Feast of Our Lady of the Candles[edit]

In older traditions (which are still kept in the liturgical calendar of the Extraordinary Form of the Mass) Christmas lasted until Candlemas, or the Feast of the Purification of Mary and the Presentation of the Baby Jesus at the Temple. This marked the end of a long 40-day "Christmastide" corresponding to the 40 days of Lent. This date falls on February 2, after Mary had participated in a rite of purification in according to the ancient Candlemas festival rooted in Halakha (Jewish law). This is also when Simeon makes his well-known prophecy to Mary and Joseph about the Holy Child, of Jesus being a light for the Gentiles. Many parishes, if possible will still keep their nativity scenes displayed up until the celebration of the Presentation of the Lord on February 2.[34]

This final salvo is marked by the Feast of Our Lady of the Candles in Jaro, Iloilo City, where the image is enshrined in the Jaro Cathedral, the National Shrine of Our Lady of the Candles, where Tridentine Masses are celebrated in commemoration. Similar celebrations are held nationwide in towns where Our Lady of the Candles is its patroness, including Candelaria, Quezon, whose town fiesta is celebrated on this date.


Santa Claus figurines and other Christmas decorations sold in Quezon City ahead of the "ber" months on August 31, 2022

Due to secularization, decorations such as Santa Claus, Christmas trees, tinsel, faux evergreens, reindeer, and snow have become popular. Christmas lights are strung about in festoons, as the tail of the Star of Bethlehem in Belens, star shapes, Christmas trees, angels, and in a large variety of other ways, going as far as draping the whole outside of the house in lights. Despite these, the Philippines still retains its traditional decorations.


A traditional parol on a house as Christmas decoration

Every Christmas season, Filipino homes and buildings are adorned with star-shaped lanterns, called paról from the Spanish farol, meaning "lantern" or "lamp".[35] These lanterns represent the Star of Bethlehem that guided the magi, also known as the Three Kings (Tagalog: Tatlóng Harì). Paról are as beloved and iconic to Filipinos as Christmas trees are to Westerners.

The most common form of the lantern is a 5-pointed star with two "tails" at the lower two tips. Other popular variations are four, eight, and ten-pointed stars, while rarer ones sport six, seven, nine, and more than twelve points. The earliest paróls were made from simple materials like bamboo, Japanese rice paper (known as "papél de Hapón") or crêpe paper, and were lit by a candle or coconut oil lamp. Simple paróls can be easily constructed with just ten bamboo sticks, paper, and glue. Present-day paról has endless possible shapes and forms and is made of a variety of materials, such as cellophane, plastic, rope, capiz shell, glass, and even recycled refuse. Paról-making is a folk craft, and many Filipino children often craft them as a school project or for leisure.

The Giant Lantern Festival is an annual festival held the Saturday before Christmas Eve in the San Fernando City, Pampanga. The festival features a competition of giant lanterns, and the popularity of the festival, has earned the city the moniker, "Christmas Capital of the Philippines".


A Catholic nun looks at the nativity scene figures inside the Manila Cathedral-Basilica in Intramuros, Manila on December 7, 2022

Another traditional Filipino Christmas symbol is the belén—a creche or tableau depicting the Birth of Christ. Derived from the Spanish name for Bethlehem, Belén, it depicts the infant Jesus in the manger, surrounded by the Virgin Mary, St. Joseph, the shepherds, their flock, the Magi and some stable animals, and is surmounted by an angel, the Star or both.

Belén were introduced by the Spanish since the 16th century. They are an ubiquitous and iconic Christmas symbol in the Philippines, on par with the parol (Christmas lanterns depicting the Star of Bethlehem) which are often incorporated into the scene as the source of illumination. Both the Belén and the parol were the traditional Christmas decorations in Filipino homes before Americans introduced the Christmas tree.[36][37][38][39][40] Most churches in the Philippines also transform their altars into a Belén at Christmas. They are also found in schools (which also hold nativity plays), government buildings, commercial establishments, and in public spaces.[41][42][43]

A Belén set up in the altar of the Candon Church in the Philippines with a parol above it

