Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia

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Chronological summary of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia against the Persian Empire of king Darius III, with indication of the countries/places visited or simply crossed, including the most important battles/sieges and the cities founded (Alexandrias). The events of the expedition are shown in chronological order. For each event is given, separated by ― : 1) Date of event, 2) Places/cities crossed, indicated by Ancient name (Present name, Country), 3) Regions, provinces or Persian satrapies of the places/cities crossed, with indication of their capital cities (where appropriate).

Expedition[edit]

Date Event Source
April 334 B.C. Departure of the expedition from Amphipolis (Greece) [1][2][3][4]
May 334 Troy (Turkey)―Troades, capital city [1][2][3][4]
May 334 Battle of the Granicus River (Biga Çay, near Dimetoka, Turkey)―Hellespontine Phrygia (capital city Dascylium (Ergili), captured by Parmenion) [1][2][3][4]
Jun 334 Sardes (near Salihli, Turkey)―Lydia, capital city [1]
Jun 334 Ephesus (Turkey)―Ionia [1]
Jul 334 Siege of Miletus (Turkey)―Ionia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Sep 334 Siege of Halicarnassus (Bodrum, Turkey)―Caria, capital city [1][2][3][4]
? Lycia (Turkey)―Lycia (capital city Xanthos) [1][2][3][4]
Dec 334 Phaselis (near Kemer, Turkey)―Pamphylia [1][2][3][4]
? Termessos (Turkey)―Pamphylia
Jan 333 Perge (modern Murtina, near Aksu, Turkey)―Pamphylia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
? Aspendos (near Serik, Turkey)―Pamphylia
? Side (near Manavgat, Turkey)―Pamphylia
? Kelainai (near Dinar, Turkey)―Pisidia (capital city Sagalassos)
Apr 333 Gordion (Yassihöyük, near Polatli, Turkey)―Great Phrygia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
? Ankyra (Ankara, Turkey)―Cappadocia (capital city Comana (Kayseri))
? Cilician Gates (Turkey)―Cilicia
Sep 333 Cydnos River (Tarsus Çayi River, Turkey )―Cilicia [1][2][3][4]
Sep 333 Tarsus (Turkey)―Cilicia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Oct 333 Soli (Mezetlu, west of Mersin, Turkey)―Cilicia [1][2][3][4]
Nov 333 Battle of Issus, Pinarus River (Payas River, near Dörtyol, Turkey)―Cilicia [1][2][3][4]
Nov 333 Alexandretta or Alexandria near Issus (Iskenderun, Turkey)―Cilicia [1][2][3][4]
Dec 333 Aradus Island (Arwad, 3 km off the Syrian coastal town of Tartus, Syria)―Phoenicia(Syria) [1][2][3][4]
Jan 332 Byblos (40 km north of Beirut, Lebanon)―Phoenicia (Syria) [1][2][3][4]
Jan 332 Sidon (Lebanon)―Phoenicia (Syria) [1][2][3][4]
Jan-July 332 Siege of Tyre (Lebanon)―Phoenicia (Syria) [1][2][3][4]
? Damascus (Syria)―Syria, capital city
??? Jerusalem (Israel)―Syria [1][2][3][4]
Sep 332 Siege of Gaza (Palestine)―Syria [1][2][3][4]
Dec 332 Pelusium (Port Said, Egypt)―Egypt [1][2][3][4]
Jan 331 Memphis (Egypt)―Egypt, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Jan 331 Alexandria (Egypt)―Egypt [1][2][3][4]
Feb 331 Siwa, oracle (Egypt)―Egypt [1][2][3][4]
May 331 Tyre (Lebanon)―Phoenicia (Syria) [1][2][3][4]
? Damascus (Syria)―Syria
? Alep (Syria)―Syria
Jul 331 Thapsacus (Tipsah) (Dibsi Faray, Euphrates River, Syria)―Mesopotamia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 331 Harran (Turkey)―Mesopotamia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 331 Edessa or Urhai (Urfa, Turkey)―Mesopotamia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 331 Tigris River (Iraq)―Mesopotamia [1][2][3][4]
Oct 331 Battle of Gaugamela (Tel Gomel, Iraq)―Mesopotamia [1][2][3][4]
Oct 331 Arbela (Arbil/Irbil, Iraq)―Mesopotamia (ancient Assyria), capital city [1][2][3][4]
Oct 331 Babylon (on the Euphrates, Iraq)―Babylonia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Dec 331 Susa (Iran)―Susiana (Elam), capital city [1][2][3][4]
? Battle of the Persian Gate (Darvazeh-ye Fars, northeast of Yasuj, Iran)―Persia
