Nolan at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival
Christopher Edward Nolan
30 July 1970
|Residence||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Alma mater||University College London|
Emma Thomas (m. 1997)
|Relatives||Jonathan Nolan (brother)|
John Nolan (uncle)
Lisa Joy (sister-in-law)
Christopher Edward Nolan, //; born 30 July 1970) is a British-American film director, screenwriter, and producer, who is known for making personal, distinctive films within the Hollywood mainstream. His films have grossed over US$4.7 billion worldwide and garnered a total of 34 Oscar nominations and ten wins.(
Born and raised in London, Nolan developed an interest in filmmaking from a young age. After studying English literature at University College London, he made his feature debut with Following (1998). Nolan gained international recognition with his second feature, Memento (2000), for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. He transitioned from independent to studio filmmaking with Insomnia (2002), and found further critical and commercial success with The Dark Knight Trilogy (2005–2012), The Prestige (2006), and Inception (2010), which received eight Oscar nominations, including for Best Picture and Best Original Screenplay. This was followed by Interstellar (2014), and Dunkirk (2017), which earned him Academy Award nominations for Best Picture and Best Director. Nolan has co-written several of his films with his brother Jonathan, and runs the production company Syncopy Inc. with his wife Emma Thomas.
Nolan's films are typically rooted in epistemological and metaphysical themes, exploring human morality, the construction of time, and the malleable nature of memory and personal identity. His work is permeated by unconventional narrative structures, cross-cutting, practical special effects, experimental soundscapes, large-format film photography, materialistic perspectives, and analogous relationships between visual language and narrative elements.
Throughout his career, Nolan has received many awards and honours. Time magazine named Nolan one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2015, and in 2019, he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire for his services to film. In addition to his filmmaking, he is an advocate for film preservation and the analog medium.
Nolan was born in Westminster, London, and grew up in Highgate. His English father, Brendan James Nolan, was an advertising executive, and his American mother, Christina (née Jensen), worked as a flight attendant and an English teacher. His childhood was split between London and Evanston, Illinois, and he has both British and US citizenship. He has an older brother, Matthew Francis Nolan, a convicted criminal, and a younger brother, Jonathan. He began making films at age seven, borrowing his father's Super 8 camera and shooting short films with his action figures. Growing up, Nolan was particularly influenced by the work of Ridley Scott, and the science fiction films 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Star Wars (1977). Around the age of eight, he made a stop motion animation homage to the latter called Space Wars. His uncle, who worked at NASA building guidance systems for the Apollo rockets, sent him some launch footage: "I re-filmed them off the screen and cut them in, thinking no-one would notice," Nolan later remarked. From the age of eleven, he aspired to be a professional filmmaker.
1989–1997: Career beginnings
When Nolan's family relocated to Chicago during his formative years, he started making films with Adrien and Roko Belic. He has continued his collaboration with the brothers, receiving a credit for his editorial assistance on their Oscar-nominated documentary Genghis Blues (1999). Nolan also worked alongside Belic on documenting a safari across four African countries, organised by the late photojournalist Dan Eldon in the early 1990s. Nolan was educated at Haileybury and Imperial Service College, an independent school in Hertford Heath, Hertfordshire, and later read English literature at University College London (UCL). He chose UCL specifically for its filmmaking facilities, which comprised a Steenbeck editing suite and 16 mm film cameras. Nolan was president of the Union's Film Society, and with Emma Thomas (his girlfriend and future wife) he screened 35 mm feature films during the school year and used the money earned to produce 16 mm films over the summers. During his college years, Nolan made two short films. The first was the surreal 8 mm Tarantella (1989), which was shown on Image Union (an independent film and video showcase on the Public Broadcasting Service). The second was Larceny (1996), filmed over a weekend in black and white with limited equipment and a small cast and crew. Funded by Nolan and shot with the society's equipment, it appeared at the Cambridge Film Festival in 1996 and is considered one of UCL's best shorts.
After earning his bachelor's degree in English literature in 1993, Nolan worked as a script reader, camera operator, and director of corporate videos and industrial films. He also filmed a third short, Doodlebug (1997), about a man chasing an insect around a flat with a shoe, only to discover when killing it that it is a miniature of himself. Nolan had written the script while a student at UCL. During this period in his career, Nolan had little or no success getting his projects off the ground; he later recalled the "stack of rejection letters" that greeted his early forays into making films, adding "there's a very limited pool of finance in the UK. To be honest, it's a very clubby kind of place ... Never had any support whatsoever from the British film industry."
In 1998 Nolan directed his first feature, Following, which he personally funded and filmed with friends. It depicts an unemployed young writer (Jeremy Theobald) who trails strangers through London, hoping they will provide material for his first novel, but is drawn into a criminal underworld when he fails to keep his distance. The film was inspired by Nolan's experience of living in London and having his flat burgled: "There is an interesting connection between a stranger going through your possessions and the concept of following people at random through a crowd – both take you beyond the boundaries of ordinary social relations". Following was made on a modest budget of £3,000, and was shot on weekends over the course of a year. To conserve film stock, each scene in the film was rehearsed extensively to ensure that the first or second take could be used in the final edit. Co-produced with Emma Thomas and Jeremy Theobald, Nolan wrote, photographed, and edited the film himself. Following won several awards during its festival run and was well received by critics; The New Yorker wrote that it "echoed Hitchcock classics", but was "leaner and meaner". Janet Maslin of The New York Times was impressed with its "spare look" and agile hand-held camerawork, saying, "As a result, the actors convincingly carry off the before, during and after modes that the film eventually, and artfully, weaves together." On 11 December 2012 it was released on DVD and Blu-ray as part of The Criterion Collection.
—Nolan (in 2012) on the jump from his first film to his second.
As a result of Following's success, Nolan was afforded the opportunity to make his breakthrough hit Memento (2000). During a road trip from Chicago to Los Angeles, his brother Jonathan pitched the idea for "Memento Mori", about a man with anterograde amnesia who uses notes and tattoos to hunt for his wife's murderer. Nolan developed a screenplay that told the story in reverse; Aaron Ryder, an executive for Newmarket Films, said it was "perhaps the most innovative script I had ever seen". The film was optioned and given a budget of $4.5 million. Memento, starring Guy Pearce and Carrie-Anne Moss, premiered in September 2000 at the Venice International Film Festival to critical acclaim. Joe Morgenstern of The Wall Street Journal wrote in his review, "I can't remember when a movie has seemed so clever, strangely affecting and slyly funny at the very same time." Basil Smith, in the book The Philosophy of Neo-Noir, draws a comparison with John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which argues that conscious memories constitute our identities, a theme that Nolan explores in the film. The film was a box-office success and received a number of accolades, including Academy Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for its screenplay, Independent Spirit Awards for Best Director and Best Screenplay, and a Directors Guild of America (DGA) Award nomination. Memento was considered by numerous critics to be one of the best films of the 2000s. In 2017, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Impressed by his work on Memento, Steven Soderbergh recruited Nolan to direct the psychological thriller Insomnia (2002), starring Academy Award winners Al Pacino, Robin Williams, and Hilary Swank. Warner Bros. initially wanted a more seasoned director, but Soderbergh and his Section Eight Productions fought for Nolan, as well as his choice of cinematographer (Wally Pfister) and editor (Dody Dorn). With a $46 million budget, it was described as "a much more conventional Hollywood film than anything the director has done before". A remake of the 1997 Norwegian film of the same name, Insomnia is about two Los Angeles detectives sent to a northern Alaskan town to investigate the murder of a local teenager. It received positive reviews from critics and performed well at the box office, earning $113 million worldwide. Film critic Roger Ebert praised the film for introducing new perspectives and ideas on the issues of morality and guilt. "Unlike most remakes, the Nolan Insomnia is not a pale retread, but a re-examination of the material, like a new production of a good play." Erik Skjoldbjærg, the director of the original film, was satisfied with Nolan's version, calling it a "well crafted, smart film ... with a really good director handling it". Richard Schickel of Time deemed Insomnia a "worthy successor" to Memento, and "a triumph of atmosphere over a none-too-mysterious mystery".
After Insomnia, Nolan planned a Howard Hughes biographical film starring Jim Carrey. He penned a screenplay, which he said was "the best script I've ever written", but when he learned that Martin Scorsese was making a Hughes biopic (2004's The Aviator), he reluctantly tabled his script and moved on to other projects. After turning down an offer to direct the historical epic Troy (2004), Nolan worked on adapting Ruth Rendell's crime novel The Keys to the Street into a screenplay that he planned to direct for Fox Searchlight Pictures, but eventually left the project, citing the similarities to his previous films.
2005–2013: Mainstream and critical success
In early 2003 Nolan approached Warner Bros. with the idea of making a new Batman film. Fascinated by the character and story, he wanted to make a film grounded in a "relatable" world more reminiscent of a classical drama than a comic-book fantasy. Batman Begins, the biggest project Nolan had undertaken to that point, premiered in June 2005 to critical acclaim and commercial success. Starring Christian Bale in the title role, along with Michael Caine, Gary Oldman, Morgan Freeman, and Liam Neeson, the film revived the franchise, heralding a trend towards darker films that rebooted (or retold) backstories. Praised for its psychological depth and contemporary relevance, Kyle Smith of The New York Post called it "a wake-up call to the people who keep giving us cute capers about men in tights. It wipes the smirk off the face of the superhero movie." Batman Begins was the eighth-highest-grossing film of 2005 in the United States and the year's ninth-highest-grossing film worldwide. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography and three BAFTA awards. On the film's 10th anniversary, Forbes published an article describing its lasting influence: "Reboot became part of our modern vocabulary, and superhero origin stories became increasingly en vogue for the genre. The phrase "dark and gritty" likewise joined the cinematic lexicon, influencing our perception of different approaches to storytelling not only in the comic book film genre but in all sorts of other genres as well."
Before returning to the Batman franchise, Nolan directed, co-wrote, and produced The Prestige (2006), an adaptation of the Christopher Priest novel about two rival 19th-century magicians. In 2001, when Nolan was in post-production for Insomnia, he asked his brother Jonathan to help write the script for the film. The screenplay was an intermittent, five-year collaboration between the brothers. Nolan initially intended to make the film as early as 2003, postponing the project after agreeing to make Batman Begins. Starring Hugh Jackman and Christian Bale in the lead roles, The Prestige received critical acclaim (including Oscar nominations for Best Cinematography and Best Art Direction), and earned over $109 million worldwide. Roger Ebert described it as "quite a movie – atmospheric, obsessive, almost satanic". Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called it an "ambitious, unnerving melodrama". Philip French wrote in his review for The Guardian: "In addition to the intellectual or philosophical excitement it engenders, The Prestige is gripping, suspenseful, mysterious, moving and often darkly funny."
In July 2006 Nolan announced that the follow-up to Batman Begins would be called The Dark Knight. Approaching the sequel, Nolan wanted to expand on the noirish quality of the first film by broadening the canvas and taking on "the dynamic of a story of the city, a large crime story ... where you're looking at the police, the justice system, the vigilante, the poor people, the rich people, the criminals". Released in 2008 to great critical acclaim, The Dark Knight has been cited as one of the best films of the 2000s and one of the best superhero films ever made. Manohla Dargis of The New York Times found the film to be of higher artistic merit than many Hollywood blockbusters: "Pitched at the divide between art and industry, poetry and entertainment, it goes darker and deeper than any Hollywood movie of its comic-book kind." Ebert expressed a similar point of view, describing it as a "haunted film that leaps beyond its origins and becomes an engrossing tragedy." The Dark Knight set a number of box-office records during its theatrical run, earning $534,858,444 in North America and $469,700,000 abroad, for a worldwide total of $1,004,558,444. It is the first commercial feature film shot partially in the 15/70 mm IMAX format. At the 81st Academy Awards, the film was nominated for eight Oscars, winning two: the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing and a posthumous Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Heath Ledger. Nolan received many awards and nominations for his work on the film. In 2018, Bilge Ebiri of The Village Voice wrote, "Its politics have been discussed ad infinitum. Its stylistic influence has become ubiquitous, then passé, then somehow aspirational ... The Dark Knight is perhaps the most powerful exploration of guilt the modern American blockbuster has given us."
