Chromium nitride

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Chromium nitride
Chromium nitride
Names
IUPAC name
Chromium nitride
Other names
Chromium(III) nitride
Identifiers
  • 24094-93-7 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.041.819 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 246-016-3
UNII
  • InChI=1S/Cr.N checkY
    Key: CXOWYMLTGOFURZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/Cr.N/rCrN/c1-2
    Key: CXOWYMLTGOFURZ-NIYUYJRQAK
  • [Cr]#N
Properties
CrN
Molar mass 66.003 g/mol
Appearance Black powder
Density 5.9 g/cm3 [1]
Melting point 1770 ˚C (decomp.)[2]
Insoluble[3]
Thermochemistry
37.75 J K−1 mol−1 [4]
−117.15 kJ/mol [4]
Hazards
Flash point Non-flammable
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1 mg/m3[5]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 0.5 mg/m3[5]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
250 mg/m3[5]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Dichromium nitride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Chromium nitride is a chemical compound of chromium and nitrogen with the formula CrN. It is very hard, and is extremely resistant to corrosion. It is an interstitial compound, with nitrogen atoms occupying the octahedral holes in the chromium lattice:[2] as such, it is not strictly a chromium(III) compound nor does it contain nitride ions (N3−). Chromium forms a second interstitial nitride, dichromium nitride, Cr2N.

Synthesis[edit]

Chromium(III) nitride can be prepared by direct combination of chromium and nitrogen at 800 °C:

2 Cr + N
2
→ 2 CrN

It can also synthesize by Physical Vapour Deposition technique such as Cathodic arc deposition.

Applications[edit]

CrN is used as a coating material for corrosion resistance and in metal forming and plastic moulding applications.[6] CrN is often used on medical implants and tools. CrN is also a valuable component in advanced multicomponent coating systems, such as CrAlN, for hard, wear-resistant applications on cutting tools.[7]

Magnetism[edit]

The fundamental materials physics of CrN, giving rise to its favorable properties, has been debated recently in high-profile scientific journals such as Nature Materials.[8][9] In particular, the importance of magnetism in both the low temperature and the high temperature phases has been demonstrated by means of quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic structure of the compound.[10][11][12]

Natural occurrence[edit]

Though rare, carlsbergite - the natural form of chromium nitride - occurs in some meteorites.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chromium(III) nitride at webelements.com
  2. ^ a b Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1984). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. p. 480. ISBN 978-0-08-022057-4.
  3. ^ http://www.alfa-chemcat.com/daten_msds/D/12149_-_D.pdf[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ a b NIST Chemistry Webbook
  5. ^ a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0141". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  6. ^ Vetter, J. (1995). "Vacuum arc coatings for tools: potential and application". Surface and Coatings Technology. Elsevier BV. 76–77: 719–724. doi:10.1016/0257-8972(95)02499-9. ISSN 0257-8972.
  7. ^ Reiter, A.E.; Derflinger, V.H.; Hanselmann, B.; Bachmann, T.; Sartory, B. (2005). "Investigation of the properties of Al1−xCrxN coatings prepared by cathodic arc evaporation". Surface and Coatings Technology. Elsevier BV. 200 (7): 2114–2122. doi:10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.01.043. ISSN 0257-8972.
  8. ^ Rivadulla, Francisco; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Quintela, Camilo X.; Piñeiro, Alberto; Pardo, Victor; et al. (2009-10-25). "Reduction of the bulk modulus at high pressure in CrN". Nature Materials. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 8 (12): 947–951. Bibcode:2009NatMa...8..947R. doi:10.1038/nmat2549. ISSN 1476-1122. PMID 19855384.
  9. ^ Alling, Björn; Marten, Tobias; Abrikosov, Igor A. (2010). "Questionable collapse of the bulk modulus in CrN". Nature Materials. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 9 (4): 283–284. Bibcode:2010NatMa...9..283A. doi:10.1038/nmat2722. ISSN 1476-1122. PMID 20332781.
  10. ^ Filippetti, Alessio; Hill, Nicola A. (2000-12-11). "Magnetic Stress as a Driving Force of Structural Distortions: The Case of CrN". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society (APS). 85 (24): 5166–5169. arXiv:cond-mat/0004252. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..85.5166F. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.85.5166. ISSN 0031-9007. PMID 11102212. S2CID 39265221.
  11. ^ Herwadkar, Aditi; Lambrecht, Walter R. L. (2009-01-29). "Electronic structure of CrN: A borderline Mott insulator". Physical Review B. American Physical Society (APS). 79 (3): 035125. Bibcode:2009PhRvB..79c5125H. doi:10.1103/physrevb.79.035125. ISSN 1098-0121.
  12. ^ Alling, B.; Marten, T.; Abrikosov, I. A. (2010-11-29). "Effect of magnetic disorder and strong electron correlations on the thermodynamics of CrN". Physical Review B. American Physical Society (APS). 82 (18): 184430. arXiv:1006.3460. Bibcode:2010PhRvB..82r4430A. doi:10.1103/physrevb.82.184430. ISSN 1098-0121. S2CID 6837803.
  13. ^ "Carlsbergite: Mineral Information, data, and localities". Mindat.org. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
NH3
N2H4
He(N2)11
Li3N Be3N2 BN β-C3N4
g-C3N4
CxNy
N2 NxOy NF3 Ne
Na3N Mg3N2 AlN Si3N4 PN
P3N5
SxNy
SN
S4N4
NCl3 Ar
K3N Ca3N2 ScN TiN VN CrN
Cr2N
MnxNy FexNy CoN Ni3N CuN Zn3N2 GaN Ge3N4 As Se NBr3 Kr
Rb Sr3N2 YN ZrN NbN β-Mo2N Tc Ru Rh PdN Ag3N CdN InN Sn Sb Te NI3 Xe
Cs Ba3N2   Hf3N4 TaN WN Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg3N2 TlN Pb BiN Po At Rn
Fr Ra3N2   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La CeN PrN Nd Pm Sm Eu GdN Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa U2N3 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr