Mental time travel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chronesthesia)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

In psychology, mental time travel (also called "chronosthesia") is the capacity to mentally reconstruct personal events from the past (episodic memory) as well as to imagine possible scenarios in the future (episodic foresight / episodic future thinking). The term was coined by Thomas Suddendorf and Michael Corballis in 1997.[1] The synonymous term chronesthesia was coined by Endel Tulving.[2]

Mental time travel has been studied by psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, philosophers and in a variety of other academic disciplines.[3][4] Major areas of interest include the nature of the relationship between memory and foresight,[5][6] the evolution of the ability (including whether it is uniquely human or shared with other animals),[7][8] its development in young children,[9][10] its underlying brain mechanisms,[11][12] as well as its potential links to consciousness,[13] the self,[14] and free will.[15]

Overview, terminology, and relationship to other cognitive capacities[edit]

Traditionally, declarative memory refers to the capacity to store and retrieve information that can be explicitly expressed, and thus consists of both facts or knowledge about the world (semantic memory), as well as autobiographical details about one’s own experiences (episodic memory).[16] Tulving (1985) originally suggested that episodic memory involved a kind of ‘autonoetic’ (‘self-knowing’) consciousness that required the first-person subjective experience of previously lived events.[17] Semantic memory, however, refers to memory for facts and is associated with ‘noetic’ (knowing) consciousness but does not require such mental simulation.

It has become increasingly clear that both semantic and episodic memory are integral for thinking about the future.[18][19] Mental time travel, however, specifically refers to the ‘autonoetic’ systems, and thus selectively comprises episodic memory and episodic foresight.

The close link between episodic memory and episodic foresight has been established with evidence of their shared developmental trajectory,[20] similar impairment profiles in neuropsychiatric disease and in brain damage,[21][22][23] phenomenological analyses,[24] and with neuroimaging.[25] Mental time travel may be one of several processes enabled by a general scenario building or construction system in the brain.[21][26][27] This general capacity to generate and reflect on mental scenarios has been compared to a theatre in the mind that depends on the working together of a host of components.[12]

Investigations have been conducted into diverse aspects of mental time travel, including individual differences relating to personality,[28] its instantiation in artificial intelligence systems,[29] and its relationship with theory of mind[30] and mind-wandering.[31] The study of mental time travel in general terms is also related to – but distinct from – the study of the way individuals differ in terms of their future orientation,[32] time perspective,[33] and temporal self-continuity.[34]

Brain regions involved[edit]

Various neuroimaging studies have elucidated the brain systems underlying the capacity for mental time travel in adults. Early fMRI studies on the topic revealed a number of close correspondences between remembering past experiences and imagining future experiences in brain activity.[25]

fMRI mapping of brain regions[edit]

Addis D. et al. conducted an fMRI study to examine neural regions mediating construction and elaboration of past and future events.[35] The left hippocampus and posterior visuospatial regions are involved in past and future event construction, neural differentiation. The right hippocampus, right frontopolar cortex, and the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex are involved in future event construction.[citation needed]

The elaboration phase, unlike the construction phase, has overlap in the cortical areas comprising the autobiographical memory retrieval network. In this study, it was also found that the left hippocampus and the right middle occipital gyrus were significantly activated during past and future event construction, while the right hippocampus was significantly deactivated during past event construction. It was only activated during the creation of future events.[citation needed]

Episodic future thinking involves multiple component processes: retrieval and integration of relevant information from memory, processing of subjective time, and self-referential processing.[36] D'Argembeau et al.'s study found that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex are the most activated areas when imagining future events that are relevant to one's personal goals than to unrelated ones. This shows that these brain regions play a role in personal goal processing, which is a critical feature of episodic future thinking.[citation needed]

Brain regions involved in the 'what' and 'where' of an event[edit]

Cabeza R. et al. conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) scan study on a group of human test subjects to identify the brain regions involved in temporal memory, which is based on a linear progression of events. Since 'recollecting a past episode involves remembering not only what happened but also when it happened', PET scans were used to find the areas of the brain that were activated when trying to remember a certain word in a sequence.[37] The results show that temporal memory of past events involves the frontal and posterior brain regions.[citation needed]

