Chronic stress

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Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives they have little or no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which corticosteroids are released. While the immediate effects of stress hormones are beneficial in a particular short-term situation, long-term exposure to stress creates a high level of these hormones. This may lead to high blood pressure (and subsequently heart disease), damage to muscle tissue, inhibition of growth, suppression of the immune system,[1] and damage to mental health.

Historical development[edit]

Hans Selye (1907–1982), known as the "father of stress",[2] is credited with first studying and identifying stress. He studied stress effects by subjecting lab mice to various physical, antigenic, and environmental stressors, including excessive exercise, starvation, and extreme temperatures. He determined that regardless of the type of stress, the mice exhibited similar physical effects, including thymus gland deterioration and the development of ulcers.[2] Selye then developed his theory of general adaptive syndrome (GAS) in 1936, known today as "stress response". He concluded that humans exposed to prolonged stress could also experience hormonal system breakdown and subsequently develop conditions such as heart disease and elevated blood pressure.[3] Selye considered these conditions to be "diseases of adaptation", or the effects of chronic stress caused by heightened hormonal and chemical levels.[2] His research on acute and chronic stress responses introduced stress to the medical field.[2]

Physiology[edit]

Animals exposed to distressing events over which they have no control respond by releasing corticosteroids.[4] The sympathetic branch of the nervous system is activated, also releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine.[1]

Stress has a role in humans as a method of reacting to difficult and possibly dangerous situations. The "fight or flight" response when one perceives a threat helps the body exert energy to fight or run away to live another day. This response is noticeable when the adrenal glands release epinephrine, causing the blood vessels to constrict and heart rate to increase. In addition, cortisol is another hormone that is released under stress and its purpose is to raise the glucose level in the blood. Glucose is the main energy source for human cells and its increase during time of stress is for the purpose of having energy readily available for over active cells.[5]

Chronic stress is also known to be associated with an accelerated loss of telomeres in most but not all studies.[6][7]

In rats, stress induced by immobilization causes oxidative DNA damage in the brain.[8] More specifically, stress induced by forced swimming or restraint significantly increases DNA damage in the amygdala and hippocampus areas of the rat brain.[9]

Response[edit]

Different types of stressors, the timing (duration) of the stressors, and personal characteristics all influence the response of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis to stressful situations.[10]

Resilience in chronic stress is defined as the ability to deal and cope with stresses in a healthy manner.[11] There are six categories of resources that affect an individual's coping resources:[11]

Symptoms[edit]

Symptoms of chronic stress can vary from anxiety, depression,[12] social isolation, headache, abdominal pain or lack of sleep to back pain and difficulty concentrating. Other symptoms include panic attacks or a panic disorder.[12] Chronic stress can increase an individual's risk for psychiatric disorders and some physical disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carlson, Neil R. (2013). Physiology of Behavior (11th ed.). Boston: Pearson. pp. 602–6. ISBN 978-0-205-23939-9. OCLC 879099798.
  2. ^ a b c d Szabo, Sandor; Tache, Yvette; Somogyi, Arpad (September 2012). "The legacy of Hans Selye and the origins of stress research: A retrospective 75 years after his landmark brief "Letter" to the Editor of Nature" (PDF). Stress. 15 (5): 472–8. doi:10.3109/10253890.2012.710919. PMID 22845714.
  3. ^ "Hans Selye". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2016..
  4. ^ McEwen, Bruce S. (July 2007). "Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain". Physiological Reviews. 87 (3): 873–904. doi:10.1152/physrev.00041.2006. PMID 17615391.
  5. ^ Tsigos, Constantine; Chrousos, George P. (October 2002). "Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors, and stress". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 53 (4): 865–71. doi:10.1016/s0022-3999(02)00429-4. PMID 12377295. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. ^ Notterman, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Colter (October 2015). "Epigenetics and Understanding the Impact of Social Determinants of Health". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 62 (5): 1227–40. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2015.05.012. PMC 4555996. PMID 26318949.
  7. ^ Quinlan, Jacklyn; Tu, Mai Thanh; Langlois, Étienne V.; Kapoor, Mohit; Ziegler, Daniela; Fahmi, Hassan; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria (30 April 2014). "Protocol for a systematic review of the association between chronic stress during the life course and telomere length". Systematic Reviews (Review). 3: 40. doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-40. PMC 4022427. PMID 24886862. open access publication – free to read
  8. ^ Liu J, Wang X, Shigenaga MK, Yeo HC, Mori A, Ames BN (November 1996). "Immobilization stress causes oxidative damage to lipid, protein, and DNA in the brain of rats". FASEB J. 10 (13): 1532–8. PMID 8940299.
  9. ^ Consiglio AR, Ramos AL, Henriques JA, Picada JN (May 2010). "DNA brain damage after stress in rats". Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 34 (4): 652–6. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.03.004. PMID 20226828.
  10. ^ Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Zhou, Eric S. (January 2007). "If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans". Psychological Bulletin. 133 (1): 25–45. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.25. PMID 17201569. (Subscription required (help)).
  11. ^ a b Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Dolbier, Christyn (September 2011). "Resilience in the Context of Chronic Stress and Health in Adults". Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 5 (9): 634–52. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00379.x. PMC 4494753. PMID 26161137.
  12. ^ a b c Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Miller, Gregory E. (10 October 2007). "Psychological stress and disease". JAMA. 298 (14): 1685–7. doi:10.1001/jama.298.14.1685. PMID 17925521. (Subscription required (help)).