Chromosome 6 (human)

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Chromosome 6 (human)
Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 6 cropped.png
Human chromosome 6 pair after G-banding.
One is from mother, one is from father.
Human male karyotpe high resolution - Chromosome 6.png
Chromosome 6 pair
in human male karyogram.
Features
Length (bp) 170,805,979 bp
(GRCh38)[1]
No. of genes 996 (CCDS)[2]
Type Autosome
Centromere position Submetacentric[3]
(59.8 Mbp[4])
External map viewers
Ensembl Chromosome 6
Entrez Chromosome 6
NCBI Chromosome 6
UCSC Chromosome 6
Full DNA sequences
RefSeq NC_000006 (FASTA)
GenBank CM000668 (FASTA)

Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 6 spans more than 170 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 5.5 and 6% of the total DNA in cells. It contains the Major Histocompatibility Complex, which contains over 100 genes related to the immune response, and plays a vital role in organ transplantation.

Genes[edit]

The human leukocyte antigen lies on chromosome 6 (exception: the gene for β2-microglobulin which is located on chromosome 15), and encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins among other functions.

Number of genes[edit]

In 2003, the entirety of chromosome 6 was manually annotated for proteins, resulting in the identification of 1,557 genes, and 633 pseudogenes.[5]

The following are some of the newer gene count estimates. Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome varies (for technical details, see gene prediction). Among various projects, the collaborative consensus coding sequence project (CCDS) takes an extremely conservative strategy. So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes.[6]

When simply saying "number of genes", in most cases, it refers only to "number of protein-coding genes".

Estimated by Protein-coding genes Non-coding RNA genes Pseudogenes Source Release date
CCDS 996 - - [2] 2016-09-08
HGNC 1,007 422 736 [7] 2017-05-12
Ensembl 1,038 985 800 [8] 2017-03-29
NCBI 1,053 1,188 911 [9][10][11] 2017-05-19

p-arm[edit]

The following are some of the genes located on p-arm (short arm) of human chromosome 6:

  • APOM: encoding protein Apolipoprotein M (6p21.33)
  • C6orf10: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C6orf10 (6p21.32)
  • C6orf62: chromosome 6 open reading frame 62 (6p22.3)
  • C6orf89: chromosome 6 open reading frame 89 (6p21.2)
  • CDKAL1: CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1 like 1 (6p22.3)
  • COL11A2: collagen, type XI, alpha 2(6p21.3)
  • CYP21A2: cytochrome P450, family 21, subfamily A, polypeptide 2 (6p21.33)
  • DHX16: DEAH-box helicase 16 (6p21.33)
  • DOM3Z: Decapping exoribonuclease (6p21.33)
  • DSP: Desmoplakin gene linked to cardiomyopathy (6p24.3)
  • ELOVL5: ELOVL fatty acid elongase 5 (6p12.1)
  • FBXO9: F-box protein 9 (6p12.1)
  • G6B: Protein G6b (6p21.33)
  • GCNT2: N-acetyllactosaminide beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (6p24.3)
  • GMDS: GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (6p25.3)
  • HFE: hemochromatosis (6p21.3)
  • HIST1H2AH: histone cluster 1 H2A family member h (6p22.1)
  • HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C: major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class I, A, B, and C loci. (6p21.3)
  • HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 form HLA-DQ heterodimer MHC class II, DQ: Celiac1, IDDM (6p21.3)
  • HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, HLA-DRB5 forms HLA-DR, heterodimer MHC class II, DR (6p21.3)
  • HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 forms HLA-DR, MHC class II, DP (6p21.3)
  • HLA-Cw*06:02: gene variation related to psoriasis (6p21.3)
  • LST1: leukocyte specific transcript 1 (6p21.33)
  • MIR4640: microRNA 4640 (6p21.33)
  • MLIP: muscular LMNA interaction protein (6p12.1)
  • MRPS18B: mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18B (6p21.33)
  • MUT: methylmalonyl Coenzyme A mutase (6p12.3)
  • NHLRC1: NHL repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (6p22.3)
  • NOL7: nucleolar protein 7 (6p23)
  • NQO2: N-ribosyldihydronicotinamide:quinone reductase 2 (6p25.2)
  • NRSN1: neurensin 1 (6p22.3)
  • NUDT3: nudix hydrolase 3 (6p21.31)
  • PFDN6: prefoldin subunit 6 (6p21.32)
  • PHACTR1: phosphatase and actin regulator 1 (6p24.1)
  • PKHD1: polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) (6p21.2-p12)
  • PRICKLE4: prickle planar cell polarity protein 4 (6p21.1)
  • PRSS16: protease, serine 16 (6p22.1)
  • PSMB8-AS1: PSMB8 antisense RNA 1 (head to head) (6p21.32)
  • RIPOR2: RHO family interacting cell polarization regulator 2 (6p22.3)
  • RPL10A: encoding protein 60S ribosomal protein L10a (6p21.31)
  • SASH1: SAM and SH3 domain containing 1 (6q24.3-q25.1)
  • SKIV2L: Ski2 like RNA helicase (6p21.33)
  • SSR1: signal sequence receptor subunit 1 (6p24.3)
  • TCF19: transcription factor 19 (6p21.33)
  • TCP11: t-complex 11 (6p21.31)
  • TJAP1: tight junction associated protein 1 (6p21.1)
  • TNXB: tenascin XB (6p21.3)
  • TRAM2: translocation associated membrane protein 2 (6p12.2)
  • UBR2: ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2 (6p21.2)
  • VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor A (angiogenic growth factor) (6p21.1)
  • VPS52: GARP complex subunit
  • ZNF76: zinc finger protein 76 (6p21.31)
  • ZNF193: zinc finger protein 193 (6p22.1)
  • ZNRD1: zinc ribbon domain containing 1 (6p22.1)

q-arm[edit]

The following are some of the genes located on q-arm (long arm) of human chromosome 6:

  • AIM1: encoding protein Absent in melanoma 1 protein (6q21)
  • AIG1: encoding protein Androgen-induced protein 1 (6q24.2)
  • AKIRIN2: akirin 2 (6q15)
  • ARG1: arginase 1 (6q23.2)
  • BCKDHB: branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, beta polypeptide (maple syrup urine disease) (6q14.1)
  • C6orf58: chromosome 6 open reading frame 58 (6q22.33)
  • C6orf165: encoding protein DUF3508 (6q15)
  • CNR1: cannabinoid 1 receptor (6q14-q15)[12]
  • ESR1: Estrogen receptor 1 (6q25)
  • HACE1: HECT domain and Ankyrin repeat containing, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (6q21)
  • EYA4: eyes absent homolog 4 (Drosophila)(6q23.2)
  • FBXL4: F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 4 (6q16.1-q16.2)
  • HEBP2: heme binding protein 2 (6q24.1)
  • IFNGR: interferon-γ receptor gene (6q23-q24)
  • IGF2R: insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (6q25.3)
  • IMPG1: interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglylcan 1 (6q14.1)
  • LIN28B: lin-28 homolog B (6q16.3-q21)
  • MAN1A1: mannosidase alpha class 1A member 1 (6q22.31)
  • MDN1: midasin AAA ATPase 1 (6q15)
  • MOXD1: monooxygenase DBH like 1 (6q23.2)
  • MTO1: mitochondrial tRNA translation optimization 1 (6q13)
  • MTRF1L: mitochondrial translational release factor 1 like (6q25.2)
  • MYO6: myosin VI (6q14.1)
  • OPRM1: μ-opioid receptors (6q24-q25)
  • PLG: plasminogen (6q26)
  • PARK2: Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin (6q26)
  • PCMT1: protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (6q25.1)
  • PERP: p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22 (6q23.3)
  • PKIB: cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor beta (6p22.31)
  • SENP6: SUMO1/sentrin specific peptidase 6 (6q14.1)
  • SERAC1: serine active site containing 1 (6q25.3)
  • SERINC1: serine incorporator 1 (6q22.31)
  • SF3B5: splicing factor 3b subunit 5 (6q24.2)
  • SMAP1: small ArfGAP 1 (6q13)
  • SOBP: sine oculis binding protein homolog (6q21)
  • SYNJ2: synaptojanin 2 (6q25.3)
  • T: T brachyury transcription factor (more commonly known as the T gene) linked to Hepatocellular carcinoma and Chordoma (6q27)[13]
  • TAAR1: trace amine associated receptor 1 (6q23.1)
  • TAAR2: trace amine associated receptor 2 (6q24)
  • TSPYL1: TSPY like 1 (6q22.1)
  • VNN1: vanin 1 (6q23.2)
  • VNN2: vanin 2 (6q23.2)
  • VTA1: Vesicle trafficking 1 (6q24.1-2)

