Christopher Isherwood

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Christopher Isherwood
Isherwood in 1938
Isherwood in 1938
BornChristopher William Bradshaw Isherwood
(1904-08-26)26 August 1904
High Lane, Cheshire, England
Died4 January 1986(1986-01-04) (aged 81)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
CitizenshipBritish (1904–1946)
American (1946–1986)
Alma materCorpus Christi College, Cambridge
King's College London
Notable works
PartnerHeinz Neddermeyer (1932–1937)
Don Bachardy (1953–1986)
Christopher Isherwood signature.svg

Christopher William Bradshaw Isherwood (26 August 1904 – 4 January 1986) was an Anglo-American novelist, playwright, screenwriter, autobiographer, and diarist.[1][2][3] His best-known works include Goodbye to Berlin (1939), a semi-autobiographical novel which inspired the musical Cabaret; A Single Man (1964), adapted as a film by Tom Ford in 2009; and Christopher and His Kind (1976), a memoir which "carried him into the heart of the Gay Liberation movement".[4]


Early life and work[edit]

Isherwood was born in 1904 on his family's estate in Cheshire near Stockport in the north-west of England.[5] He was the elder son of Francis Edward Bradshaw Isherwood (1869–1915), known as Frank, a professional soldier in the York and Lancaster Regiment, and Kathleen Bradshaw Isherwood, née Machell Smith (1868–1960), the only daughter of a successful wine merchant.[6] He was the grandson of John Henry Isherwood, squire of Marple Hall and Wyberslegh Hall, Cheshire, and he included among his ancestors the Puritan judge John Bradshaw, who signed the death warrant of King Charles I and served for two years as Lord President of the Council, effectively President of the English Republic.[7] Isherwood's father Frank was educated at the University of Cambridge and Sandhurst Military Academy, fought in the Boer War, and was killed in the First World War.[8] Isherwood's mother, Kathleen, was, through her own mother, a member of the wealthy Greene brewing family of Greene King, and Isherwood was a cousin of the novelist Graham Greene, who was also related to the brewing family.[9] Frank and Kathleen christened their first son Christopher William Bradshaw Isherwood, which Isherwood simplified on becoming a United States citizen in 1946.[10]

Repton School

At Repton, his boarding school in Derbyshire, Isherwood met his lifelong friend Edward Upward, with whom he invented an imaginary English village called Mortmere, as related in his fictional autobiography, Lions and Shadows (1938).[11] He went up to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, as a history scholar, wrote jokes and limericks on his second year Tripos and was asked to leave without a degree in 1925.[citation needed]

At Christmas 1925, he was reintroduced to a prep school friend, W. H. Auden. Through Auden, Isherwood met the younger poet, Stephen Spender, who printed Auden's first collection, Poems (1928).[12] Upward, Isherwood, Auden, and Spender were identified as the most exciting new literary group in England in the 1930s. Auden dubbed Isherwood the novelist in what came to be known as the Auden Group or Auden Generation.[13] With Cecil Day-Lewis and Louis MacNeice, Auden and Spender later attracted the name the MacSpaunday Poets, with which Isherwood is also associated.

After leaving Cambridge, Isherwood worked as a private tutor and later as secretary to a string quartet led by the violinist André Mangeot while he completed his first novel. This was All the Conspirators, published in 1928, about the struggle for self-determination between children and their parents. In October 1928, Isherwood enrolled as a medical student at King's College London, but he left after six months.[14]

Sojourn in Berlin[edit]

In March 1929, Isherwood joined Auden in Berlin, where Auden was spending a post-graduate year. The ten-day visit changed Isherwood's life. He began an affair with a German boy met at a cellar bar called The Cosy Corner,[15] and he was "brought face to face with his tribe"[16] at Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science.[17] He visited Berlin again in July, and moved there in November.[18]

Jean Ross, a British expatriate and cabaret singer upon whom Isherwood based the character of Sally Bowles
Jean Ross, a British expatriate and cabaret singer upon whom Isherwood based the character of Sally Bowles

In Berlin, Isherwood completed his second novel, The Memorial (1932), about the impact of the First World War on his family and his generation. He also continued his habit of keeping a diary. In his diary, he gathered raw material for Mr. Norris Changes Trains (1935), inspired by his real-life friendship with Gerald Hamilton,[19] and for Goodbye to Berlin (1939), his portrait of the city in which Adolf Hitler was rising to power—enabled by poverty, unemployment, increasing attacks on Jews and Communists, and ignored by the defiant hedonism of night life in the cafés, bars, and brothels. Goodbye to Berlin included stories published in the leftist magazine, New Writing, and it included Isherwood's 1937 novella Sally Bowles, in which he created his most famous character, based on a young Englishwoman, Jean Ross,[20] with whom he briefly shared a flat.