Jan 330 Persepolis (Iran)―Persia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
? Pasargad (plain of Morghab, Iran)―Persia
Jun 330 Deh Bid Pass (Zagros Range) to modern Yazd and Esfahan, Iran―Persia/Media [1][2][3][4]
Jun 330 Ecbatana (Hamadan, Iran)―Media, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Jun 330 Rhagae (Rey, Iran)―Media [1][2][3][4]
Jun 330 Caspian Gates (between modern Eyvanakey and Aradan or Tehran and Semnan, Iran, Media/Parthia border)―Media/Parthia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 330 Alexander's detour from modern Semnan to the Dasht-e-Kavir desert (Iran)―Parthia [1]
Jul 330 Thara (near Ahuan, between Semnan and Qusheh, Iran) where the Persian king Darius III was killed―Parthia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 330 Hecatompylos (Shahrud, Iran)―Parthia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Jul 330 Zadracarta―Hyrcania, largest city [1][2][3][4]
Aug 330 Hyrcanian campaign (Caspian Sea/Elburz Range, Iran)―Hyrcania [1][2][3][4]
Sep 330 Susia (Tus, near Mashhad, Iran)―Parthia [1][2][3][4]
? Nisa-Alexandroupolis (Bagir Village, 18 km southwest of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan)???―Parthia
Sep 330 Artacoana, Alexandria in Aria (Herat, Afghanistan)―Aria, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Oct 330 Phrada, Alexandria Prophthasia (Farah, Afghanistan)―Drangiana, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Dec 330 Alexandria in Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan)―Arachosia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Winter 329 Alexandria (Ghazni, Afghanistan)―Arachosia [1][2][3][4]
Apr 329 Ortospana, Kabura (Kabul, Afghanistan)―Gandara [1][2][3][4]
Apr 329 Cophen River (Kabul River, Afghanistan)―Gandara [1][2][3][4]
Apr 329 Kapisa, Alexandria in the Caucasus (Bagram near Charikar, Afghanistan)―Gandara, capital city [1][2][3][4]
May 329 Paropamisus (Hindu Kush, Afghanistan) (Paropamisus is the western part of Gandara)―Gandara [1][2][3][4]
May 329 Khawak Pass (leading from Badakhshan to Panjshir valley, 100 km northeast of Kabul, Afghanistan)―Gandara [1][2][3][4]
May 329 Drapsaca (Konduz/Kondoz or Qonduz/Qondoz, Afghanistan)―Bactria [1][2][3][4]
May 329 Bactra (Balkh, near Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan)―Bactria, capital city [1][2][3][4]
May 329 Oxus River (Gozan, (Amudar'ja River, Afghanistan/Uzbekistan border) [1][2][3][4]
May 329 Alexandria Tarmita (Termez/Termiz, Uzbekistan)―Sogdia (or Transoxiana) [1][2][3][4]
Jun 329 Nautaca (Uzunkir, near Shakhrisabz, between Samarkand and Karshi, Uzbekistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Jun 329 Maracanda (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)―Sogdia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Jul 329 Jaxartes River (Syrdar'ya River) and Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan/Tajikistan/Kyrgyzstan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 329 Fergana Valley with 7 Achaemenid cities-fortresses, among which Cyropolis or Cyreschata/Kurushkatha (Uroteppa, Tajikistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Jul 329 Alexandria Eschate (Leninabad, Khodzent, Khudzhand or Hudzand, Tajikistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Oct 329 Sogdians and Scythians Massagetes (Spitamenes' revolt) (north of Jaxartes River) [1][2][3][4]
Nov 329 Maracanda (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Nov 329 Tribactra (Bukhara, Uzbekistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Nov 329 Bactra (Balkh, near Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan)―Bactria [1][2][3][4]
Spring 328 Alexandria Oxiane/on the Oxus (perhaps Ai Khanum/Ay Khanom???) (confluence of the Amudar'ja and Kowkcheh rivers, near Deshitiqala (Badakhshan region), northern frontier of Afghanistan )―Bactria [1][2][3][4]
? Alexandria in Margiana (Mary/Merv, Turkmenistan) (founded by Craterus and refounded by Antiochus I and called Antiochia)―Margiana, capital city