After The Dark Knight's success, Warner Bros. signed Nolan to direct Inception. Nolan also wrote and co-produced the film, described as "a contemporary sci-fi actioner set within the architecture of the mind". Starring a large ensemble cast led by Leonardo DiCaprio, the film was released on 16 July 2010, and was a critical and commercial success. Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times awarded the film a perfect score of "A+" and called it "one of the best movies of the [21st] century". Mark Kermode named it the best film of 2010, stating "Inception is proof that people are not stupid, that cinema is not trash, and that it is possible for blockbusters and art to be the same thing." The film ended up grossing over $820 million worldwide and was nominated for eight Oscars, including Best Picture and Best Original Screenplay; it won the award for Best Cinematography, Best Sound Mixing, Best Sound Editing and Best Visual Effects. Nolan was also nominated for BAFTA and Golden Globe awards, among other accolades.
In 2012 Nolan directed his third and final Batman film, The Dark Knight Rises. Although he was initially hesitant about returning to the series, he agreed to come back after developing a story with his brother and David S. Goyer that he felt would end the series on a high note. The film was released on 20 July 2012 to positive reviews; Andrew O'Hehir of Salon called it "arguably the biggest, darkest, most thrilling and disturbing and utterly balls-out spectacle ever created for the screen", further describing the work as "auteurist spectacle on a scale never before possible and never before attempted". Christy Lemire of The Associated Press wrote in her review that Nolan concluded his trilogy in a "typically spectacular, ambitious fashion", but disliked the "overloaded" story and excessive grimness. Like its predecessor, the film was a box office success, becoming the thirteenth film to reach the billion-dollar mark. During a midnight showing of the film at the Century 16 cinema in Aurora, Colorado, a gunman opened fire inside the theatre, killing 12 people and injuring 58 others. Nolan released a statement to the press expressing his condolences for the victims of what he described as a senseless tragedy.
During story discussions for The Dark Knight Rises in 2010, Goyer told Nolan of his idea to present Superman in a modern context. Impressed with Goyer's first contact concept, Nolan pitched the idea for Man of Steel (2013) to Warner Bros, who hired Nolan to produce and Zack Snyder to direct. Starring Henry Cavill, Amy Adams, Kevin Costner, Russell Crowe, and Michael Shannon, Man of Steel grossed more than $660 million at the worldwide box office, but received a divided critical reaction. However, Nolan was thoroughly impressed by Snyder's work, saying that the director "knocked it out of the park", and believed the film would have the same potential to excite audiences as when he himself saw the Christopher Reeve version in 1978.
2014–present: Large-scale epics
In 2014 Nolan directed, wrote, and produced the science-fiction film Interstellar. The first drafts of the script were written by Jonathan Nolan, and it was originally to be directed by Steven Spielberg. Based on the scientific theories of theoretical physicist Kip Thorne, the film follows a group of astronauts who travel through a wormhole in search of a new home for humanity. Interstellar starred Matthew McConaughey, Anne Hathaway, Jessica Chastain, Bill Irwin, Michael Caine, and Ellen Burstyn, and was notably Nolan's first collaboration with cinematographer Hoyte van Hoytema. Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros. co-financed and co-distributed the project, released on 5 November 2014 to largely positive reviews and strong box office results, grossing over $670 million worldwide. A. O. Scott wrote, in his review for The New York Times, "Interstellar, full of visual dazzle, thematic ambition ... is a sweeping, futuristic adventure driven by grief, dread and regret." Documentary filmmaker Toni Myers said of the film, "I loved it because it tackled the most difficult part of human exploration, which is that it's a multi-generational journey. It was a real work of art." Interstellar was particularly praised for its scientific accuracy, which led to the publication of two scientific papers and the American Journal of Physics calling for it to be shown in school science lessons. It was named one of the best films of the year by The American Film Institute (AFI). At the 87th Academy Awards, the film won Best Visual Effects and received four other nominations – Best Original Score, Best Sound Mixing, Best Sound Editing and Best Production Design.
Nolan and Emma Thomas also served as executive producers on Transcendence (2014), the directorial debut of Nolan's longtime cinematographer Wally Pfister. The film was released to mostly unfavorable reviews and disappointing box office results. In 2015 Nolan's production company Syncopy formed a joint venture with Zeitgeist Films, to release Blu-ray editions of Zeitgeist's prestige titles. As part of a Blu-ray release of the Quay brothers animated work, Nolan directed the documentary short Quay (2015). He also initiated a theatrical tour, showcasing the Quays' In Absentia, The Comb, and Street of Crocodiles. The program and Nolan's short received critical acclaim, with Indiewire writing in their review that the brothers "will undoubtedly have hundreds, if not thousands more fans because of Nolan, and for that The Quay Brothers in 35mm will always be one of latter's most important contributions to cinema". In 2015 Nolan joined The Film Foundation's board of directors, a non-profit organisation dedicated to film preservation. An advocate for the survival of the analogue medium, Nolan and visual artist Tacita Dean invited representatives from leading American film archives, labs, and presenting institutions to participate in an informal summit entitled Reframing the Future of Film at the Getty Museum in March 2015. Subsequent events were held at Tate Modern in London, Museo Tamayo in Mexico City, and Tata Theatre in Mumbai. On 7 May it was announced that Nolan and Martin Scorsese had been appointed by the Library of Congress to serve on the National Film Preservation Board (NFPB) as DGA representatives. Nolan and Thomas opted to only serve as executive producers on Zack Snyder's Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016) and Justice League (2017), the sequels to Man of Steel.