In America, the Berlin novels were published together as The Berlin Stories in 1945.[21] In 1951, Goodbye to Berlin was adapted for the New York stage by John van Druten using the title I Am a Camera, taken from Isherwood's opening paragraphs.[22] The play inspired the hit Broadway musical Cabaret (1966), later adapted to film as Cabaret in 1972.

In 1932, Isherwood started a relationship with a young German, Heinz Neddermeyer.[23] They fled Nazi Germany together in May 1933, traveling initially to Greece. Neddermeyer was refused entry to England in January 1934,[24] launching an odyssey in search of a country where they could settle together. They lived in the Canary Islands, Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam, and Sintra, Portugal, while trying to obtain a new nationality and passport for Neddermeyer. In May 1937, Neddermeyer was arrested by the Gestapo for draft evasion and reciprocal onanism.[25]

During this period, Isherwood returned often to London where he took his first movie-writing job, working with Viennese director Berthold Viertel on the film Little Friend (1934).[26] He collaborated with Auden on three plays – The Dog Beneath the Skin (1935), The Ascent of F6 (1936), and On the Frontier (1938) – all produced by Robert Medley and Rupert Doone's Group Theatre. He also worked on Lions and Shadows (1938), a fictionalized autobiography of his education — both in and out of school — in the 1920s.

In January 1938, Isherwood and Auden traveled to China to write Journey to a War (1939) about the Sino-Japanese conflict.[27] They returned to England the following summer via the United States and decided to emigrate there in January 1939.[28]

Life in the United States[edit]

Christopher Isherwood (left) and W. H. Auden (right), photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1939
Don Bachardy at age 19 (1954), photographed by Carl Van Vechten

While living in Hollywood, California, Isherwood befriended Truman Capote, an up-and-coming young writer who would be influenced by Isherwood's Berlin Stories, most specifically in the traces of the story "Sally Bowles" that surface in Capote's famed novella Breakfast at Tiffany's.[29]

Isherwood also befriended Dodie Smith, a British novelist and playwright who had also moved to California, and who became one of the few people to whom Isherwood showed his work in progress.[30]

Isherwood considered becoming an American citizen in 1945 but balked at taking an oath that included the statement that he would defend the country. The next year he applied for citizenship and answered questions honestly, saying he would accept non-combatant duties like loading ships with food. The fact that he had volunteered for service with the Medical Corps also helped. At the naturalisation ceremony, he found he was required to swear to defend the nation and decided to take the oath since he had already stated his objections and reservations. He became an American citizen on 8 November 1946.[31]

He began living with the photographer William "Bill" Caskey. In 1947, the two traveled to South America. Isherwood wrote the prose and Caskey took the photographs for a 1949 book about their journey entitled The Condor and the Cows.

On Valentine's Day 1953, at the age of 48, he met the teenager Don Bachardy among a group of friends on the beach at Santa Monica. Reports of Bachardy's age at the time vary, but Bachardy later said, "At the time I was probably 16."[32] In fact, he was 18.[33] Despite the age difference, this meeting began a partnership that, though interrupted by affairs and separations, continued until the end of Isherwood's life.[34]

During the early months of their affair, Isherwood finished—and Bachardy typed—the novel on which he had worked for some years, The World in the Evening (1954). Isherwood also taught a course on modern English literature at Los Angeles State College (now California State University, Los Angeles) for several years during the 1950s and early 1960s.

The 30-year age difference between Isherwood and Bachardy raised eyebrows at the time, with Bachardy, in his own words, "regarded as a sort of child prostitute",[35] but the two became a well-known and well-established couple in Southern Californian society with many Hollywood friends.

Isherwood in 1973

Down There on a Visit, a novel published in 1962, comprised four related stories that overlap the period covered in his Berlin stories. In the opinion of many reviewers[who?], Isherwood's finest achievement was his 1964 novel A Single Man, that depicted a day in the life of George, a middle-aged, gay Englishman who is a professor at a Los Angeles university.[36] The novel was adapted into a film of the same name in 2009. During 1964 Isherwood collaborated with American writer Terry Southern on the screenplay for the Tony Richardson film adaptation of The Loved One, Evelyn Waugh's caustic satire on the American funeral industry.