Evolution and human uniqueness[edit]

The ability to travel mentally in time – especially into the future – has been highlighted as a potential prime mover in human evolution, enabling humans to prepare, plan and shape the future to their advantage.[7] However, the question of whether or to what extent animals other than human beings can engage in mental time travel has remained controversial.[38][39]

One proposal, the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis,[1][40][41][42] posits that non-human animals cannot act upon drive states they do not currently possess, for example seeking out water while currently fully quenched. Other proposals suggest that different species may have some capacities, but are limited because of shortcomings in a range of component capacities of mental scenario building and imagination.[18] A number of studies have claimed to have demonstrated mental time travel in animals including, most notably, various great apes, crows, ravens, and western scrub jays,[43][44][45][46] but these have been subjected to a number of criticisms and simpler alternative explanations have been proposed for the results.[47][48][49] This debate is ongoing.[citation needed]

If mental time travel is unique to humans, then it must have emerged over the last 6 million years since the line leading to modern humans split from the line leading to modern chimpanzees. Perhaps the first hard evidence for the evolution of mental time travel in humans comes in the form of Acheulean bifacial handaxes associated with Homo erectus. Acheulean tools are complex and appear to have required advanced planning to create.[50][51] There is also evidence that they were often crafted in one location and then taken elsewhere for repeated use.[52]

A number of important adaptive functions have been identified that rely to some degree on the capacity to remember the past and imagine the future.[53][54] These functions include predicting future emotional reactions (affective forecasting),[55] deliberate practice,[56] intertemporal choice,[57] navigation,[58] prospective memory,[59] counterfactual thinking,[60][61] and planning.[62]

Episodic-like memory and planning for the future in great apes[edit]

Osvath et al. conducted a study on apes to show that they have the ability of foresight. The study consisted of testing for self-control, associative learning, and envisioning in chimpanzees and orangutans through a series of experiments.[63] Critics questioned whether these animals truly exhibited mental time travel, or whether it was associative learning that caused them to behave as they did. The Bischof-Kohler hypothesis says that animals cannot anticipate future needs, and this study by Osvath tried to disprove the hypothesis.[citation needed]

The scientists showed that when the apes were presented with a food item in conjunction with a utensil that could be used to actually eat that particular food, these animals chose the utensil instead of food. They anticipated a future need for the utensil that overcame the current want for just a food reward. This is an example of mental time travel in animals. It was not a result of associative learning that they actually chose the utensil instead of the food reward since the scientists ran another experiment to account for that. Other examples, such as food caching by birds, may be examples of mental time travel in non-humans. Even survival instinct by certain animals such as elephants, in response to imminent danger, could involve mental time travel mechanisms.[citation needed]

Another study to show that great apes have the ability of foresight was conducted by Martin-Ordas G. et al. These scientists were able to show that 'apes remember in an integrated fashion what, where and when' a particular event had happened.[64] Two experiments were conducted in this study-the first being an investigation of the content of the memories of apes i.e. could these animals remember when and where two types of food they were shown before were now hidden. The second experiment explored the structure of the memories. It was found that the apes' memories were formed in an integrated what–where–when structure. All these findings once again show that it is not instinctive or learning predispositions that made the animals behave the way they did; rather, they have the ability to mental time travel, just like humans can.[citation needed]

Episodic-like memory in western scrub-jays[edit]

In their study to show that birds exhibit episodic-like memory, Clayton et al. used 3 behavioral criteria: content, structure, and flexibility, to decide whether the food caching habits of these birds were evidence of their ability to recall the past and plan for the future.[65] Content involved remembering what happened based on a specific past experience. Structure required the formation of a 'what-where-when' representation of the event. Finally, flexibility was used to see how well the information could be organized and re-organized, based on facts and experiences. Mental time travel involves the use of both episodic future thinking and semantic knowledge. This study also contradicts the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis by showing that some animals can mentally time travel into the future or back to the past.[citation needed]

Development in children[edit]

