Christopher Monroe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Christopher Monroe
Born (1965-10-19) October 19, 1965 (age 58)
Alma materMIT
University of Colorado
Known forQuantum Information
Ion Trapping
AwardsI. I. Rabi Prize[1]
International Quantum Communication Award[2]
Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers[1]
Arthur L. Schawlow Prize in Laser Science[3]
Scientific career
Quantum Information Science
Atomic Physics
InstitutionsDuke University
University of Michigan
University of Maryland
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Doctoral advisorCarl Wieman

Christopher Roy Monroe (born October 19, 1965) is an American physicist and engineer in the areas of atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information science, especially quantum computing. He directs one of the leading research and development efforts in ion trap quantum computing. Monroe is the Gilhuly Family Presidential Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Physics at Duke University[4] and is College Park Professor of Physics at the University of Maryland and Fellow of the Joint Quantum Institute and Joint Center for Quantum Computer Science. He is also co-founder and chief scientist at IonQ, Inc.


After receiving his undergraduate degree from MIT in 1987, Monroe joined Carl Wieman's research group at the University of Colorado in the early days of laser cooling and trapping of atoms. With Wieman and postdoctoral researcher Eric Cornell, Monroe contributed to the path for cooling a gas of atoms to the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition.[5] He obtained his PhD under Wieman in 1992 (Wieman and Cornell succeeded in the quest in 1995, and were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work in 2001).

From 1992 to 2000, Monroe worked in the Ion Storage Group of David Wineland at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, CO, where he was awarded a National Research Council postdoctoral fellowship from 1992-1994, and held a staff position in the same group from 1994-2000. With Wineland, Monroe led the research team that demonstrated the first quantum logic gate in 1995 and for the first time entangled multiple qubits,[6][7][8] and exploited the use of trapped atomic ions for applications in quantum control and the new field of quantum information science.

In 2000, Monroe initiated a research group at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he showed how qubit memories could be linked to single photons for quantum networking.[9] There he also demonstrated the first ion trap integrated on a semiconductor chip.[10] With Wineland, Monroe proposed a scalable quantum computer architecture based on shuttling atomic ions through complex ion trap chips.[11] In 2006, Monroe became director of the FOCUS Center at the University of Michigan, a NSF Physics Frontier Center in the area of ultrafast optical science.

In 2007, Monroe became the Bice Zorn Professor of Physics at the University of Maryland and a Fellow of the Joint Quantum Institute between the University of Maryland and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There, Monroe's group produced quantum entanglement between two widely separated atoms,[12] and were the first to teleport quantum information between matter separated over distance.[13] They exploited this resource for a number of quantum communication protocols[14] and for a new hybrid memory/photon quantum computer architecture.[15] In recent years, his group pioneered the use of individual atoms as a quantum simulator, or a special purpose quantum computer that can probe complex many-body quantum phenomena such as frustration and magnetic ordering.[16] His laboratory controls and manipulates the largest collection of individual interacting qubits.

In 2015, Monroe co-founded the startup IonQ, Inc. with Jungsang Kim (Duke University), and serves as chief scientist. From August 2018 to May 2019 he served as CEO. IonQ manufactures full stack quantum computers based on trapped atomic ion technology.

Monroe was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2016.[17] In 2017-2018 he played an instrumental role in working with the National Photonics Initiative and U.S. Congress to craft the 2018 National Quantum Initiative Act, [18] endowing U.S. scientific agencies to coordinate research in quantum information science and technology, while standing up focused research centers throughout the country.

In 2021, Monroe became the Gilhuly Family Presidential Distinguished Professor at Duke University, in the Departments of Physics and Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is the founding director of the Duke Quantum Center, an institute that designs, builds, and operates quantum computers.