Isherwood and Bachardy lived together in Santa Monica for the rest of Isherwood's life. Isherwood was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1981, and died of the disease on 4 January 1986 at his Santa Monica home, aged 81. His body was donated to medical science at UCLA, and his ashes were later scattered at sea.[37] Bachardy became a successful artist with an independent reputation, and his portraits of the dying Isherwood became well known after Isherwood's death.[38]

Association with Vedanta[edit]

Gerald Heard had introduced British writer Aldous Huxley to Vedanta (Hindu-centered philosophy) and meditation. After migrating to America in 1937,[39] Heard and Huxley became Vedantists attending functions at the Vedanta Society of Southern California, under the guidance of founder Swami Prabhavananda, a monk of the Ramakrishna Order of India. Both were initiated by the Swami.[40] Heard and Huxley introduced Isherwood to the Swami's Vedanta Society.[41] Over time, Isherwood developed a close friendship with Huxley, with whom he sometimes collaborated. Isherwood became a dedicated Vedantist himself and was initiated by Prabhavananda, his guru.[42]

The process of conversion to Vedanta was so intense that Isherwood was unable to write another novel between the years 1939–1945, while he immersed himself in study of the Vedanta Scriptures, even becoming a monk for a time at the Society.[42][43] For the next 35 years Isherwood collaborated with the Swami on translations of various Vedanta scriptures, including the Bhagavad Gita – The Song of God, writing articles for the Society's journal, and occasionally lecturing at the Hollywood and Santa Barbara temples. For many years he would come to the Hollywood temple on Wednesday nights to read the Gospel of Ramakrishna for a half an hour, then the Swami would take questions from the devotees.[44]

From 1950 to 1978, Isherwood gave 53 lectures at the Hollywood and Santa Barbara Vedanta Temples. He mentions in his diaries and the book, My Guru and His Disciple, that he feels unqualified to preach, so most of his lectures were readings of papers written by others, primarily Swami Vivekananda. There were a few original lectures including, Who Is Ramakrishna, The Writer and Vedanta, and a lecture on Girish Chandra Ghosh, a householder disciple of Ramakrishna.[45]

Isherwood was also very involved in the production of the bi-monthly journal of the Vedanta Society of Southern California, Vedanta and the West. From 1943 to 1945 he was Managing Editor, from 1951 to 1962 he was an Editorial Advisor together with Aldous Huxley, Gerald Heard, and additionally with John van Druten from 1951 to 1958. From 1949 to 1969 he wrote 40 articles for the journal.[46]

Isherwood and war[edit]

Isherwood's father, Frank Bradshaw-Isherwood, was a colonel in the British Army. He was killed during WWI in the Battle of Ypres, France in May 1915, at the age of 46. Isherwood was 10 years old at the time.[47][48] His father's death “...deeply affected him, not only in his perspective of his father and how he would relate to his mother, but in his attitude towards the military and war itself."[49] Isherwood's second novel, The Memorial, published in 1932, describes the impact on a family from the death of the father in WWI. The Memorial was the first of what would become the trademark for Isherwood: reflecting his life experience into the plot of a novel.[50]

After being asked to leave Oxford, he lived in Berlin and witnessed the rising power of Fascism, the Nazi Party, and Hitler. Isherwood describes the times in his autobiographical novels The Berlin Stories. In 1933, Isherwood fled Germany with his friend Heinz Neddermeyer seeking asylum for Heinz - who was refused entry to England. Heinz was finally arrested in the May 1937 by the Gestapo for draft evasion and practicing homosexuality.[51]

Back in London, Isherwood's sympathies were with the left, but although the Anti-war movement flourished after WWI, it was fractured into opposing ideological groups. Some wanted to join the fight in the Spanish Civil War,[52] others wanting to just let the Germans in, rather than go to war, still others advocated non-violent resistance, all of which had the effect of weakening their political power. The fighting in Spain was savage, and "...the left tore itself apart with squabbling and paranoia. Veterans came to feel that the idealism of the cause had been exploited, and many resented being policed by shadowy Communist enforcers."[53]

