Chromosome 10 (human)

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Chromosome 10 (human)
Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 10 cropped.png
Human chromosome 10 pair after G-banding.
One is from mother, one is from father.
Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 10.png
Chromosome 10 pair
in human male karyogram.
Features
Length (bp) 133,797,422 bp
(GRCh38)[1]
No. of genes 706 (CCDS)[2]
708 (HGNC)[3]
728 (Ensembl)[4]
754 (NCBI)[5]
Type Autosome
Centromere position Submetacentric[6]
(39.8 Mbp[7])
External map viewers
Ensembl Chromosome 10
Entrez Chromosome 10
NCBI Chromosome 10
UCSC Chromosome 10
Full DNA sequences
RefSeq NC_000010 (FASTA)
GenBank CM000672 (FASTA)

Chromosome 10 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 10 spans about 133 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 4 and 4.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.

Genes[edit]

The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 10. Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction).

When simply saying "number of genes", in most cases, it refers only to "number of protein-coding genes".

Estimated by Protein-coding genes Non-coding RNA genes Pseudogenes Source Release date
CCDS 706 - - [2] 2016-09-08
HGNC 708 244 614 [3] 2017-05-12
Ensembl 728 881 568 [4] 2017-03-29
NCBI 754 842 654 [5][8][9] 2017-05-19

The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 10:

  • ALOX5: Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase (processes essential fatty acids to leukotrienes, which are important agents in the inflammatory response; also facilitates development and maintenance of cancer stem cells, slow-dividing cells thought to give rise to a variety of cancers, including leukemia)
  • ARID5B: encoding protein AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 5B
  • AS3MT: encoding enzyme Arsenite methyltransferase
  • AVPI1: encoding protein Arginine vasopressin-induced protein 1
  • C10orf118: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C10orf118
  • CAMK1D: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID
  • CCAR1: Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1
  • CCDC3: Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 3
  • CCNY: Cyclin-Y
  • CDC123: Cell division cycle protein 123 homolog
  • CDH23: cadherin-like 23
  • CUTC: Copper homeostasis protein cutC homolog
  • CXCL12: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, SDF-1, scyb12
  • DDX50: DExD-box helicase 50
  • DHX32: DEAH-box helicase 32
  • DPYSL4: Dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4
  • ECD: ecdysoneless cell cycle regulator
  • EGR2: early growth response 2 (Krox-20 homolog, Drosophila)
  • EIF5AP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-like 1
  • EPC1: Enhancer of polycomb homolog 1
  • ERCC6: excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 6
  • FGFR2: fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (bacteria-expressed kinase, keratinocyte growth factor receptor, craniofacial dysostosis 1, Crouzon syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson–Weiss syndrome)
  • FRA10AC1: Fragile site, folic acid type
  • FRAT1: WNT signaling pathway regulator
  • FRAT2: WNT signaling pathway regulator
  • GPRIN2: G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 2
  • GTPBP4: Nucleolar GTP-binding protein 4
  • HELLS: Lymphoid-specific helicase
  • PCBD1: 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1)
  • PCDH15: protocadherin 15
  • PTEN gene: phosphatase and tensin homolog (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1)
  • RET: ret proto-oncogene (multiple endocrine neoplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma 1, Hirschsprung disease)
  • UROS: uroporphyrinogen III synthase (congenital erythropoietic porphyria)
  • WASHC2C: WASH complex subunit 2C
  • PROSER2: proline and serine rich 2 or c10orf47

Diseases and disorders[edit]

The following diseases are related to genes on chromosome 10:

Cytogenetic band[edit]