  1. ^ a b "2001 I. I. Rabi Prize Recipient".
  2. ^ "Awards | QCMC 2012".
  3. ^ "2015 Arthur L. Schawlow Prize Recipient".
  4. ^ "new faculty". August 20, 2020.
  5. ^ Monroe, C.; Swann, W.; Robinson, H.; Wieman, C. (September 24, 1990). "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society (APS). 65 (13): 1571–1574. Bibcode:1990PhRvL..65.1571M. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.65.1571. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 10042304.
  6. ^ Monroe, C.; Meekhof, D. M.; King, B. E.; Itano, W. M.; Wineland, D. J. (December 18, 1995). "Demonstration of a Fundamental Quantum Logic Gate". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society (APS). 75 (25): 4714–4717. Bibcode:1995PhRvL..75.4714M. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.75.4714. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 10059979.
  7. ^ Turchette, Q. A.; Wood, C. S.; King, B. E.; Myatt, C. J.; Leibfried, D.; Itano, W. M.; Monroe, C.; Wineland, D. J. (October 26, 1998). "Deterministic Entanglement of Two Trapped Ions". Physical Review Letters. 81 (17): 3631–3634. arXiv:quant-ph/9806012. Bibcode:1998PhRvL..81.3631T. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.81.3631. ISSN 0031-9007. S2CID 49338133.
  8. ^ Sackett, C. A.; Kielpinski, D.; King, B. E.; Langer, C.; Meyer, V.; et al. (2000). "Experimental entanglement of four particles". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 404 (6775): 256–259. Bibcode:2000Natur.404..256S. doi:10.1038/35005011. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 10749201. S2CID 2137148.
  9. ^ Blinov, B. B.; Moehring, D. L.; Duan, L.- M.; Monroe, C. (2004). "Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 428 (6979): 153–157. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..153B. doi:10.1038/nature02377. hdl:2027.42/62924. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 15014494. S2CID 4314514.
  10. ^ Stick, D.; Hensinger, W. K.; Olmschenk, S.; Madsen, M. J.; Schwab, K.; Monroe, C. (2006). "Ion trap in a semiconductor chip". Nature Physics. 2 (1): 36–39. arXiv:quant-ph/0601052. Bibcode:2006NatPh...2...36S. doi:10.1038/nphys171. ISSN 1745-2473.
  11. ^ Kielpinski, D.; Monroe, C.; Wineland, D. J. (2002). "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 417 (6890): 709–711. Bibcode:2002Natur.417..709K. doi:10.1038/nature00784. hdl:2027.42/62880. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 12066177. S2CID 4347109.
  12. ^ Moehring, D. L.; Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Younge, K. C.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C. (2007). "Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 449 (7158): 68–71. Bibcode:2007Natur.449...68M. doi:10.1038/nature06118. hdl:2027.42/62780. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 17805290. S2CID 19624141.
  13. ^ Olmschenk, S.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Maunz, P.; Hayes, D.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C. (January 23, 2009). "Quantum Teleportation Between Distant Matter Qubits". Science. 323 (5913): 486–489. arXiv:0907.5240. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..486O. doi:10.1126/science.1167209. hdl:2027.42/63641. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 19164744. S2CID 206516918.
  14. ^ Pironio, S.; Acín, A.; Massar, S.; de la Giroday, A. Boyer; Matsukevich, D. N.; et al. (2010). "Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem". Nature. 464 (7291): 1021–1024. arXiv:0911.3427. Bibcode:2010Natur.464.1021P. doi:10.1038/nature09008. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 20393558. S2CID 4300790.
  15. ^ Monroe, C.; Raussendorf, R.; Ruthven, A.; Brown, K. R.; Maunz, P.; Duan, L.-M.; Kim, J. (February 13, 2014). "Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic memory and photonic interconnects". Physical Review A. 89 (2): 022317. arXiv:1208.0391. Bibcode:2014PhRvA..89b2317M. doi:10.1103/physreva.89.022317. ISSN 1050-2947. S2CID 14073633.
  16. ^ Monroe, C.; Campbell, W.C.; Duan, L. -M.; Gong, Z. -X.; Gorshkov, A. V.; et al. (April 7, 2021). "Programmable Quantum Simulations of Spin Systems with Trapped Ions". Rev. Mod. Phys. 93 (2): 025001. arXiv:1912.07845. Bibcode:2021RvMP...93b5001M. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.93.025001. S2CID 209386771.
  17. ^ National Academy of Sciences Members and Foreign Associates Elected, News from the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, May 3, 2016, archived from the original on May 6, 2016, retrieved May 14, 2016.
  18. ^ Raymer, Michael; Monroe, Chris (February 22, 2019). "The US National Quantum Initiative". Quantum Science and Technology. 4 (2): 020504. Bibcode:2019QS&T....4b0504R. doi:10.1088/2058-9565/ab0441.

External links[edit]