In 1937, two of the largest peace groups joined forces; the No More War Movement merged into the Peace Pledge Union.[54] The members attested to the following pledge: "War is a crime against humanity. I renounce war, and am therefore determined not to support any kind of war. I am also determined to work for the removal of all causes of war". Some of the leading authors and intellectuals of the time gave speeches and lent their names to the cause, including Gerald Heard, Aldous Huxley, and Bertrand Russell.[55]

Inspired by Hemingway's reporting from the Spanish Civil War, in January 1938, Isherwood and his friend W. H. Auden traveled to China to cover the invasion by Japan and wrote Journey to a War (1939).[27] They returned to England the following summer via the United States and decided to emigrate there in January 1939.[28] At this point Isherwood wasn't clear about his own anti-war beliefs. On the way to America, he realized he was a Pacifist, as he would be unwilling to kill his friend Heinz, "Heinz is in the Nazi army. I wouldn't kill Heinz. Therefore I have no right to kill anybody".[56] He had lost his political faith, "I couldn't repeat the left-wing slogans which I had been repeating throughout the last few years."[57]

After moving to California, Isherwood sought "...advice from Gerald Heard and Aldous Huxley about becoming a pacifist,[58] and, like them, he became a disciple of the Ramakrishna monk, Swami Prabhavananda, head of the Vedanta Society of Southern California."[59] He applied for citizenship and registered as a Conscientiousness Objector. In Pennsylvania, he worked in a Quaker Hostel, helping to settle European Jews who were fleeing the Nazis.[60]

In 1944, the translation of the Hindu scripture, Bhagavad Gita – The Song of God that the Swami and Isherwood had been working on was published. In the appendix, there is an essay by Isherwood titled, The Gita and War. There Isherwood explains the Vedantic view of war and duty. The plot of the poem is that the whole of India is drawn into a great battle, and on the eve of the fight, Arjuna, the hero warrior of the epic poem, The Mahabharata, is taken between the two armies and sees friends, family, and worthy people on both sides, throws down his weapons and says, "I will not fight." The rest of the book has Lord Krishna, Arjuna's friend and advisor, explaining the nature of duty. It may be, for some person, at some time, it proper to refuse to fight, but if the cause is righteous, and it's your duty as a warrior to fight, it would be a moral hazard to refuse.[61]

Legacy and recognition[edit]

Plaque, Nollendorfstraße 17. Christopher Isherwood lived here between March 1929 and January/February 1933.
Christopher Isherwood's Nollendorfstraße residence


  • All the Conspirators (1928; new edition 1957 with new foreword)
  • The Memorial (1932)
  • Mr Norris Changes Trains (1935; U.S. edition titled The Last of Mr Norris)
  • The Dog Beneath the Skin (1935, with W. H. Auden)
  • The Ascent of F6 (1937, with W. H. Auden)
  • Sally Bowles (1937; later included in Goodbye to Berlin)
  • On the Frontier (1938, with W. H. Auden)
  • Lions and Shadows (1938, autobiographical fiction). Reissued: Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000
  • Goodbye to Berlin (1939)
  • Journey to a War (1939, with W. H. Auden)
  • Bhagavad Gita, The Song of God (1944, with Prabhavananda)
  • Vedanta for the Western World (1945, Marcel Rodd Co.; published in England by George Allen & Unwin, 1948; ed. and introduction, plus several contributions)
  • Prater Violet (1945)
  • The Berlin Stories (1945; contains Mr Norris Changes Trains and Goodbye to Berlin; reissued as The Berlin of Sally Bowles, 1975)
  • The Condor and the Cows (1949, South-American travel diary)
  • Vedanta for Modern Man (1951, Harper & Brothers; published in England by George Allen & Unwin, 1952; ed. and contributor)
  • What Vedanta Means to Me (1951, pamphlet)
  • The World in the Evening (1954)
  • Down There on a Visit (1962)
  • An Approach to Vedanta (1963)
  • A Single Man (1964)
  • Ramakrishna and His Disciples (1965)
  • Exhumations (1966; journalism and stories)
  • A Meeting by the River (1967)
  • Essentials of Vedanta (1969)
  • Kathleen and Frank (1971, about Isherwood's parents)
  • Frankenstein: The True Story (1973, with Don Bachardy; based on their 1973 film script)
  • Christopher and His Kind (1976, autobiography), 130-copy edition printed by Sylvester & Orphanos, regular publication by Farrar, Straus, & Giroux
  • My Guru and His Disciple (1980)
  • October (1980, with Don Bachardy)
  • The Mortmere Stories (with Edward Upward) (1994)
  • Where Joy Resides: An Isherwood Reader (1989; Don Bachardy and James P. White, eds.)
  • Diaries: 1939–1960, Katherine Bucknell, ed. (1996)
  • Jacob's Hands: A Fable (1997) originally co-written with Aldous Huxley
  • Lost Years: A Memoir 1945–1951, Katherine Bucknell, ed. (2000)
  • Kathleen and Christopher, Lisa Colletta, ed. (Letters to his mother, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005)
  • Isherwood on Writing (University of Minnesota Press, 2007)
  • The Sixties: Diaries:1960–1969 Katherine Bucknell, ed. 2010
  • Liberation: Diaries:1970–1983 Katherine Bucknell, ed. 2012
  • The Animals: Love Letters Between Christopher Isherwood and Don Bachardy, Edited by Katherine Bucknell (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014)