Studies into the development of mental time travel in infancy suggest that the involved component processes come online piecemeal. Most of the required psychological subcomponents appear to be available by approximately age four.[9] This includes the fundamental capacity to prepare for two mutually exclusive possible future events, which appears to develop between the ages of 3 and 5.[66]

Two and three year-old children can report some information about upcoming events, and by ages four and five, children can talk more clearly about future situations.[67] However, there is concern that children may understand more than they can articulate, and that they may say things without fully understanding. Thus, researchers have tried to examine future-oriented action.[68] A carefully controlled study found that four-year-olds could already remember a specific problem they saw in a different room sufficiently enough to prepare for its future solution.[69] These results suggest that children by the end of the preschool years have developed some fundamental capacity for foresight, capacities that continue to develop throughout childhood and adolescence.[70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Suddendorf T, Corballis MC (May 1997). "Mental time travel and the evolution of the human mind". Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs. 123 (2): 133–67. PMID 9204544.
  2. ^ Tulving E (2002). "Chronesthesia: Conscious Awareness of Subjective Time". Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. pp. 311–325. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0020. ISBN 978-0-19-513497-1.
  3. ^ Bulley A (2018). "The History and Future of Human Prospection". Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture. 2: 75. doi:10.26613/esic.2.1.75.
  4. ^ Klein SB (January 2013). "The complex act of projecting oneself into the future". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science. 4 (1): 63–79. doi:10.1002/wcs.1210. PMID 26304175.
  5. ^ Suddendorf T (January 2010). "Episodic memory versus episodic foresight: Similarities and differences". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science. 1 (1): 99–107. doi:10.1002/wcs.23. PMID 26272843.
  6. ^ Klein SB (2018). "Autonoetic consciousness: Reconsidering the role of episodic memory in future-oriented self-projection". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 69 (2): 381–401. doi:10.1080/17470218.2015.1007150. PMID 25606713.
  7. ^ a b Suddendorf T (2013). The gap: the science of what separates us from other animals. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03014-9.[page needed]
  8. ^ Cheke LG, Clayton NS (November 2010). "Mental time travel in animals". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science. 1 (6): 915–930. doi:10.1002/wcs.59. PMID 26271786.
  9. ^ a b Suddendorf T, Redshaw J (August 2013). "The development of mental scenario building and episodic foresight". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1296: 135–53. doi:10.1111/nyas.12189. PMID 23855564.
  10. ^ Atance CM, o'Neill DK (2005). "The emergence of episodic future thinking in humans". Learning and Motivation. 36 (2): 126–144. doi:10.1016/j.lmot.2005.02.003.
  11. ^ Schacter DL, Addis DR, Hassabis D, Martin VC, Spreng RN, Szpunar KK (November 2012). "The future of memory: remembering, imagining, and the brain". Neuron. 76 (4): 677–94. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.11.001. PMC 3815616. PMID 23177955.
  12. ^ a b Irish M (2016). "Semantic Memory as the Essential Scaffold for Future-Oriented Mental Time Travel". In Michaelian K, Klein SB, Szpunar KK. Seeing the Future: Theoretical Perspectives on Future-oriented Mental Time Travel. pp. 389–408. ISBN 978-0-19-024153-7.
  13. ^ D'Argembeau A, Van der Linden M (September 2012). "Predicting the phenomenology of episodic future thoughts". Consciousness and Cognition. 21 (3): 1198–206. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2012.05.004. PMID 22742997.
  14. ^ D'Argembeau A, Lardi C, Van der Linden M (2012). "Self-defining future projections: exploring the identity function of thinking about the future". Memory. 20 (2): 110–20. doi:10.1080/09658211.2011.647697. PMID 22292616.