In 2017, Nolan directed and produced Dunkirk, based on his own original screenplay. The story is set amid World War II and the evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk, France, in 1940. Describing the film as a survival tale with a triptych structure, he wanted to make a "sensory, almost experimental movie" with minimal dialogue. Nolan said he waited to make Dunkirk until he had earned the trust of a major studio to let him make it as a British film, but with an American budget. Before filming, Nolan sought advice from Spielberg, who later said in an interview with Variety, "Knowing and respecting that Chris [Nolan] is one of the world's most imaginative filmmakers, my advice to him was to leave his imagination, as I did on Ryan, in second position to the research he was doing to authentically acquit this historical drama." Starring Fionn Whitehead, Jack Lowden, Aneurin Barnard, Harry Styles, Tom Hardy, Mark Rylance, Cillian Murphy, and Kenneth Branagh, Dunkirk was released in theatres on 21 July 2017 to widespread critical acclaim and strong box office results, grossing over $525 million worldwide, making it the highest-grossing World War II film of all time. In his review, Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote: "It's one of the best war films ever made, distinct in its look, in its approach and in the effect it has on viewers. There are movies—they are rare—that lift you out of your present circumstances and immerse you so fully in another experience that you watch in a state of jaw-dropped awe. Dunkirk is that kind of movie." The film received many accolades, including eight nominations at the 71st British Academy Film Awards; winning one for Best Sound, three at the 75th Golden Globes, and eight at the 90th Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director (Nolan's first Oscar nomination for directing); winning three for Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Film Editing.
In the months following the 2017–18 Oscar season, Nolan began supervising a new 70mm print of Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), made from the original camera negative. He presented the film at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival. While in Cannes, the director also held a two-hour masterclass at the Palais des Festivals. USA Today observed that he was greeted "like a rock star", and with a prolonged standing ovation. After the premiere, Warner Bros. released the "unrestored" prints in a select few locations to both critical and commercial success. Nolan served as executive producer on The Doll's Breath (2019), an animated short directed by the Quay brothers. The film was inspired by Felisberto Hernández's Las Hortensias, and was commissioned by Nolan "on the condition that it was shot on 35mm film."
Nolan's eleventh feature, Tenet, is scheduled to be released by Warner Bros. on 17 July 2020. Nolan wrote the screenplay and is producing with Emma Thomas. It stars John David Washington, Robert Pattinson, Elizabeth Debicki, Aaron Taylor-Johnson, Dimple Kapadia, Clémence Poésy, Kenneth Branagh and Michael Caine.
Nolan's films are often grounded in existential and epistemological themes, exploring the concepts of time, memory, and identity. His work is characterised by unconventional narrative structures, richly textured imagery, and evocative use of music and sound. Film theorist David Bordwell opined that the director has been able to blend his "experimental impulses" with the demands of mainstream entertainment, further describing Nolan oeuvre as, "experiments with cinematic time by means of techniques of subjective viewpoint and crosscutting." Nolan's use of practical, in-camera effects, miniatures and models, as well as shooting on celluloid film, has been highly influential. IndieWire said the director has "kept a viable alternate model of big-budget filmmaking alive" in an era where blockbuster filmmaking has become "a largely computer-generated art form."
Nolan is married to Emma Thomas, whom he met at University College London when he was 19. She has worked as a producer on all of his films, and together they founded the production company Syncopy Inc. The couple have four children and reside in Los Angeles, California. Protective of his privacy, he rarely discusses his personal life in interviews. However, he has publicly shared some of his sociopolitical concerns for the future, such as the current conditions of nuclear weapons and environmental issues that he says need to be addressed. He has also expressed an admiration for scientific objectivity, wishing it were applied "in every aspect of our civilization." He is red-green colour blind.
Nolan prefers not to use a mobile phone or an email address, saying, "It's not that I'm a Luddite and don't like technology; I've just never been interested ... When I moved to Los Angeles in 1997, nobody really had cell phones, and I just never went down that path." He also prohibits use of phones on set.
Having made some of the most influential and popular films of his time, Nolan's work has been as "intensely embraced, analyzed and debated by ordinary film fans as by critics and film academics". Several of his films have been regarded by critics as among the best of their respective decades, and according to The Wall Street Journal, his "ability to combine box-office success with artistic ambition has given him an extraordinary amount of clout in the industry." In 2016, Memento, The Dark Knight, and Inception appeared in BBC's 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century list. In the following year, five of his (then nine) films featured in Empire magazine's poll of The 100 Greatest Movies. Film scholar David Bordwell observed that Nolan is "considered one of the most accomplished living filmmakers," citing his ability to turn genre movies into both art and event films, as well as his box office numbers, critical acclaim, and popularity among cinemagoers.
Geoff Andrew of the British Film Institute and Sight & Sound magazine, called Nolan "a persuasively inventive storyteller", singling him out as one of the few contemporary filmmakers producing highly personal films within the Hollywood mainstream. He also pointed out that Nolan's films are as notable for their "considerable technical virtuosity and visual flair" as for their "brilliant narrative ingenuity and their unusually adult interest in complex philosophical questions". In 2008, film critic Philip French deemed Nolan "The first major talent to emerge this [21st] century", while Forbes called him "one of the most successful and acclaimed filmmakers of our time" in 2015. The Observer described Nolan as a "skilful, stylish storyteller, capable of combining the spectacle of Spielberg with the intellectual intricacy of Nicolas Roeg or Alain Resnais". Mark Cousins applauded the director for embracing big ideas, "Hollywood filmmakers generally shy away from ideas — but not Christopher Nolan". Scott Foundas of Variety declared Nolan "the premier big-canvas storyteller of his generation", while Justin Chang of the Los Angeles Times called him "the great proceduralist of 21st century blockbuster filmmaking, a lover of nuts-and-bolts minutiae."
The filmmaker has been praised by many of his contemporaries, and some have cited his work as influencing their own. Rupert Wyatt said in an interview that he thinks of Nolan as a "trailblazer ... he is to be hugely admired as a master filmmaker, but also someone who has given others behind him a stick to beat back the naysayers who never thought a modern mass audience would be willing to embrace story and character as much as spectacle". Kenneth Branagh called Nolan's approach to large-scale filmmaking "unique in modern cinema", adding "regardless of how popular his movies become, he remains an artist and an auteur. I think for that reason he has become a heroic figure for both the audience and the people working behind the camera." Michael Mann complimented Nolan for his "singular vision" and called him "a complete auteur". Nicolas Roeg said of Nolan, "[His] films have a magic to them ... People talk about 'commercial art' and the term is usually self-negating; Nolan works in the commercial arena and yet there's something very poetic about his work." Martin Scorsese identified Nolan as a filmmaker creating "beautifully made films on a big scale", and Luca Guadagnino called him "one of the ultimate auteurs." Damien Chazelle said of Nolan, "This is a filmmaker who has managed, time and again, to make the most seemingly impersonal projects — superhero epics, deep-space mind-benders — feel deeply personal".