Summer/Autumn 328 Sogdian campaigns and attack of the Sogdian settlements in the Gissarskiy (or Hissar) Range (Pamiro-Alai region, Tajikistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Dec 328 Nautaca (Uzunkir, near Shakhrisabz, between Samarkand and Karshi, Uzbekistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Mar 327 Sogdian Rock o Rock of Sisimithres (where Oxyartes and Roxana were) (Gissarskiy (or Hissar) Range, Pamiro-Alai region, Tajikistan)―Sogdia [1][2][3][4]
Spring 327 Bactra (Balkh, near Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan)―Bactria [1][2][3][4]
Spring 327 Kapisa, Alexandria in the Caucasus (Bagram near Charikar, Afghanistan)―Gandara, capital city [1][2][3][4]
? Cophen River (Kabul River, Afghanistan/Pakistan)―Gandara
Sep 327 Passo Khyber/Khyber Pass (Afghanistan/Pakistan)―Gandara [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Peucelaotis (Charsadda, north of Peshawar, at the Kabul River, Pakistan), occupied by Perdiccas and Hephaestion―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Arigaeum (Arigaion), capital city of the Aspasians (Nawagai, Pakistan), Alexander campaign against Aspasians and Guraei―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Massaca/Massaga, capital city of the Assacenes (Alexander campaign) (Wuch near Chakdara, lower Swat (Soastus) valley, Pakistan)―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Bazira (Bir-Kot/Barikot, lower Swat valley, Pakistan)―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Ora (Ude-Gram/Odigram, lower Swat valley, Pakistan)―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Shang-La Pass, Pakistan (4300m)―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Autumn 327 Aornus Rock (Pir-Sar or Pir Sarai, 1600m, at the Indus River, Pakistan)―Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Winter 326 Modern Hund, Pakistan (the two Macedonian armies reunited)―Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Mar 326 Alexander's detour to Nysa (legend: founded by Dionysius) (near Jalalabad, at the river Chitral or Kunar (Euas) in eastern Afghanistan)―Gandara, Western Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Spring 326 Taxila (Takshaçila, 20 km west from Islamabad, Pakistan)―Western Punjab, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Jul 326 Battle of Hydaspes River against Porus (modern Jhelum, Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab (kingdom of Porus, Pauravas) [1][2][3][4]
Jul 326 Alexandria Nicaea (west bank of Jhelum, Haranpur???, Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Jul 326 Alexandria Bucephala (east bank of Jhelum, Haranpur???, Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Aug 326 Acesines River (Chenab, Pakistan) (crossing between Gujrat and Sialkot, Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Aug 326 Hydraotes River (Ravi, Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Aug 326 Sangala (near Amritsar, India) (siege against the Mallians)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
31 Aug 326 Hyphasis River (Bias/Beas, India) (the eastern-most border of Alexander's expedition, mutiny of the army)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Sep 326 Alexandria on the Hyphasis (west bank, eastern border of Alexander's empire, near Amritsar, India)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Sep 326 Return to Hydaspes River (modern Jhelum, Pakistan), Nicaea and Bucephala (Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1]
Nov 326 Departure of the fleet at the Hydaspes River (Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Nov-Dec 326 Mallians and Oxydracae campaign (Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Nov-Dec 326 Town of the Brahmans (Harmatelia???, Pakistan)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Nov-Dec 326 Siege of Multan (capital city of the Mallians (Malava)), Pakistan (where Alexander was seriously wounded by an arrow)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Nov-Dec 326 Alexandria on the Indus (at the confluence of Indus and Chenab) (Uch, Pakistan) (Alexandria of Opiane???)―Eastern Punjab [1][2][3][4]