Diseases and disorders[edit]

The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 6:

Cytogenetic band[edit]

G-banding ideograms of human chromosome 6
G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 6 in resolution 850 bphs. Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair length. This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser).
G-banding patterns of human chromosome 6 in three different resolutions (400,[14] 550[15] and 850[4]). Band length in this diagram is based on the ideograms from ISCN (2013).[16] This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the mitotic process.[17]
G-bands of human chromosome 6 in resolution 850 bphs[18]
Chr. Arm[19] Band[20] ISCN
start[21]
ISCN
stop[21]
Basepair
start
Basepair
stop
Stain[22] Density
6 p 25.3 0 118 1 2,300,000 gneg
6 p 25.2 118 207 2,300,001 4,200,000 gpos 25
6 p 25.1 207 355 4,200,001 7,100,000 gneg
6 p 24.3 355 548 7,100,001 10,600,000 gpos 50
6 p 24.2 548 592 10,600,001 11,600,000 gneg
6 p 24.1 592 740 11,600,001 13,400,000 gpos 25
6 p 23 740 844 13,400,001 15,200,000 gneg
6 p 22.3 844 1185 15,200,001 25,200,000 gpos 75
6 p 22.2 1185 1348 25,200,001 27,100,000 gneg
6 p 22.1 1348 1585 27,100,001 30,500,000 gpos 50
6 p 21.33 1585 1718 30,500,001 32,100,000 gneg
6 p 21.32 1718 1836 32,100,001 33,500,000 gpos 25
6 p 21.31 1836 2162 33,500,001 36,600,000 gneg
6 p 21.2 2162 2310 36,600,001 40,500,000 gpos 25
6 p 21.1 2310 2755 40,500,001 46,200,000 gneg
6 p 12.3 2755 3080 46,200,001 51,800,000 gpos 100
6 p 12.2 3080 3140 51,800,001 53,000,000 gneg
6 p 12.1 3140 3377 5,300,0001 57,200,000 gpos 100
6 p 11.2 3377 3421 57,200,001 58,500,000 gneg
6 p 11.1 3421 3554 58,500,001 59,800,000 acen
6 q 11.1 3554 3658 59,800,001 62,600,000 acen
6 q 11.2 3658 3732 62,600,001 62,700,000 gneg
6 q 12 3732 4147 62,700,001 69,200,000 gpos 100
6 q 13 4147 4324 69,200,001 75,200,000 gneg
6 q 14.1 4324 4621 75,200,001 83,200,000 gpos 50
6 q 14.2 4621 4709 83,200,001 84,200,000 gneg
6 q 14.3 4709 4917 84,200,001 87,300,000 gpos 50
6 q 15 4917 5228 87,300,001 92,500,000 gneg
6 q 16.1 5228 5613 92,500,001 98,900,000 gpos 100
6 q 16.2 5613 5687 98,900,001 100,000,000 gneg
6 q 16.3 5687 5983 10,000,0001 105,000,000 gpos 100
6 q 21 5983 6531 10,500,0001 114,200,000 gneg
6 q 22.1 6531 6753 114,200,001 117,900,000 gpos 75
6 q 22.2 6753 6872 117,900,001 118,100,000 gneg
6 q 22.31 6872 7168 118,100,001 125,800,000 gpos 100
6 q 22.32 7168 7345 125,800,001 126,800,000 gneg
6 q 22.33 7345 7642 126,800,001 130,000,000 gpos 75
6 q 23.1 7642 7923 13,000,0001 130,900,000 gneg
6 q 23.2 7923 8145 130,900,001 134,700,000 gpos 50
6 q 23.3 8145 8352 134,700,001 138,300,000 gneg
6 q 24.1 8352 8560 138,300,001 142,200,000 gpos 75
6 q 24.2 8560 8708 142,200,001 145,100,000 gneg
6 q 24.3 8708 8886 145,100,001 148,500,000 gpos 75
6 q 25.1 8886 9078 148,500,001 152,100,000 gneg
6 q 25.2 9078 9241 152,100,001 155,200,000 gpos 50
6 q 25.3 9241 9596 155,200,001 160,600,000 gneg
6 q 26 9596 9774 160,600,001 164,100,000 gpos 50
6 q 27 9774 10100 164,100,001 170,805,979 gneg

Research[edit]

The Chromosome 6 Research Project is a parent-driven research project for phenotype-genotype studies on chromosome 6 disorders.