Belén can be seen in homes, churches, schools and even office buildings; the ones on office buildings can be extravagant, using different materials for the figures and using Christmas lights, parols for the Star, and painted background scenery. A notable outdoor belén in Metro Manila is the one that used to be at the Manila COD department store building in Avenida Rizal in Manila from 1952 until the store and display itself was relocated to Cubao, Quezon City in 1966. In 2003, the belén was transferred to the Greenhills Shopping Center in San Juan when the COD building closed down in 2002. The last known display in Greenhills was held from November 2016 to January 2017, before returning to Cubao in November 2018 at the Times Square Park.[44] This belén is a lights and sounds presentation, the story being narrated over speakers set up and most probably using automatons to make the figures move up and down, or turn, etc. Each year, the company owning it changes the theme from the Nativity Story, with variations such as a fairground story, and Santa Claus' journey.

Tarlac City, Tarlac is known as the "Belén Capital of the Philippines" holds the annual "Belenísmo sa Tarlac". It is a belén-making contest which is participated by establishments and residents in Tarlac. Giant versions of the belén with different themes are displayed in front of the establishments and roads of Tarlac for the entire season.


In the Philippines, children in small groups go from house to house singing Christmas carols, which they called pangangaroling. Makeshift instruments include tambourines made with tansans (aluminum bottle caps) strung on a piece of wire. With the traditional chant of "Namamasko po!", these carolers wait expectantly for the homeowners to reward them with coins. Afterward, the carolers thank the generous homeowners by singing "Thank you, thank you, ang babait ninyo (you are so kind), thank you!"

An example of a traditional Filipino carol is a part of series known as "Maligayang Pasko", which is commonly called "Sa maybahay ang aming bati". The tradition of carols stems from the long years of Spanish rule, in which traditions practiced in Spanish Latin America during this time of the year were adopted to suit Philippine conditions.


This is a word heard repeatedly during the Christmas Season in the Philippines. Presently, the term is interpreted as gift or money received from benefactors. Aguinaldo is a Spanish term for bonus. Its prevalent use may have originated from Filipino workers of the Spanish era, receiving extra pay from the generosity of the rich employers during the celebration of the Christmas season.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ For the names of Christmas in other languages spoken in the Philippines, see § Etymology and nomenclature.
  2. ^ In the Filipino-language phrase Paskó ng (Muling) Pagkabuhay (lit.'Pasch of the Resurrection'), Paskó means "Pasch" or "Easter".[10] Paskó, when used by itself, specifically refers to Christmas.
  3. ^ Ancient Greek πάσχα (páskha) was itself borrowed from Aramaic פסחא (paskha), which in turn was borrowed from Hebrew פסח (pésakh).
  4. ^ For example, in the aforementioned Hiligaynon and Ilocano languages, it is spelled Paskwa[16] and Paskua,[17] respectively.