  • Charles Baudelaire, Intimate Journals (1930; revised edition 1947)
  • The Song of God: Bhagavad-Gita (with Swami Prabhavananda, 1944)
  • Shankara's Crest-Jewel of Discrimination (with Swami Prabhavananda, 1947)
  • How to Know God: The Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali (with Swami Prabhavananda, 1953)

Work on Vedanta and the West[edit]

Vedanta and the West (originally titled Voice of India from 1938–1940) was the official publication of the Vedanta Society of Southern California. It offered essays by many of the leading intellectuals of the time and had contributions from Aldous Huxley, Gerald Heard, Alan Watts, J. Krishnamurti, W. Somerset Maugham, and many others.

Isherwood wrote the following articles that appeared in Vedanta and the West:

In 1945 sixty-eight articles from Vedanta and the West were collected in book form as Vedanta for the Western World. Isherwood edited the selection and provided an introduction and three articles ("Hypothesis and Belief", "Vivekananda and Sarah Bernhardt", "The Gita and War"). Other contributors included Aldous Huxley, Gerald Heard, Swami Prabhavananda, Swami Vivekananda, and John Van Druten.

Audio and video recordings[edit]

  • Christopher Isherwood reads selections from the Bhagavad Gita – CD[65]
  • Christopher Isherwood reads selections from the Upanishads – CD[65]
  • Lecture on Girish Ghosh – CD[66][67]
  • Christopher Isherwood Reads Two Lectures on the Bhagavad Gita by Swami Vivekananda – DVD

