|Yellow Chrysanthemum × morifolium|
The Chinese character for "chrysanthemum"
Chrysanthemums (//), sometimes called mums or chrysanths, are flowering plants of the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to East Asia and northeastern Europe. Most species originate from East Asia and the center of diversity is in China. Countless horticultural varieties and cultivars exist.
The genus once included more species, but was split several decades ago[when?] into several genera, putting the economically important florist's chrysanthemums in the genus Dendranthema. The naming of these genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Botanical Congress in 1999 changed the defining species of the genus to Chrysanthemum indicum, restoring the florist's chrysanthemums to the genus Chrysanthemum.
Wild Chrysanthemum taxa are herbaceous perennial plants or subshrubs. They have alternately arranged leaves divided into leaflets with toothed or occasionally smooth edges. The compound inflorescence is an array of several flower heads, or sometimes a solitary head. The head has a base covered in layers of phyllaries. The simple row of ray florets is white, yellow, or red; many horticultural specimens have been bred to bear many rows of ray florets in a great variety of colors. The disc florets of wild taxa are yellow. Pollen grains are appropriately 34 microns. The fruit is a ribbed achene. Chrysanthemums start blooming early in the autumn. This is also known as favorite flower for the month of November.
Chrysanthemums (Chinese: 菊花; pinyin: Júhuā) were first cultivated in China as a flowering herb as far back as the 15th century BC. Over 500 cultivars had been recorded by 1630. By the year 2014 it was estimated that there are now over 20,000 cultivars in the world and about 7,000 cultivars in China. The plant is renowned as one of the Four Gentlemen (四君子) in Chinese and East Asian Art. The plant is particularly significant during the Double Ninth Festival.
Chrysanthemum cultivation began in Japan during the Nara and Heian periods (early 8th to late 12th centuries), and gained popularity in the Edo period (early 17th to late 19th century). Many flower shapes, colours, and varieties were created. The way the flowers were grown and shaped also developed, and chrysanthemum culture flourished. The Imperial Seal of Japan is a chrysanthemum and the institution of the monarchy is also called the Chrysanthemum Throne. A number of festivals and shows take place throughout Japan in autumn when the flowers bloom. Chrysanthemum Day (菊の節句, Kiku no Sekku) is one of the five ancient sacred festivals. It is celebrated on the 9th day of the 9th month. It was started in 910, when the imperial court held its first chrysanthemum show.
Chrysanthemums entered American horticulture in 1798 when Colonel John Stevens imported a cultivated variety known as 'Dark Purple' from England. The introduction was part of an effort to grow attractions within Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey.
Modern cultivated chrysanthemums are showier than their wild relatives. The flower heads occur in various forms, and can be daisy-like or decorative, like pompons or buttons. This genus contains many hybrids and thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. In addition to the traditional yellow, other colors are available, such as white, purple, and red. The most important hybrid is Chrysanthemum × morifolium (syn. C. × grandiflorum), derived primarily from C. indicum, but also involving other species.
Chrysanthemums are divided into two basic groups, garden hardy and exhibition. Garden hardy mums are new perennials capable of wintering in most northern latitudes. Exhibition varieties are not usually as sturdy. Garden hardies are defined by their ability to produce an abundance of small blooms with little if any mechanical assistance, such as staking, and withstanding wind and rain. Exhibition varieties, though, require staking, overwintering in a relatively dry, cool environment, and sometimes the addition of night lights.
The exhibition varieties can be used to create many amazing plant forms, such as large disbudded blooms, spray forms, and many artistically trained forms, such as thousand-bloom, standard (trees), fans, hanging baskets, topiary, bonsai, and cascades.
Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc., which is in keeping with the international classification system. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the ray and disk florets are arranged. Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many individual flowers (florets), each one capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center of the bloom head, and the ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are considered imperfect flowers, as they only possess the female reproductive organs, while the disk florets are considered perfect flowers, as they possess both male and female reproductive organs.