Olivier Assayas said he admired Nolan for "making movies that are really unlike anything else. The way I see it, he has a really authentic voice." Discussing the difference between art films and big studio blockbusters, Steven Spielberg referred to Nolan's Dark Knight series as an example of both; he has described Memento and Inception as "masterworks". Denis Villeneuve said of Nolan, "[He] is a very impressive filmmaker, because he is able to keep his identity and create his own universe in that large scope ... To bring intellectual concepts and to bring them in that scope to the screen right now — it's very rare. Every movie that he comes out with, I have more admiration for his work." Film critic Mark Kermode complimented the director for bringing "the discipline and ethics of art-house independent moviemaking" to Hollywood blockbusters, calling him "living proof that you don't have to appeal to the lowest common denominator to be profitable".
In 2013 a survey of seventeen film academics showed that Nolan was among the most studied directors in Britain. His work has also been recognised as an influence on video games. Video game designer Hideo Kojima compared Dunkirk to his own work, saying "Its approach to technology in movie making and refusal to rely on defeating one's enemies as a portrayal of war, reminds me in many ways of my work on Metal Gear and where I hope to see my next game go". Nolan appeared in Time's 100 most influential people in the world in 2015 and in the Forbes Celebrity 100 in 2011 and 2013.
Filmography and awards
Nolan was named an Honorary Fellow of UCL in 2006, and received an honorary doctorate in literature (DLit) in 2017. In 2012, he became the youngest director to receive a hand-and-footprint ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Los Angeles. Nolan was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2019 New Year Honours for his services to film.
- Following (1998)
- Memento (2000)
- Insomnia (2002)
- Batman Begins (2005)
- The Prestige (2006)
- The Dark Knight (2008)
- Inception (2010)
- The Dark Knight Rises (2012)
- Interstellar (2014)
- Dunkirk (2017)
- Tenet (2020)
- "Nolan's Mind Games". Film London. 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Christopher Nolan". British Film Institute (BFI). Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Index entry". FreeBMD. ONS. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Mooney, p. 3.
- Shone, Tom (4 November 2014). "Christopher Nolan: the man who rebooted the blockbuster". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Feinberg, Scott (3 January 2015). "Christopher Nolan on 'Interstellar' Critics, Making Original Films and Shunning Cell Phones and Email (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- "Christopher Nolan injects his sci-fi with soul". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- Boucher, Geoff (11 April 2010). "Christopher Nolan's 'Inception' — Hollywood's first existential heist film". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- Itzkoff, Dave (30 June 2010). "The Man Behind the Dreamscape". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Christopher Nolan's Inception tops British box office". BBC. 22 July 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- "Nolan sentenced for escape attempt". Chicago Tribune. 7 July 2010. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- Lawrence, Will (19 July 2012). "Christopher Nolan interview for Inception". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Timberg, Scott (15 March 2001). "Indie Angst". New Times Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Nolan's move from Highgate to Hollywood" Archived 26 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Evening Standard (London); retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Mooney, p. 4.
- "On Christopher Nolan's birthday, how many of his 15 favourite films have you seen?". Hindustan Times. 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 28 September 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- "Christopher Nolan's final frontier". Andrew Purcell. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- Covert, Colin. "Christopher Nolan explains his 'cinematic brain' at Walker Art Center". StarTribune. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Genghis Blues". Musicdoc.se. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- O'Sullivan, Graydon (2013), p. 67.
- "Remembering My Brother Dan Eldon: A Journalist Who Died To Tell the Story". Huffingtonpost. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Tempest, M. "I was there at the 'Inception' of Christopher Nolan's film career" Archived 5 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 24 February 2011; retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "Wally Pfister ASC on Christopher Nolan's Inception". thecinematographer.info. 2010. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Mooney, p. 5.
- "Christopher Nolan: The Movies. The Memories". Empire. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "UCLU Film Society, London". Ucl.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Fearville (1997)". BFI. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
- Mooney, p. 6.
- Hooton, Christopher (10 April 2017). "Christopher Nolan's student short film Doodlebug shows the Dunkirk director's humble beginnings". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- Pulver, Andrew (15 June 2005). "He's not a god – he's human". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Ressner, Jeffrey (Spring 2012). "The Traditionalist". DGA Quarterly. Archived from the original on 25 November 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "The Man behind the Mask". UCL. 8 December 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Interview with Christopher Nolan" Archived 5 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Metro; retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Duncker, Johannes (6 June 2002). "The Making of Following". christophernolan.net. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Tobias, S. Interview: Christopher Nolan Archived 18 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, avclub.com, 5 June 2002; retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Tiger Awards Competition: previous winners". International Film Festival Rotterdam. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Awards for Following" Archived 27 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. IMDb; retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Maslin, Janet. "Hero With No Memory Turns 'Memento' Into Unforgettable Trip". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
- "Criterion – Following". Criterion. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Mottram, p. 176.
- Mottram, p. 177.
- Mottram, p. 62–64.
- Morgenstern, Joe. "Hero With No Memory Turns 'Memento' Into Unforgettable Trip". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 26 March 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Conard (2007) p.35.
- "Memento". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Christopher Nolan awards". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Session Timeout – Academy Awards® Database Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine (29 January 2010); retrieved 26 November 2011.
- "Film Critics Pick the Best Movies of the Decade". Metacritic. 3 January 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- "'Titanic,' 'The Goonies,' 'Field of Dreams,' 'Memento' Added to National Film Registry". Variety. 13 December 2017. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "'Memento' recognition landed Christopher Nolan in the director's chair for big-budget 'Insomnia'". Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- deWaard, Tait (2013), p. 49.