  1. ^ a b Brown, Sarah (December 5, 2012). "The Philippines shows the world how to celebrate Christmas". CNN. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  2. ^ "Paskong Pinoy at Kultura" [Filipino Christmas and Culture]. The Manila Times. December 2, 2021. Retrieved March 20, 2022. In the Philippines, the parol has become an iconic symbol of the Filipino Christmas and is as important to Filipinos as the Christmas tree is to Western cultures.
  3. ^ Pitrelli, Monica Buchanan (December 20, 2021). "The country that celebrates Christmas for more than 4 months a year". CNBC. Retrieved October 11, 2022.
  4. ^ Maxabella, Bron (December 20, 2021). "A very Filipino Christmas: Early starts, pigs and plenty of flan". SBS Food. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
  5. ^ "The 'ber' months are here, bringing good tidings". Manila Bulletin. September 1, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  6. ^ de Guzman, Odi M. (January 5, 2016) [January 8, 2015]. "Black or white: The Nazarene and the Pinoy devotion". GMA News. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  7. ^ "Origins of Pinoy Christmas traditions". Inquirer Pop!. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  8. ^ Hermoso, Christina P. (January 3, 2021). "Feast of the Epiphany marks end of Christmas Season". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  9. ^ Medenilla, Samuel P. (September 6, 2021). "Avoid commercialization of Christmas–CBCP exec". BusinessMirror. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  10. ^ Pangalangan, Raul C. (March 30, 2007). "Ritualizing the faith". Passion for Reason. Philippine Daily Inquirer. p. 14. Retrieved August 22, 2022 – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Daluyan: Journal ng Wikang Filipino (in Tagalog). Vol. 1–2. Sentro ng Wikang Filipino and the University of the Philippines. 1990. p. 7. Pasku at Paskwa ang hiniram ng mga Pilipino sa Kastilang pascua...
  12. ^ Tan, Nigel (December 24, 2016). "How Filipinos celebrated Christmas in the Spanish era". Rappler. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
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  15. ^ Garcia, Bong (November 24, 2018). "Mayor leads opening of 'Pascua na Zamboanga 2018'". SunStar. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  16. ^ a b Jalando-on, Francis Neil G. (January 29, 2019). "Jesus is Paskwa". Central Philippine University. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
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  22. ^ a b Tan, Michael L. (December 28, 2005). "'Pamasko'" [Christmas gift]. Philippine Daily Inquirer. p. 11. Retrieved April 12, 2022 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ Abelgas, Gus (December 3, 2021). "Kampanya na ba?" [Has the campaign [period] begun?]. Pang-Masa (in Tagalog). The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  24. ^ Vila, Alixandra Caole (December 24, 2015). "Namamasko po: Christmas scenarios we can all relate to". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  25. ^ "Daygon, a Cebuano Christmas caroling tradition". Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 7, 2007. p. 5. Retrieved April 12, 2022 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ a b Robas, Sharon Wendy A. (December 16, 2005). "One family keeps the tradition". Philippine Daily Inquirer. pp. 16–17. Retrieved April 12, 2022 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ Ismael, Javier Joe (December 27, 2020). "Bong Go's 'pamasko' lifts spirits of Tacloban residents". The Manila Times. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
  28. ^ "Mga Pinoy kaniya-kaniyang pakulo 20 araw bago ang Pasko" [Filipinos having their own gimmick 20 days before Christmas]. ABS-CBN News (in Tagalog). December 5, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  29. ^ Greenfield, Joseph (December 12, 2015). "BF ang wish ngayong Pasko (2)" [A boyfriend is [their] wish for Christmas (2)]. Bandera (in Tagalog). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  30. ^ Lilia Borlongan – Alvarez (December 15, 2013). "Misa de Gallo or Misa de Aguinaldo – What's the difference?". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  31. ^ Leibowitz, Angela Dimayuga, as told to Karen (December 4, 2017). "A Merry and Bright Filipino-American Christmas". Retrieved December 1, 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  32. ^ "Christmas Carols in the Philippines". World Pulse. December 25, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
  33. ^ "FunFare with Ricardo F. Lo". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on May 16, 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
  34. ^ "Does Christmas End on Epiphany?". January 6, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  35. ^ 'Merriam Webster – English English- Spanish Dictionary
  36. ^ Bondoc, Joshua (December 22, 2021). "Christmas in our isles, a long enduring feast (First published 1978, TV Times magazine)". PhilStar Global. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  37. ^ Ferrolino, Mark Louis F. (December 15, 2017). "A Christmas like no other". BusinessWorld. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  38. ^ Macairan, Evelyn (December 19, 2010). "'Belen most important Christmas decor'". PhilStar Global. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  39. ^ Gonzalez, Joaquin Jay (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780814732977.
  40. ^ Laquian, Eleanor R. "Christmas Belen tradition brings Baby Jesus to Vancouver homes". Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  41. ^ Dice, Elizabeth A. (2009). Christmas and Hanukkah. Infobase Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 9781438119717.
  42. ^ Bowler, Gerry (2012). The World Encyclopedia of Christmas. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 9781551996073.
  43. ^ Llamas, Cora (December 20, 2021). "The Philippines Has the Longest Christmas Season in the World". Christianity Today. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  44. ^ Soliman, Michelle Anne P. (November 27, 2018). "COD display returns to Cubao". BusinessWorld. Retrieved September 8, 2021.

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]