Irregular incurves are bred to produce a giant head called an ogiku. The disk florets are concealed in layers of curving ray florets that hang down to create a 'skirt'. Regular incurves are similar, but usually with smaller blooms and a dense, globular form. Intermediate incurve blooms may have broader florets and a less densely flowered head.
In the reflex form, the disk florets are concealed and the ray florets reflex outwards to create a mop-like appearance. The decorative form is similar to reflex blooms, but the ray florets usually do not radiate at more than a 90° angle to the stem.
The pompon form is fully double, of small size, and very globular in form. Single and semidouble blooms have exposed disk florets and one to seven rows of ray florets. In the anemone form, the disk florets are prominent, often raised and overshadowing the ray florets. The spoon-form disk florets are visible and the long, tubular ray florets are spatulate. In the spider form, the disk florets are concealed, and the ray florets are tube-like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem. In the brush and thistle variety, the disk florets may be visible.
In Japan, a form of bonsai chrysanthemum was developed over the centuries. The cultivated flower has a lifespan of about 5 years and can be kept in miniature size. Another method is to use pieces of dead wood and the flower grows over the back along the wood to give the illusion from the front that the miniature tree blooms.
Yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers of the species C. morifolium are boiled to make a tea in some parts of East Asia. The resulting beverage is known simply as chrysanthemum tea (菊 花 茶, pinyin: júhuā chá, in Chinese). In Korea, a rice wine flavored with chrysanthemum flowers is called gukhwaju (국화주).
Chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or boiled and used as greens, especially in Chinese cuisine. The flowers may be added to dishes such as mixian in broth, or thick snakemeat soup (蛇羹) to enhance the aroma. Small chrysanthemums are used in Japan as a sashimi garnish.
Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum [or Tanacetum] cinerariaefolium) is economically important as a natural source of insecticide. The flowers are pulverized, and the active components, called pyrethrins, which occur in the achenes, are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. This is applied as a suspension in water or oil, or as a powder. Pyrethrins attack the nervous systems of all insects, and inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. In sublethal doses, they have an insect-repellent effect. They are harmful to fish, but are far less toxic to mammals and birds than many synthetic insecticides. They are not persistent, being biodegradable, and also decompose easily on exposure to light. Pyrethroids such as permethrin are synthetic insecticides based on natural pyrethrum. Despite this, chrysanthemum leaves are still a major host for destructive pests, such as leafminer flies including L. trifolii.
Persian powder is an example of industrial product of chrysanthemum insecticide.
Cultural significance and symbolism
In some countries of Europe (e.g., France, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Poland, Hungary, Croatia), incurve chrysanthemums symbolize death and are used only for funerals or on graves, while other types carry no such symbolism; similarly, in China, Japan, and Korea of East Asia, white chrysanthemums symbolize adversity, lamentation, and/or grief. In some other countries, they represent honesty. In the United States, the flower is usually regarded as positive and cheerful, with New Orleans as a notable exception.
In the Victorian language of flowers, the chrysanthemum had several meanings. The Chinese chrysanthemum meant cheerfulness, whereas the red chrysanthemum stood for "I Love", while the yellow chrysanthemum symbolized slighted love. The chrysanthemum is also the flower of November.
- The chrysanthemum is the city flower of Beijing and Kaifeng. The tradition of cultivating different varieties of chrysanthemums stretches back 1600 years, and the scale reached a phenomenal level during the Song dynasty until its loss to the Jürchens in 1126. The city has held the Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival since 1983 (renamed China Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival in 1994). The event is the largest chrysanthemum festival in China; it has been a yearly feature since, taking place between 18 October and 18 November every year.
- The chrysanthemum is one of the "Four Gentlemen" (四君子) of China (the others being the plum blossom, the orchid, and bamboo). The chrysanthemum is said to have been favored by Tao Qian, an influential Chinese poet, and is symbolic of nobility. It is also one of the four symbolic seasonal flowers.