- "Insomnia". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Insomnia". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Ebert, Roger (24 May 2002). "Insomnia review". Rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Paul Weedon. "Erik Skjoldbærg on 'Pioneer'". Grolsch Filmworks. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Schickel, Richard (19 May 2002). "Sleepless in Alaska". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "Christopher Nolan Talks Howard Hughes Project, 'Interstellar' & More In Interviews, Plus Featurettes, New Pics & More". Indiewire. 10 November 2014. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Christopher Nolan Says His Howard Hughes Film Is Dead, But He'd Still Like To Do A Bond Film at Some Point". Indiewire. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Jagernauth, Kevin. "Trivia: When Christopher Nolan First Came To Warner Bros., He Was Offered 'Troy' To Direct". The Playlist. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- Gemma Arterton to star in Christopher Nolan-penned thriller 'The Keys to the Street', Meeting with Ridley Scott for 'Alien' prequels' Archived 25 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine The Playlist, 9 June 2011.
- "Christopher Nolan looks back over the Dark Knight trilogy in this extended interview". Filmcomment. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Insomnia". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "The Complicated Legacy of Batman Begins". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Shawn Adler (14 August 2008). "He-Man' Movie Will Go Realistic: 'We're Not Talking About Putting Nipples On The Trapjaw Suit". Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Christopher Nolan Season at BFI Southbank in July 2012" (PDF). British Film Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Review: Batman Begins". The New York Post. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Batman Begins (2005)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "Batman Begins". IMDb. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
- "Batman Begins". BAFTA-Awards Database. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Exclusive: Christopher Nolan Talks 'Batman Begins' 10th Anniversary". Forbes. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- "Interview about The Prestige". Christopher-priest.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Jeff Goldsmith (28 October 2006). "The Prestige Q&A: Interview with Jonathan Nolan". Creative Screenwriting Magazine Podcast (Podcast). Creative Screenwriting. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
- "Nolan wants 'Prestige'". Variety. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- "The Prestige". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "The Prestige (2006)", Box Office Mojo; retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Murray, Noel. (3 December 2009) The best films of the '00s|Best of the Decade Archived 27 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. The A.V. Club; retrieved 26 January 2011.
- "The Prestige". Roger Ebert. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "They've got something up their sleeves". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "The Prestige". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Garth Franklin (31 July 2006). "It's Official: "Batman 2" Gets A Title". DarkHorizons. Archived from the original on 25 January 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2007.
- "The Dark Knight: The Original Feature". Empire. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "The 50 Best Movies of the Decade (2000–2009)". Paste. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- "Review of the Decade – Year-By-Year: Empire's Films Of The Decade". Empire. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- Manohla Dargis (18 July 2008). "The Dark Knight-Showdown in Gotham Town". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Roger Ebert (16 July 2008). "The Dark Knight". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Brooks Barnes (28 July 2008). "Dark Knight Wins Again at Box Office". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "The Dark Knight (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Warner Bros and Christopher Nolan Break New Ground with The Dark Knight". About. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "The Oscars 2009" Archived 21 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News.
- "Ten Years Later, "The Dark Knight" and Its Vision of Guilt Still Resonate". Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Fleming, Michael (11 February 2009). "Nolan tackles 'Inception' for WB". Variety. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2009.
- "Warner Bros. Keeping INCEPTION in Oscar-voters' Minds with "New" Behind-the-Scenes Featurette". Collider.com. 2010. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Roeper, Richard. "Inception Review". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 18 July 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
- Kermode, Mark (24 December 2010). Kermode Uncut: My Top Five Films of the Year. BBC. Event occurs at 5:05. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Schuker, Lauren (16 July 2010). "Studios Root for 'Inception'". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "Inception (2010)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- "2011 Academy Awards Nominations and Winners". Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Bettinger, Brendan (10 March 2010). "Christopher Nolan Speaks! Updates on Dark Knight Sequel and Superman Man of Steel". Collider.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (27 October 2010). "Christopher Nolan reveals title of third Batman film and that 'it won't be the Riddler'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
- ""The Dark Knight Rises": Christopher Nolan's evil masterpiece". Salon. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Lemire, Christy (16 July 2012). "Batman Review: Is 'The Dark Knight Rises' An Epic Letdown?". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- McClintock, Pamela (2 September 2012). "Box Office Milestone: 'Dark Knight Rises' Crosses $1 Billion Worldwide". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Brown, Jennifer. "12 shot dead, 58 wounded in Aurora movie theater during Batman premier". Denver Post. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Christopher Nolan on Theater Shooting: 'I Would Like to Express Our Profound Sorrow'". Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
- "Christopher Nolan on Batman and Superman". Superhero Hype!. 4 June 2010. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Itzkoff, Dave (22 May 2013). "Alien, Yet Familiar". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "Man of Steel Reviews – Metacritic". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Christopher Nolan talks producing Man of Steel – Access Hollywood". Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- "Christopher Nolan's 'Interstellar': 'Dark Knight Rises' Director Lines Up Next Project". Huffington Post. 9 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Jagernauth, Kevin (10 January 2013). "Christopher Nolan's Merging An Original Idea With Jonah Nolan's Old Screenplay For 'Interstellar'". The Playlist. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Christopher Nolan's 'Interstellar' To Be Paramount–Warner Bros Co-Production And Joint Distribution". Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- "Interstellar Reviews". metacritic.com. Metacritic. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Interstellar (2014)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- "Off to the Stars, With Grief, Dread and Regret". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Space station film school: How astronauts shot this glorious IMAX movie". CNET. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- James, Oliver; Tunzelmann, Eugénie von; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S. (February 2015). "Gravitational lensing by spinning black holes in astrophysics, and in the movieInterstellar". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 32 (6): 065001. arXiv:1502.03808. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/32/6/065001. ISSN 0264-9381.
- "Interstellar 'should be shown in school lessons'". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- James, Oliver; von Tunzelmann, Eugénie; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S. (2015). "Visualizing Interstellar's Wormhole". American Journal of Physics. 83 (6): 486–499. arXiv:1502.03809. Bibcode:2015AmJPh..83..486J. doi:10.1119/1.4916949.