  15. ^ Seligman ME, Railton P, Baumeister RF, Sripada C (March 2013). "Navigating Into the Future or Driven by the Past". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 8 (2): 119–41. doi:10.1177/1745691612474317. PMID 26172493.
  16. ^ Squire LR (1992). "Declarative and nondeclarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 4 (3): 232–43. doi:10.1162/jocn.1992.4.3.232. PMID 23964880.
  17. ^ Tulving E (1985). Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford University. ISBN 978-0-19-852125-9.[page needed]
  18. ^ a b Suddendorf T, Corballis MC (June 2007). "The evolution of foresight: What is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans?". The Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 30 (3): 299–313, discussion 313-51. doi:10.1017/S0140525X07001975. PMID 17963565.
  19. ^ Irish M, Addis DR, Hodges JR, Piguet O (July 2012). "Considering the role of semantic memory in episodic future thinking: evidence from semantic dementia". Brain. 135 (Pt 7): 2178–91. doi:10.1093/brain/aws119. PMID 22614246.
  20. ^ Suddendorf T, Busby J (2005). "Making decisions with the future in mind: Developmental and comparative identification of mental time travel". Learning and Motivation. 36 (2): 110–125. doi:10.1016/j.lmot.2005.02.010.
  21. ^ a b Schacter DL, Addis DR (May 2007). "The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory: remembering the past and imagining the future". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 362 (1481): 773–86. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2087. PMC 2429996. PMID 17395575.
  22. ^ Tulving E (2002). "Episodic memory: from mind to brain". Annual Review of Psychology. 53: 1–25. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135114. PMID 11752477.
  23. ^ Klein SB, Loftus J, Kihlstrom JF (2002). "Memory and Temporal Experience: The Effects of Episodic Memory Loss on an Amnesic Patient's Ability to Remember the Past and Imagine the Future". Social Cognition. 20 (5): 353–379. doi:10.1521/soco.20.5.353.21125.
  24. ^ D'Argembeau A, Van der Linden M (December 2004). "Phenomenal characteristics associated with projecting oneself back into the past and forward into the future: influence of valence and temporal distance". Consciousness and Cognition (Submitted manuscript). 13 (4): 844–58. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.007. PMID 15522635.
  25. ^ a b Okuda J, Fujii T, Ohtake H, Tsukiura T, Tanji K, Suzuki K, Kawashima R, Fukuda H, Itoh M, Yamadori A (August 2003). "Thinking of the future and past: the roles of the frontal pole and the medial temporal lobes". NeuroImage. 19 (4): 1369–80. doi:10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00179-4. PMID 12948695.
  26. ^ Cheng S, Werning M, Suddendorf T (January 2016). "Dissociating memory traces and scenario construction in mental time travel". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 60: 82–9. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.11.011. PMID 26627866.
  27. ^ Hassabis D, Maguire EA (May 2009). "The construction system of the brain". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 364 (1521): 1263–71. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0296. PMC 2666702. PMID 19528007.
  28. ^ Quoidbach J, Hansenne M, Mottet C (December 2008). "Personality and mental time travel: a differential approach to autonoetic consciousness". Consciousness and Cognition (Submitted manuscript). 17 (4): 1082–92. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2008.04.002. PMID 18508283.
  29. ^ Pezzulo G (2008). "Coordinating with the Future: The Anticipatory Nature of Representation". Minds and Machines. 18 (2): 179–225. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.465.1691. doi:10.1007/s11023-008-9095-5.
  30. ^ Gaesser B, DiBiase HD, Kensinger EA (September 2017). "A role for affect in the link between episodic simulation and prosociality". Memory. 25 (8): 1052–1062. doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1254246. PMID 27841093.
  31. ^ Smallwood J, Schooler JW (January 2015). "The science of mind wandering: empirically navigating the stream of consciousness". Annual Review of Psychology. 66: 487–518. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015331. PMID 25293689.