- A chrysanthemum festival is held each year in Tongxiang, near Hangzhou, China.
- Chrysanthemums are the topic in hundreds of poems of China.
- The "golden flower" referred to in the 2006 movie Curse of the Golden Flower is a chrysanthemum.
- "Chrysanthemum Gate" (jú huā mén 菊花门), often abbreviated as Chrysanthemum (菊花), is taboo slang meaning "anus" (with sexual connotations).
- An ancient Chinese city (Xiaolan Town of Zhongshan City) was named Ju-Xian, meaning "chrysanthemum city".
- The plant is particularly significant during the Chinese Double Ninth Festival.
- In Chinese culture, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of autumn and the flower of the ninth moon. People even drank chrysanthemum wine on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month to prolong their lives during the Han dynasty. It is a symbol of longevity because of its health-giving properties. Because of all of this, the flower was often worn on funeral attire.
Chrysanthemums first arrived in Japan by way of China in the 5th century. By the Heian Period, the flower was cultivated throughout Japan. It represented the noble class and the season of autumn, and the Japanese even had a Chrysanthemum festival. When the flower was adopted for the Imperial Seal of Japan some families also cultivated it to signal their support and good relationship with the Imperial family.
In the present day, each autumn there are chrysanthemum exhibitions at the Meiji Shrine and Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo. The Yasukuni Shrine, formerly a state-endowed shrine (官国弊社, kankokuheisha) has adopted the chrysanthemum crest. Culinary-grade chrysanthemums are used to decorate food, and they remain a common motif for traditional Japanese arts like porcelain, lacquerware and kimono.
Chrysanthemum growing is still practised actively as a hobby by many Japanese people who enter prize plants in contests. Chrysanthemum "dolls", often depicting fictional characters from both traditional sources like kabuki and contemporary sources like Disney, are displayed throughout the fall months, and the city of Nihonmatsu hosts the "Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition" every autumn in historical ruin of Nihonmatsu Castle. They are also grown into chrysanthemum bonsai forms.
- In Japan, the chrysanthemum is a symbol of the Emperor and the Imperial family. In particular, a "chrysanthemum crest" (菊花紋章, kikukamonshō or kikkamonshō), i.e. a mon of chrysanthemum blossom design, indicates a link to the Emperor; there are more than 150 patterns of this design. Notable uses of and reference to the Imperial chrysanthemum include:
- The Imperial Seal of Japan is used by members of the Japanese imperial family. In 1869, a two-layered, 16-petal design was designated as the symbol of the emperor. Princes used a simpler, single-layer pattern.
- The Chrysanthemum Throne is the name given to the position of Japanese Emperor and the throne.
- The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is a Japanese honor awarded by the emperor on the advice of the Japanese government.
- In imperial Japan, small arms were required to be stamped with the imperial chrysanthemum, as they were considered the personal property of the emperor.
- The Nagoya Castle Chrysanthemum Competition started after the end of the Pacific War. The event at the castle has become a tradition for the city. With three categories, it is one of the largest events of its kind in the region by both scale and content. The first category is the exhibition of cultivated flowers. The second category is for bonsai flowers, which are combined with dead pieces of wood to give the illusion of miniature trees. The third category is the creation of miniature landscapes.
Korea has a number of flower shows that exhibit the chrysanthemum, such as the Masan Gagopa Chrysanthemum Festival.
In Iran, chrysanthemums are associated with the Zoroastrian spiritual being Ashi Vanghuhi (lit. 'good blessings, rewards'), a female Yazad (angel) presiding over blessings.
Israel named a new fast-growing Chrysanthemum flower after Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India, in a special gesture to mark the first visit of an Indian prime minister to the Jewish nation.
In Australia, on Mother's Day, which falls in May when the flower is in season, people traditionally wear a white chrysanthemum, or a similar white flower to honour their mothers. Chrysanthemums are often given as Mother's Day presents.