Chromosomal anomalies, such as chromosome 6 deletions (too little chromosomal material) or duplications (too much chromosomal material), are a cause of significant congenital birth defects and developmental delays in children. There are many different chromosome 6 aberrations possible, each with different symptoms, and all of them are extremely rare. Because of the broad variety of chromosome 6 alterations, there is little information available for each specific aberration, leading to uncertainty for parents and doctors and sub-optimal treatment for children with these aberrations.

The Chromosome 6 Research Project compares the exact alterations in chromosome 6 (the genotype) with the effect they have on the appearance and other clinical features of affected individuals (the phenotype). Data about chromosome 6 deletions and duplications from patients from all over the world are being collected.

First results, further information and the possibility to sign up and participate in the Chromosome 6 Research Project is available on: www.chromosome6.org[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2017-03-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Search results - 6[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("has ccds"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. CCDS Release 20 for Homo sapiens. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  3. ^ Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. 
  4. ^ a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  5. ^ Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J, Beck S; Palmer; Sims; Edwards; Ashurst; Wilming; Jones; Horton; Hunt; Scott; Gilbert; Clamp; Bethel; Milne; Ainscough; Almeida; Ambrose; Andrews; Ashwell; Babbage; Bagguley; Bailey; Banerjee; Barker; Barlow; Bates; Beare; Beasley; Beasley; et al. (October 2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805–11. PMID 14574404. doi:10.1038/nature02055. 
  6. ^ Pertea M, Salzberg SL (2010). "Between a chicken and a grape: estimating the number of human genes.". Genome Biol. 11 (5): 206. PMC 2898077Freely accessible. PMID 20441615. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-5-206. 
  7. ^ "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 6". HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. 2017-05-12. Retrieved 2017-05-19. 
  8. ^ "Chromosome 6: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens". Ensembl Release 88. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-05-19. 
  9. ^ "Search results - 6[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  10. ^ "Search results - 6[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ( ("genetype miscrna"[Properties] OR "genetype ncrna"[Properties] OR "genetype rrna"[Properties] OR "genetype trna"[Properties] OR "genetype scrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snorna"[Properties]) NOT "genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  11. ^ "Search results - 6[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND ("genetype pseudo"[Properties] AND alive[prop]) - Gene". NCBI. 2017-05-19. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  12. ^ Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI; Lolait; Brownstein; Young; Bonner (August 1990). "Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA". Nature. 346 (6284): 561–4. Bibcode:1990Natur.346..561M. PMID 2165569. doi:10.1038/346561a0. 
  13. ^ "T brachyury transcription factor". T - T brachyury transcription factor - Genetics Home Reference. 
  14. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (400 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-03-04. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  15. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (550 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2015-08-11. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  16. ^ International Standing Committee on Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). ISCN 2013: An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7. 
  17. ^ Sethakulvichai, W.; Manitpornsut, S.; Wiboonrat, M.; Lilakiatsakun, W.; Assawamakin, A.; Tongsima, S. (2012). "Estimation of band level resolutions of human chromosome images" (PDF). In Computer Science and Software Engineering (JCSSE), 2012 International Joint Conference on: 276–282. doi:10.1109/JCSSE.2012.6261965. 
  18. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  19. ^ "p": Short arm; "q": Long arm.
  20. ^ For cytogenetic banding nomenclature, see article locus.
  21. ^ a b These values (ISCN start/stop) are based on the length of bands/ideograms from the ISCN book, An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). Arbitrary unit.
  22. ^ gpos: Region which is positively stained by G banding, generally AT-rich and gene poor; gneg: Region which is negatively stained by G banding, generally CG-rich and gene rich; acen Centromere. var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk.
  23. ^ "Chromosome 6 Project - Chromosome 6 Research Project". Chromosome 6 Research Project. Retrieved 2017-06-17. 

External links[edit]

  • National Institutes of Health. "Chromosome 6". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  • "Chromosome 6". Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990–2003. Retrieved 2017-05-06. 
  • "Chromosome 6 Research Project". Parent-driven research for genotype-phenotype studies on chromosome 6 disorders. Retrieved 2017-06-17