Chronic neutrophilic leukemia
|Chronic neutrophilic leukemia|
|Specialty||Hematology and oncology|
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm that features a persistent neutrophilia in peripheral blood, myeloid hyperplasia in bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, and the absence of the Philadelphia chromosome or a BCR/ABL fusion gene.
Signs and symptoms
The cause of CNL is currently unknown. An association between CNL and multiple myeloma has been suggested based on the observation of myeloma in 20% of CNL cases. However, a clonal genetic abnormality has not been detected in these myeloma-associated cases of CNL, raising the possibility that the neutrophilia is a reaction due to the neoplastic myeloma cells. The postulated cell of origin is a limited-potential, marrow-derived stem cell.
Sites of involvement
Bone marrow biopsy
On both the bone marrow aspirate and the core biopsy, a hypercellular marrow with an increased myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20:1 or greater. Myelocytes and neutrophils are increased, and blasts and promyelocytes are not increased. Due to the myeloproliferative nature of the disease, an increase in megakaryocytes and erythroid precursors may be observed, but dyspoiesis in not seen in any cell lineage. Also, reticulin fibrosis is rare. There is a reported association between CNL and multiple myeloma, so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia with increased numbers of atypical plasma cells.
No distinct immunophenotype abnormality for CNL has been described. See OHSU 2013 findings of gene CSF3R, mutation p. T6181
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