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Biography". Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  2. ^ Berg, James J., ed. (2007). Isherwood on Writing. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 19. ISBN 9781452912936.
  3. ^ Bartelt, Chuck; Bergeron, Barbara (15 January 1986). "Variety Obituaries: 1905-1928". Variety. Obituary. ISBN 9780824008444.
  4. ^ Katherine Bucknell and Kevin Clarke, exhibition text, "My Dearest Sweet Love: Christopher Isherwood & Don Bachardy", Schwules Museum, Berlin, 15 June – 26 August 2019
  5. ^ Parker, Peter. Isherwood, 2004, Picador, p. 6.
  6. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Kathleen and Frank, 2013, Vintage, p. 3.
  7. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Kathleen and Frank, 2013, Vintage, pp. 306, 309.
  8. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Kathleen and Frank, 2013, Vintage, p. 471.
  9. ^ Parker, Peter. Isherwood, 2004, Picador, p. 54.
  10. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Lost Years, 2001, Vintage, p. 78.
  11. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Lions and Shadows, 2013, Vintage, p. 71-82.
  12. ^ Sutherland, John, Stephen Spender: A Literary Life, 2004, Oxford University Press, p. 84.
  13. ^ Spender, Stephen, World Within World, 1966, University of California Press, p. 101
  14. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Lions and Shadows, 2013, Vintage, p. 235.
  15. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 3-4.
  16. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 16.
  17. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 16. See also Auden's 1929 Berlin Journal which makes clear that he and Isherwood visited Hirschfeld together and went around the museum in March / April.
  18. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 12.
  19. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 76.
  20. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 61.
  21. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Diaries: Volume One: 1939–1960, 2011, Vintage, p. 910.
  22. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Diaries: Volume One: 1939–1960, 2011, Vintage, p. 912.
  23. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 92-94.
  24. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 164-166.
  25. ^ Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 296.
  26. ^ Parker, Peter. Isherwood, 2004, Picador, p. 271.
  27. ^ a b Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, pp. 304, 310.
  28. ^ a b Isherwood, Christopher, Christopher and His Kind, 2012, Vintage, p. 326.
  29. ^ Norton, Ingrid (1 July 2010). "Year with Short Novels: Breakfast at Sally Bowles'". Open Letters Monthly. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  30. ^ "Smith [married name Beesley], Dorothy Gladys [Dodie] (1896–1990)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 3 March 2014
  31. ^ Bucknell (ed.), pp.40, 77–8
  32. ^ The biographical film Chris & Don: A Love Story
  33. ^ Bachardy was born in May 1934, meaning that in February 1953 he was 18
  34. ^ Peter Parker, Isherwood, 2004
  35. ^ "The First Couple: Don Bachardy and Christopher Isherwood", by Armistead Maupin, The Village Voice, Volume 30, Number 16, 2 July 1985.
  36. ^ "The Britons who made their mark on LA". The Telegraph. 11 September 2011. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  37. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 23105). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  38. ^ Bachardy, Don, Christopher Isherwood: Last Drawings, Faber and Faber: 1990, ISBN 978-0571140756
  39. ^ Aldous Huxley: A Biography, Dana Sawyer, 2002, page 101
  40. ^ Aldous Huxley: A Biography, Dana Sawyer, 2002, page 111
  41. ^ Braubach, Mary Ann (2010). "Huxley on Huxley". Cinedigm. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  42. ^ a b My Guru and His Disciple, Isherwood
  43. ^ Izzo, David Garrett (2001). Christopher Isherwood: His Era, His Gang, and the Legacy of the Truly Strong Man. Univ of South Carolina Press. pp. 163–64. ISBN 978-1570034039. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  44. ^ "Christopher Isherwood 1904–1986; Vedantist Writer/Seeker, An Inner Man of Wit, Warmth and Depth". Hinduism Today. Himalayan Academy. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  45. ^ As listed in the monthly bulletins of the Vedanta Society of Southern California
  46. ^ Vedanta and the West publication history
  47. ^ "Christopher Isherwood, Whose Tales Inspired 'Cabaret,' Dies". Los Angeles Times. 6 January 1986. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023.
  48. ^ "CHRISTOPHER ISHERWOOD IS DEAD AT 81 (Published 1986)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 March 2023.
  49. ^ Biographical sketch the Harry Ransom archive at the University of Texas, Austin [1]
  50. ^ Review of ‘’The Memorial’’ by
  51. ^ La Times Book Review
  52. ^ BBC Article on the Spanish Civil War
  53. ^ "The American Soldiers of the Spanish Civil War". The New Yorker. 11 April 2016. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023.
  54. ^ Peace Pledge Union - Attitudes towards Nazi Germany
  55. ^ "About Us". Camden: Peace Pledge Union. 24 July 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  56. ^ Isherwood, Christo6pher (1996). Diaries: Volume 1, 1939-1960, Edited and Introduced by Katherine Bucknell. HarperFlamingo. p. Introduction XII. ISBN 978-0061180002.
  57. ^ Isherwood, Christopher (1980). My Guru and His Disciple. Farrar Straus Giroux. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-374-21702-0.
  58. ^ Isherwood, Christo6pher (1996). Diaries: Volume 1, 1939-1960, Edited and Introduced by Katherine Bucknell. HarperFlamingo. p. Introduction XIII. ISBN 978-0061180002.
  59. ^ Isherwood, Christo6pher (1996). Diaries: Volume 1, 1939-1960, Edited and Introduced by Katherine Bucknell. HarperFlamingo. p. Introduction XII. ISBN 978-0061180002.
  60. ^ Biography at the Isherwood Foundation
  61. ^ Bhagavad Gita – The Song of God Article on the Bhagavad Gita
  62. ^ Sontag, Susan. Notes on "Camp". Penguin Random House (2018). ISBN 978-0241339701
  63. ^ "New BBC Two drama, Christopher And His Kind" (Press release). BBC. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  64. ^ "The Christopher Isherwood Prize". The Christopher Isherwood Foundation. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  65. ^ a b CD produced by mondayMEDIA, distributed on the GemsTone label
  66. ^ Lecture given in the Santa Barbara Vedanta Temple
  67. ^ "Review in". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 December 2013.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]