  32. ^ Steinberg L, Graham S, O'Brien L, Woolard J, Cauffman E, Banich M (2009). "Age differences in future orientation and delay discounting". Child Development. 80 (1): 28–44. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.537.1994. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01244.x. PMID 19236391.
  33. ^ Zimbardo PG, Keough KA, Boyd JN (1997). "Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving". Personality and Individual Differences. 23 (6): 1007–1023. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00113-X.
  34. ^ Ersner-Hershfield H, Wimmer GE, Knutson B (March 2009). "Saving for the future self: neural measures of future self-continuity predict temporal discounting". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 4 (1): 85–92. doi:10.1093/scan/nsn042. PMC 2656877. PMID 19047075.
  35. ^ Addis DR, Wong AT, Schacter DL (April 2007). "Remembering the past and imagining the future: common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration". Neuropsychologia. 45 (7): 1363–77. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.016. PMC 1894691. PMID 17126370.
  36. ^ D'Argembeau A, Stawarczyk D, Majerus S, Collette F, Van der Linden M, Feyers D, Maquet P, Salmon E (August 2010). "The neural basis of personal goal processing when envisioning future events". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 22 (8): 1701–13. doi:10.1162/jocn.2009.21314. PMID 19642887.
  37. ^ Cabeza R, Mangels J, Nyberg L, Habib R, Houle S, McIntosh AR, Tulving E (October 1997). "Brain regions differentially involved in remembering what and when: a PET study". Neuron. 19 (4): 863–70. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80967-8. PMID 9354332.
  38. ^ Roberts WA (May 2002). "Are animals stuck in time?". Psychological Bulletin. 128 (3): 473–89. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.3.473. PMID 12002698.
  39. ^ Redshaw J, Bulley A (2018). "Future-Thinking in Animals: Capacities and Limits". In Oettingen G, Sevincer AT, Gollwitzer PM. The Psychology of Thinking about the Future. pp. 31–51. ISBN 978-1-4625-3441-8.
  40. ^ Bischof N (1985). Das Rätsel Ödipus [The riddle of Oedipus] (in German). Piper. ISBN 978-3-492-02962-9.[page needed]
  41. ^ Bischof-Köhler D (1985). "Zur Phylogenese menschlicher Motivation" [On the phylogenesis of human motivation]. In Eckensberger LH, Baltes MM. Emotion und Reflexivität [Emotion and reflexivity] (in German). München: Urban & Schwarzenberg. pp. 3–47. ISBN 978-3-541-14251-4.
  42. ^ Köhler W (2013). The mentality of apes. Read Books.[page needed]
  43. ^ Kabadayi C, Osvath M (July 2017). "Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering". Science. 357 (6347): 202–204. doi:10.1126/science.aam8138. PMID 28706072.
  44. ^ Mulcahy NJ, Call J (May 2006). "Apes save tools for future use". Science. 312 (5776): 1038–40. doi:10.1126/science.1125456. PMID 16709782.
  45. ^ Osvath M, Osvath H (October 2008). "Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use". Animal Cognition. 11 (4): 661–74. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.183.6296. doi:10.1007/s10071-008-0157-0. PMID 18553113.
  46. ^ Raby CR, Alexis DM, Dickinson A, Clayton NS (February 2007). "Planning for the future by western scrub-jays". Nature. 445 (7130): 919–21. doi:10.1038/nature05575. PMID 17314979.
  47. ^ Suddendorf T, Corballis MC, Collier-Baker E (September 2009). "How great is great ape foresight?". Animal Cognition. 12 (5): 751–4. doi:10.1007/s10071-009-0253-9. PMID 19565281.
  48. ^ Suddendorf T (May 2006). "Behavior. Foresight and evolution of the human mind". Science. 312 (5776): 1006–7. doi:10.1126/science.1129217. JSTOR 3846137. PMID 16709773.
  49. ^ Redshaw J, Taylor AH, Suddendorf T (November 2017). "Flexible Planning in Ravens?". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 21 (11): 821–822. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.001. PMID 28927634.
  50. ^ Wynn T, Coolidge FL (July 2016). "Archeological insights into hominin cognitive evolution". Evolutionary Anthropology. 25 (4): 200–13. doi:10.1002/evan.21496. PMID 27519459.
  51. ^ Ambrose SH (2010). "Coevolution of Composite‐Tool Technology, Constructive Memory, and Language". Current Anthropology. 51: S135–S147. doi:10.1086/650296.
  52. ^ Hallos J (August 2005). ""15 Minutes Of Fame": exploring the temporal dimension of middle pleistocene lithic technology". Journal of Human Evolution. 49 (2): 155–79. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.628.4393. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.03.002. PMID 15964609.