G-banding ideograms of human chromosome 10
G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 10 in resolution 850 bphs. Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair length. This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser).
G-banding patterns of human chromosome 10 in three different resolutions (400,[10] 550[11] and 850[7]). Band length in this diagram is based on the ideograms from ISCN (2013).[12] This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the mitotic process.[13]
G-bands of human chromosome 10 in resolution 850 bphs[14]
Chr. Arm[15] Band[16] ISCN
start[17]
ISCN
stop[17]
Basepair
start
Basepair
stop
Stain[18] Density
10 p 15.3 0 229 1 3,000,000 gneg
10 p 15.2 229 329 3,000,001 3,800,000 gpos 25
10 p 15.1 329 630 3,800,001 6,600,000 gneg
10 p 14 630 917 6,600,001 12,200,000 gpos 75
10 p 13 917 1175 12,200,001 17,300,000 gneg
10 p 12.33 1175 1361 17,300,001 18,300,000 gpos 75
10 p 12.32 1361 1432 18,300,001 18,400,000 gneg
10 p 12.31 1432 1604 18,400,001 22,300,000 gpos 75
10 p 12.2 1604 1662 22,300,001 24,300,000 gneg
10 p 12.1 1662 1891 24,300,001 29,300,000 gpos 50
10 p 11.23 1891 2063 29,300,001 31,100,000 gneg
10 p 11.22 2063 2235 31,100,001 34,200,000 gpos 25
10 p 11.21 2235 2406 34,200,001 38,000,000 gneg
10 p 11.1 2406 2621 38,000,001 39,800,000 acen
10 q 11.1 2621 2850 39,800,001 41,600,000 acen
10 q 11.21 2850 3051 41,600,001 45,500,000 gneg
10 q 11.22 3051 3252 45,500,001 48,600,000 gpos 25
10 q 11.23 3252 3409 48,600,001 51,100,000 gneg
10 q 21.1 3409 3753 51,100,001 59,400,000 gpos 100
10 q 21.2 3753 3839 59,400,001 62,800,000 gneg
10 q 21.3 3839 4097 62,800,001 68,800,000 gpos 100
10 q 22.1 4097 4469 68,800,001 73,100,000 gneg
10 q 22.2 4469 4655 73,100,001 75,900,000 gpos 50
10 q 22.3 4655 4970 75,900,001 80,300,000 gneg
10 q 23.1 4970 5200 80,300,001 86,100,000 gpos 100
10 q 23.2 5200 5331 86,100,001 87,700,000 gneg
10 q 23.31 5331 5558 87,700,001 91,100,000 gpos 75
10 q 23.32 5558 5672 91,100,001 92,300,000 gneg
10 q 23.33 5672 5887 92,300,001 95,300,000 gpos 50
10 q 24.1 5887 5973 95,300,001 97,500,000 gneg
10 q 24.2 5973 6131 97,500,001 100,100,000 gpos 50
10 q 24.31 6131 6202 100,100,001 101,200,000 gneg
10 q 24.32 6202 6317 101,200,001 103,100,000 gpos 25
10 q 24.33 6317 6374 103,100,001 104,000,000 gneg
10 q 25.1 6374 6646 104,000,001 110,100,000 gpos 100
10 q 25.2 6646 6761 110,100,001 113,100,000 gneg
10 q 25.3 6761 6890 113,100,001 117,300,000 gpos 75
10 q 26.11 6890 7090 117,300,001 119,900,000 gneg
10 q 26.12 7090 7219 119,900,001 121,400,000 gpos 50
10 q 26.13 7219 7506 121,400,001 125,700,000 gneg
10 q 26.2 7506 7721 125,700,001 128,800,000 gpos 50
10 q 26.3 7721 8050 128,800,001 133,797,422 gneg

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2017-03-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Search results - 10[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("has ccds"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. CCDS Release 20 for Homo sapiens. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  3. ^ a b "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 10". HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19. 
  4. ^ a b "Chromosome 10: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. 
  5. ^ a b "Search results - 10[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  6. ^ Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. 
  7. ^ a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  8. ^ "Search results - 10[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ( ("genetype miscrna"[Properties] OR "genetype ncrna"[Properties] OR "genetype rrna"[Properties] OR "genetype trna"[Properties] OR "genetype scrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snorna"[Properties]) NOT "genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  9. ^ "Search results - 10[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("genetype pseudo"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  10. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (400 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-03-04. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  11. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (550 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2015-08-11. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  12. ^ International Standing Committee on Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). ISCN 2013: An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. 
  13. ^ Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. (2012). "Estimation of band level resolutions of human chromosome images" (PDF). In Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE), 2012 International Joint Conference on: 276–282. doi:10.1109/JCSSE.2012.6261965. 
  14. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  15. ^ "p": Short arm; "q": Long arm.
  16. ^ For cytogenetic banding nomenclature, see article locus.
  17. ^ a b These values (ISCN start/stop) are based on the length of bands/ideograms from the ISCN book, An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). Arbitrary unit.
  18. ^ gpos: Region which is positively stained by G banding, generally AT-rich and gene poor; gneg: Region which is negatively stained by G banding, generally CG-rich and gene rich; acen Centromere. var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk.
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  • Deloukas P, French L, Meitinger T, Moschonas NK (2000). "Report of the third international workshop on human chromosome 10 mapping and sequencing 1999". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 90 (1–2): 1–12. PMID 11060438. doi:10.1159/000015653. 
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External links[edit]

  • National Institutes of Health. "Chromosome 10". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  • "Chromosome 10". Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990–2003. Retrieved 2017-05-06.