Dec 326 Campaigns against the kingdoms of Musicanus (modern Alor, Pakistan) and Sambus (modern Sehwan, Pakistan)―Sind (capital city Thatta) [1][2][3][4]
Dec 326 Patala (modern Hyderabad???, Pakistan)―Sindh [1][2][3][4]
Jul-Dec 325 Expedition of Craterus from Patala to Hormuz: Patala, Bolan Pass, between Sibi and Quetta (Pakistan), Kandahar (Afghanistan), Hamun Lake, Hormuz (Bandare Abbas) (Iran) [1][2][3][4]
Aug-Dec 325 The return of Alexander: Patala-Hormuz (with Hephaestion) [1][2][3][4]
Aug 325 Arabius River (Hab River, crossing near modern Karachi, Pakistan)―Sind [1][2][3][4]
? Arabitians and Oreitans campaigns, Pakistan―Gedrosia
Autumn 325 Alexandria Rhambacia (Bela, Pakistan)―Gedrosia [1][2][3][4]
? Alexandria in Makarene (120 km west of Karachi, area of Hab River, Pakistan)
Autumn 325 Gedrosian Desert (Baluchistan (Makran), Pakistan/Iran)―Gedrosia [1][2][3][4]
Nov 325 Pura (Bampur, Iran)―Gedrosia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Dec 325 Alexandria in Carmania (Golashkerd, Iran)―Carmania (capital city Harmozia/Hormuz) [1][2][3][4]
Sep-Dec 325 Expedition of Nearchus from Patala to Hormuz: Patala, Karachi, Hab River, Sonmiani Bay, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar, Jask, Strait of Hormuz, Hormuz (Bandar Abbas) (Iran) [1][2][3][4]
Dec 325 The reuniting at Hormuz―Carmania [1][2][3][4]
Jan-Feb 324 The return of Alexander from Hormuz to Susa: [1][2][3][4]
Jan 324 Pasargad (plain of Morghab, Iran) (visit to the tomb of Cyrus the Great)―Persia [1]
Feb 324 Persepolis (Iran)―Persia [1][2][3][4]
Feb 324 Susa (Iran)―Susiana (Elam), capital city [1][2][3][4]
Jan-Feb 324 The return of Hephaestion and Craterus along the coastline of Carmania and Persia (from Hormuz to Susa) [1][2][3][4]
Jan-Feb 324 The return of Nearchus from Hormuz to Susa: Hormuz, Qeshm Island, Mond River, Karun River, Susa [1]
Mar 324 The marriages of Susa (Iran) [1][2][3][4]
? Persian Gulf, Mouth of the Tigris (Iraq/Iran)―Susiana
Spring 324 Alexandria in Susiana or Alexandria of Characene, later Alexandria Antiocheia), Karka (Charax, near Al Qurnah, Iraq)―Susiana [1][2][3][4]
Spring 324 Mutiny of the army at Opis (east bank of the Tigris, not far from the confluence of Tigris and Diyala rivers, south of Baghdad, Iraq)―Babylonia [1][2][3][4]
Summer 324 Ecbatana (Hamadan, Iran)―Media, capital city [1][2][3][4]
Oct 324 Death of Hephaestion in Ecbatana (Hamadan, Iran)―Media [1][2][3][4]
Winter 323 Cossaeans campaign (Loristan/Luristan, Zagros Range, Iran)―Media/Babylonia [1][2][3][4]
Spring 323 Babylon (on the Euphrates, Iraq)―Babylonia, capital city [1][2][3][4]
10 or 11 June 323 B.C. Death of Alexander in Babylon (Iraq)―Babylonia [1][2][3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt Arrian, John Rooke; Arrian's History of the expedition of Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia. J. Davis, 1813. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn Nigel Cawthorne; Alexander the Great. Haus Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-904341-56-X. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn Waldemar Heckel; The wars of Alexander the Great, 336-323 B.C. Taylor & Francis, 2003, ISBN 0-415-96855-0. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn Arrian, James S. Romm, Pamela Mensch; Alexander the Great: selections from Arrian, Diodorus, Plutarch, and Quintus Curtius. Hackett Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-87220-727-7. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Roger Caratini, Alessandro Magno, Storia e leggenda del più grande condottiero dell’antichità, Newton & Compton editori, 2005

External links[edit]