- Kilday, Gregg (9 December 2014). "AFI List of Top 10 Films Expands to Include 11". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "Oscars 2015: See the Full List of Nominees". Time. 15 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
- Kit, Borys (13 June 2012). "Christopher Nolan to Exec Produce Wally Pfister's Directorial Debut". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "The Johnny Depp Problem". The Guardian. 18 April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
- McNary, Dave (19 February 2015). "Christopher Nolan's Syncopy Teaming With Zeitgeist on Blu-ray Releases (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
- "Why 'The Quay Brothers in 35mm' is One of Christopher Nolan's Greatest Accomplishments". Indiewire. 20 August 2015. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Christopher Nolan's next movie is a documentary short". Entertainment Weekly. 27 July 2015. Archived from the original on 29 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Christopher Nolan Joins Film Foundation Board". Deadline. 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- "Christopher Nolan Rallies the Troops to Save Celluloid Film". Variety. 11 March 2015. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "Tarantino and Nolan share a Kodak moment as studios fund film processing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
- "Reframing The Future Of Film". 14 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- "DGA Congratulates Martin Scorsese and Christopher Nolan on Appointments to National Film Preservation Board". The Directors Guild of America. 7 May 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
- "Charles Roven: Ben Affleck "Was the First Guy We Went to" for Batman Role". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Nemiroff, Perri (10 November 2014). "Christopher Nolan Discusses Ben Affleck's Casting in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice". Collider. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Christopher Nolan et ses collaborateurs révèlent 7 infos sur Dunkerque". Première. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- Nolan, Christopher (8 July 2017). "Spitfires, flotillas of boats, rough seas and 1,000 extras: Christopher Nolan on the making of Dunkirk, his most challenging film to date". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- Lang, Brent (8 November 2017). "Christopher Nolan Gets Candid on the State of Movies, Rise of TV and Spielberg's Influence". Variety. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
- McNary, Dave (11 March 2016). "Harry Styles, Fionn Whitehead to Star in Christopher Nolan WW2 Action-Thriller 'Dunkirk'". Variety. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- "'Dunkirk': What the Critics Are Saying". The Hollywood Reporter. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Dunkirk Reviews – Metacritic". Archived from the original on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "How Dunkirk, Summer's Boldest Box-Office Gamble, Paid Off". Vanity Fair. 24 July 2017. Archived from the original on 27 July 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- "Not a victory, but a triumph in 'Dunkirk'". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- "Oscar Nominations 2018: The Complete List – 90th Academy Awards". ABC. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Ritman, Alex (8 January 2018). "BAFTA Awards: 'Shape of Water,' 'Three Billboards,' 'Darkest Hour' Lead Pack of Nominations". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Hipes, Patrick (11 December 2017). "Golden Globes Nominations Announced – Full List". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Christopher Nolan restores Kubrick sci-fi masterpiece '2001: A Space Odyssey' the old-fashioned way". Los Angeles Times. 3 May 2018. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Cannes: Christopher Nolan To Present 70mm Print Of Stanley Kubrick's '2001: A Space Odyssey'". Deadline. 28 March 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "Christopher Nolan inspires crazed Cannes crowd, talks 'Batman' trilogy". USA Today. 13 May 2018. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
- "The unrestored version of 2001: A Space Odyssey is Christopher Nolan's ultimate demo reel for an analog future". The Verge. 22 May 2018. Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "2001: A Space Odyssey (2018 re-release)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 25 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "The Doll's Breath". illuminationsmedia. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Filming is Underway on "Tenet," a New Film from Christopher Nolan". Business Wire. 22 May 2019. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Zachary, Brandon (21 March 2019). "Christopher Nolan's Next Film Adds Twilight, Guardians of the Galaxy Stars". CBR.com. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019. Recently working on another project with Mayank S Sharma(One of the budding actor from INDIA)
- "Time, Memory & Identity: The Films of Christopher Nolan". Grin – Master's Thesis written by Stuart Joy. 2009. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Parks, Erin Hill (June 2011). "Identity Construction and Ambiguity in Christopher Nolan's Films". Widescreenjournal. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "The Fictional Christopher Nolan". University of Texas Press. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- "Interstellar's sound 'right for an experimental film', says Nolan". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- Bordwell, David (28 January 2019). "Nolan book 2.0: Cerebral blockbusters meet blunt-force cinephilia". Observations on film art. Archived from the original on 9 September 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Influencers: Christopher Nolan's Team Is the Big-Budget, Practical-Filmmaking Alternative". Indiewire. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
- "The Z To A Of Christopher Nolan". Empire. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Christopher Nolan biography". Entertainment Scene 360. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Christopher Nolan profile". Forbes. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (30 October 2014). "The Exacting, Expansive Mind of Christopher Nolan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Christopher Nolan Uncut: On 'Interstellar,' Ben Affleck's Batman, and the Future of Mankind". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Watch Christopher Nolan and Kip Thorne Discuss the Physics of Interstellar". Time. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "A Life in Pictures: Christopher Nolan". BAFTA. 2 December 2017. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "'Dark Knight Rises' Director Christopher Nolan's Shocking Admission: No Cell Phone, Email Address". The Hollywood Reporter. 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Christopher Nolan Embraces Film Tech But Doesn't Own a Cell Phone". Backstage. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- Mendes, Sam (21 October 2015). "A-List Directors, interviewed by Sam Mendes". Empire. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Itzkoff, Dave (30 June 2010). "A Man and His Dream: Christopher Nolan and Inception". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 January 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Rich, Katy (12 October 2015). "Proof That the Internet Loves Leonardo DiCaprio More than Any Other Actor". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "The Creatives That Defined the 2010s". Complex. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- Hicks, Chris (20 August 2007). "Greatest Directors Ever–Part 2". Future Publishing Limited. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- "An Evening with Christopher Nolan". The Film Society of Lincoln Center – descriptions courtesy of The Criterion Collection and Film Society of Lincoln Center. 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
- Ali Catterall; Charlie Lyne; Gwilym Mumford; Damon Wise (31 August 2012). "The 23 best film directors in the world today". The Guardian. London, UK. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- "Film Critics Pick the Best Movies of the Decade". metacritic.com. 3 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- "Critics Poll: Top 75 Movies of the Decade". World of Reel. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- Phipps, Keith; Robinson, Tasha; Rabin, Nathan; Tobias, Scott; Murray, Noel (3 December 2009). "The best films of the '00s". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
- "Why Hollywood Loves 'Interstellar' Director Christopher Nolan". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "The 21st Century's 100 greatest films". BBC. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "The 100 Greatest Movies". Empireonline.com. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "DUNKIRK Part 2: The art film as event movie". Observations on film art. Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- "Christopher Nolan". British Film Institute. 2012. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Widescreen: Hollywood's big ideas". Prospect. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "The top 50". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "Why 'Akira' Could Be Christopher Nolan's Next Film". Forbes. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- Gilbey, Ryan (23 July 2017). "Christopher Nolan: from superheroes to Dunkirk's small tales of heroism". Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
- "Widescreen: Hollywood's big ideas". Prospect Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
- "Film Review: 'Interstellar'". Variety. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Ten years after it changed Hollywood, 'The Dark Knight' is back in theaters. Accept no substitutes". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Erbland, Kate (2 June 2017). "Duncan Jones on How He Models His Career After Christopher Nolan – Q&A". Indiewire. Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- "Brad Bird Says Hollywood's Sequel Obsession Is 'Shortsighted and Stupid,' Calls 'Dunkirk' the Boldest Blockbuster in Years". IndieWire. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
- "Sam Mendes Says He Was "Not at All" Interested in Bond at First, Took Direct Inspiration From Nolan's 'Dark Knight' Films". The Playlist. 18 October 2012. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Lussier, Germain (26 October 2012). "Paul Thomas Anderson Admires Christopher Nolan's 'Dark Knight' Trilogy". Slashfilm. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Joseph Gordon-Levitt and Rian Johnson on Looper's Nolan influence". Total Film. 31 August 2012. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "The Dark Knight Effect – How Hollywood fell for – and learned from – the greatest superhero sequel ever made". Empire. 23 July 2012. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Harding, Oscar (15 February 2013). "Exclusive Interview: Rupert Wyatt On Birdsong & Why He Quit Planet Of The Apes". Whatculture!. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "Kenneth Branagh on Dunkirk and The Nolan Experience". Roadshow. 29 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- Shone, Tom (4 November 2014). "Christopher Nolan: The Director's Cut". These Violent Delights, Tom Shone. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
- "Martin Scorsese: There's always the budget, but I am more concerned about the creative freedom". Filmtalk. 26 October 2015. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
- Kaleem Aftab (21 March 2018). "Luca Guadagnino: "I Try To Surrender To My Evidences"". The Talks. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- "Damien Chazelle on Dunkirk". Variety. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Olivier Assayas: Kristen Stewart's approach to acting is very honest, very human and very pure". Film Talk. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "In conversation with Steven Spielberg and Stacey Snider on The Front Row". YouTube. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Interview: Steven Spielberg talks movies 'Tintin,' 'War Horse'". AzCentral. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Denis Villenueve Aspires to Be Like Christopher Nolan, and Why He Wants to Make 'Dune'". Indiewire. 22 December 2017. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Newsmaker: Christopher Nolan is a different kind of storyteller". The National. 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Quentin Tarantino is most-studied director in the UK". Digital Spy. 6 November 2013. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "Saturday Soapbox: Christopher Nolan has ruined video games". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "The 100 most important people in games". Xbox 360 magazine. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Hideo Kojima on War, Video Games and 'Death Stranding'". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "Christopher Nolan" Archived 17 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Time, 16 April 2015; retrieved 16 April 2015.
- "The World's Most Powerful Celebrities". Forbes. Archived from the original on 5 September 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "Honorary Fellows of UCL". UCL. 2006. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- "Back to where it all began: Christopher Nolan awarded honorary doctorate at UCL". UCL. 2017. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "Christopher Nolan Hand and Footprint Ceremony, EW Magazine". Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "OFFICIAL SENSITIVE – HONOURS" (PDF). 29 December 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
- Gouda, Soman (24 March 2018). Yogi in Suits:Christopher Nolan and Vedanta. SomeKranthi. ISBN 978-1-9806-1543-9.
- Conard, Mark (5 January 2007). The Philosophy of Neo-Noir. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-7230-9.
- Kellner, Douglas M (21 December 2009). Cinema Wars: Hollywood Film and Politics in the Bush-Cheney Era. Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition. ISBN 978-1405198240.
- Duncan Jesser, Jody; Pourroy, Janine (2012). The Art and Making of The Dark Knight Trilogy. Abrams. ISBN 978-1-4197-0369-0.
- Fischer, Mark (2011). The Lost Unconscious: Delusions and Dreams in Inception. Film Quarterly, Volume 64 (3) University of California Press.
- McGowan, Todd (2012). The Fictional Christopher Nolan. Texas: the University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-73782-2.
- Mottram, James (2002). The Making of Memento. New York: Faber. ISBN 0-571-21488-6.
- deWaard, Andrew; Tait, R. Colin (2013). The Cinema of Steven Soderbergh: Indie Sex, Corporate Lies, and Digital Videotape. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-16551-8.
- Rabiger, Michael; Hurbis-Cherrier, Mick (2013). Directing: Film Techniques and Aesthetics. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-135-09921-3.
- O'Sullivan, Natalia; Graydon, Nicola (2013). The Ancestral Continuum: Unlock the Secrets of Who You Really Are. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-451-67454-5.
- Furby, Jacqueline; Joy, Stuart (2015). The Cinema of Christopher Nolan: Imagining the Impossible. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-85076-6.
- Eberl, Jason T.; Dunn, George A. (2017). The Philosophy of Christopher Nolan. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1-498-51352-4.
- Abad, José (2018). Christopher Nolan. Madrid: Cátedra. ISBN 978-84-376-3772-3.
- Mooney, Darren (2018). Christopher Nolan: A Critical Study of the Films. McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-14-766-7480-3.
- Cameron, James (2018). James Cameron's Story of Science Fiction. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-16-838-3590-5.