  53. ^ Schacter DL, Benoit RG, Szpunar KK (October 2017). "Episodic Future Thinking: Mechanisms and Functions". Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 17: 41–50. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.06.002. PMC 5675579. PMID 29130061.
  54. ^ Suddendorf T, Bulley A, Miloyan B (2018). "Prospection and natural selection". Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences. 24: 26–31. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.019.
  55. ^ Gilbert DT, Wilson TD (September 2007). "Prospection: experiencing the future". Science. 317 (5843): 1351–4. doi:10.1126/science.1144161. PMID 17823345.
  56. ^ Suddendorf T, Brinums M, Imuta K (2015). "Shaping one's future self: the development of deliberate practice". In Michaelian K, Klein SB, Szpunar KK. Seeing the future: theoretical perspectives on future-oriented mental time travel. pp. 343–66. ISBN 978-0-19-024154-4.
  57. ^ Bulley A, Henry J, Suddendorf T (2016). "Prospection and the present moment: The role of episodic foresight in intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards". Review of General Psychology. 20: 29–47. doi:10.1037/gpr0000061.
  58. ^ Arnold AE, Iaria G, Ekstrom AD (December 2016). "Mental simulation of routes during navigation involves adaptive temporal compression". Cognition. 157: 14–23. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.009. PMC 5143185. PMID 27568586.
  59. ^ Terrett G, Rose NS, Henry JD, Bailey PE, Altgassen M, Phillips LH, Kliegel M, Rendell PG (2018). "The relationship between prospective memory and episodic future thinking in younger and older adulthood". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 69 (2): 310–23. doi:10.1080/17470218.2015.1054294. PMID 26018341.
  60. ^ Schacter DL, Benoit RG, De Brigard F, Szpunar KK (January 2015). "Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions". Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 117: 14–21. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2013.12.008. PMC 4071128. PMID 24373942.
  61. ^ Byrne RM (October 2002). "Mental models and counterfactual thoughts about what might have been". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 6 (10): 426–431. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01974-5. PMID 12413576.
  62. ^ Klein SB, Robertson TE, Delton AW (January 2010). "Facing the future: memory as an evolved system for planning future acts". Memory & Cognition. 38 (1): 13–22. doi:10.3758/MC.38.1.13. PMC 3553218. PMID 19966234.
  63. ^ Osvath M (September 2010). "Great ape foresight is looking great". Animal Cognition. 13 (5): 777–81. doi:10.1007/s10071-010-0336-7. PMID 20607575.
  64. ^ Martin-Ordas G, Haun D, Colmenares F, Call J (March 2010). "Keeping track of time: evidence for episodic-like memory in great apes". Animal Cognition. 13 (2): 331–40. doi:10.1007/s10071-009-0282-4. PMC 2822233. PMID 19784852.
  65. ^ Clayton NS, Bussey TJ, Dickinson A (August 2003). "Can animals recall the past and plan for the future?". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 4 (8): 685–91. doi:10.1038/nrn1180. PMID 12894243.
  66. ^ Redshaw J, Suddendorf T (July 2016). "Children's and Apes' Preparatory Responses to Two Mutually Exclusive Possibilities". Current Biology. 26 (13): 1758–1762. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.062. PMID 27345164.
  67. ^ Hudson JA (2006). "The Development of Future Time Concepts Through Mother-Child Conversation". Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 52: 70–95. doi:10.1353/mpq.2006.0005.
  68. ^ Atance CM (2015). "Young Children's Thinking About the Future". Child Development Perspectives. 9 (3): 178–182. doi:10.1111/cdep.12128.
  69. ^ Suddendorf T, Nielsen M, von Gehlen R (January 2011). "Children's capacity to remember a novel problem and to secure its future solution". Developmental Science. 14 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00950.x. PMID 21159085.
  70. ^ Prabhakar J, Coughlin C, Ghetti S (2016). "The Neurocognitive Development of Episodic Prospection and its Implications for Academic Achievement". Mind, Brain, and Education. 10 (3): 196–206. doi:10.1111/mbe.12124.