Chromosome 16 (human)

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Chromosome 16 (human)
Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 16 cropped.png
Human chromosome 16 pair after G-banding.
One is from mother, one is from father.
Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 16.png
Chromosome 16 pair
in human male karyogram.
Features
Length (bp) 90,338,345 bp
(GRCh38)[1]
No. of genes 795 (CCDS)[2]
Type Autosome
Centromere position Metacentric[3]
(36.8 Mbp[4])
External map viewers
Ensembl Chromosome 16
Entrez Chromosome 16
NCBI Chromosome 16
UCSC Chromosome 16
Full DNA sequences
RefSeq NC_000016 (FASTA)
GenBank CM000678 (FASTA)

Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in cells.

In February 2010, a new cause of obesity due to a microdeletion on chromosome 16 was announced. It may explain about 1% of obesity cases. Research showed that this microdeletion is relatively common in obese people but lacking in most non-obese people.[5]

Genes[edit]

The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 16. Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction). Among various projects, the collaborative consensus coding sequence project (CCDS) takes an extremely conservative strategy. So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[6]

When simply saying "number of genes", in most cases, it refers only to "number of protein-coding genes".

Estimated by Protein-coding genes Non-coding RNA genes Pseudogenes Source Release date
CCDS 795 - - [2] 2016-09-08
HGNC 802 251 365 [7] 2017-05-12
Ensembl 865 1,046 462 [8] 2017-03-29
NCBI 912 652 502 [9][10][11] 2017-05-19

The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 16:

Diseases and disorders[edit]

Associated traits[edit]

Cytogenetic band[edit]

G-banding ideograms of human chromosome 16
G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 16 in resolution 850 bphs. Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair length. This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser).
G-banding patterns of human chromosome 16 in three different resolutions (400,[13] 550[14] and 850[4]). Band length in this diagram is based on the ideograms from ISCN (2013).[15] This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the mitotic process.[16]
G-bands of human chromosome 16 in resolution 850 bphs[17]
Chr. Arm[18] Band[19] ISCN
start[20]
ISCN
stop[20]
Basepair
start
Basepair
stop
Stain[21] Density
16 p 13.3 0 352 1 7,800,000 gneg
16 p 13.2 352 596 7,800,001 10,400,000 gpos 50
16 p 13.13 596 813 10,400,001 12,500,000 gneg
16 p 13.12 813 948 12,500,001 14,700,000 gpos 50
16 p 13.11 948 1070 14,700,001 16,700,000 gneg
16 p 12.3 1070 1246 16,700,001 21,200,000 gpos 50
16 p 12.2 1246 1409 21,200,001 24,200,000 gneg
16 p 12.1 1409 1558 24,200,001 28,500,000 gpos 50
16 p 11.2 1558 1856 28,500,001 35,300,000 gneg
16 p 11.1 1856 2045 35,300,001 36,800,000 acen
16 q 11.1 2045 2194 36,800,001 38,400,000 acen
16 q 11.2 2194 2709 38,400,001 47,000,000 gvar
16 q 12.1 2709 2953 47,000,001 52,600,000 gneg
16 q 12.2 2953 3142 52,600,001 56,000,000 gpos 50
16 q 13 3142 3346 56,000,001 57,300,000 gneg
16 q 21 3346 3657 57,300,001 66,600,000 gpos 100
16 q 22.1 3657 4023 66,600,001 70,800,000 gneg
16 q 22.2 4023 4118 70,800,001 72,800,000 gpos 50
16 q 22.3 4118 4294 72,800,001 74,100,000 gneg
16 q 23.1 4294 4551 74,100,001 79,200,000 gpos 75
16 q 23.2 4551 4659 79,200,001 81,600,000 gneg
16 q 23.3 4659 4768 81,600,001 84,100,000 gpos 50
16 q 24.1 4768 4930 84,100,001 87,000,000 gneg
16 q 24.2 4930 5025 87,000,001 88,700,000 gpos 25
16 q 24.3 5025 5120 88,700,001 90,338,345 gneg

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2017-03-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Search results - 16[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("has ccds"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. CCDS Release 20 for Homo sapiens. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  3. ^ Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. 
  4. ^ a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  5. ^ Walters, et.al., R. G. (4 February 2010). "A new highly penetrant form of obesity due to deletions on chromosome 16p11.2". Nature. 463 (08727): 671–675. PMC 2880448Freely accessible. PMID 20130649. doi:10.1038/nature08727. 
  6. ^ Pertea M, Salzberg SL (2010). "Between a chicken and a grape: estimating the number of human genes.". Genome Biol. 11 (5): 206. PMC 2898077Freely accessible. PMID 20441615. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. 
  7. ^ "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 16". HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19. 
  8. ^ "Chromosome 16: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. 
  9. ^ "Search results - 16[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  10. ^ "Search results - 16[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ( ("genetype miscrna"[Properties] OR "genetype ncrna"[Properties] OR "genetype rrna"[Properties] OR "genetype trna"[Properties] OR "genetype scrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snorna"[Properties]) NOT "genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  11. ^ "Search results - 16[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("genetype pseudo"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  12. ^ McCarthy SE, Makarov V, Kirov G, Addington AM, McClellan J, Yoon S, Perkins DO, Dickel DE, Kusenda M, Krastoshevsky O, Krause V, Kumar RA, Grozeva D, Malhotra D, Walsh T, Zackai EH, Kaplan P, Ganesh J, Krantz ID, Spinner NB, Roccanova P, Bhandari A, Pavon K, Lakshmi B, Leotta A, Kendall J, Lee YH, Vacic V, Gary S, Iakoucheva LM, Crow TJ, Christian SL, Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, Lehtimäki T, Puura K, Haldeman-Englert C, Pearl J, Goodell M, Willour VL, Derosse P, Steele J, Kassem L, Wolff J, Chitkara N, McMahon FJ, Malhotra AK, Potash JB, Schulze TG, Nöthen MM, Cichon S, Rietschel M, Leibenluft E, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Sutcliffe JS, Skuse D, Gill M, Gallagher L, Mendell NR, Craddock N, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC, Shaikh TH, Susser E, Delisi LE, Sullivan PF, Deutsch CK, Rapoport J, Levy DL, King MC, Sebat J (November 2009). "Microduplications of 16p11.2 are associated with schizophrenia". Nat. Genet. 41 (11): 1223–7. PMC 2951180Freely accessible. PMID 19855392. doi:10.1038/ng.474. 
  13. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (400 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-03-04. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  14. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (550 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2015-08-11. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  15. ^ International Standing Committee on Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). ISCN 2013: An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. 
  16. ^ Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. (2012). "Estimation of band level resolutions of human chromosome images" (PDF). In Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE), 2012 International Joint Conference on: 276–282. doi:10.1109/JCSSE.2012.6261965. 
  17. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  18. ^ "p": Short arm; "q": Long arm.
  19. ^ For cytogenetic banding nomenclature, see article locus.
  20. ^ a b These values (ISCN start/stop) are based on the length of bands/ideograms from the ISCN book, An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). Arbitrary unit.
  21. ^ gpos: Region which is positively stained by G banding, generally AT-rich and gene poor; gneg: Region which is negatively stained by G banding, generally CG-rich and gene rich; acen Centromere. var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk.

External links[edit]

  • National Institutes of Health. "Chromosome 16". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  • "Chromosome 16". Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990–2003. Retrieved 2017-05-06.