- On 5 and 6 November 1883, in Philadelphia, The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, at the request of the Florists and Growers Society, held its first Chrysanthemum Show in Horticultural Hall. This would be the first of several Chrysanthemum events presented by PHS to the public.
- The founding of the chrysanthemum industry dates back to 1884, when Enomoto Brothers of Redwood City, California, grew the first chrysanthemums cultivated in America.
- In 1913, Sadakasu Enomoto (of San Mateo County) astounded the flower world by successfully shipping a carload of Turner Chrysanthemums to New Orleans for the All Saints Day Celebration.
- The chrysanthemum was recognized as the official flower of the city of Chicago by Mayor Richard J. Daley in 1966.
- The chrysanthemum is the official flower of the city of Salinas, California.
- The chrysanthemum is the official flower of several fraternities and sororities including Chi Phi, Phi Kappa Sigma, Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, Lambda Kappa Sigma, and Sigma Alpha.
- Chrysanthemum aphrodite Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum arcticum L.
- Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Ling
- Chrysanthemum arisanense Hayata
- Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Grubov
- Chrysanthemum chanetii H.Lév.
- Chrysanthemum crassum (Kitam.) Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum cuneifolium Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum daucifolium Pers.
- Chrysanthemum dichrum (C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum foliaceum (G.F.Peng, C.Shih & S.Q.Zhang) J.M.Wang & Y.T.Hou
- Chrysanthemum glabriusculum (W.W.Sm.) Hand.-Mazz.
- Chrysanthemum horaimontanum Masam.
- Chrysanthemum hypargyreum Diels
- Chrysanthemum indicum L.
- Chrysanthemum integrifolium Richardson
- Chrysanthemum japonicum (Maxim.) Makino
- Chrysanthemum × konoanum Makino
- Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Makino
- Chrysanthemum leucanthum (Makino) Makino
- Chrysanthemum longibracteatum (C.Shih, G.F.Peng & S.Y.Jin) J.M.Wang & Y.T.Hou
- Chrysanthemum maximoviczii Kom.
- Chrysanthemum miyatojimense Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum × morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl.
- Chrysanthemum morii Hayata
- Chrysanthemum naktongense Nakai
- Chrysanthemum ogawae Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum okiense Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum oreastrum Hance
- Chrysanthemum ornatum Hemsl.
- Chrysanthemum parvifolium C.C.Chang
- Chrysanthemum potentilloides Hand.-Mazz.
- Chrysanthemum rhombifolium (Y.Ling & C.Shih) H.Ohashi & Yonek.
- Chrysanthemum × rubellum Sealy
- Chrysanthemum × shimotomaii Makino
- Chrysanthemum sinuatum Ledeb.
- Chrysanthemum vestitum (Hemsl.) Kitam.
- Chrysanthemum yantaiense M.Sun & J.T.Chen
- Chrysanthemum yoshinaganthum Makino
- Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich
- Chrysanthemum zhuozishanense L.Q.Zhao & Jie Yang
Former species include:
- Chrysanthemum carinatum = Ismelia carinata
- Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium = Tanacetum cinerariifolium
- Chrysanthemum coccineum = Tanacetum coccineum
- Chrysanthemum coronarium = Glebionis coronaria
- Chrysanthemum frutescens = Argyranthemum frutescens
- Chrysanthemum maximum = Leucanthemum maximum
- Chrysanthemum pacificum = Ajania pacifica
- Chrysanthemum segetum = Glebionis segetum
- conserved type ratified by General Committee, Nicolson, Taxon 48: 375 (1999)
- Tropicos, Chrysanthemum L.
- Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
- "Chrysanthemums: Rethinking a Fast-Food Flower". 17 September 2019.
- Liu, P. L., et al. (2012). Phylogeny of the genus Chrysanthemum L.: Evidence from single-copy nuclear gene and chloroplast DNA sequences. PLOS One 7(11), e48970. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048970.
- David Beaulieu. "Chrysanthemums and Hardy Mums – Colorful Fall Flowers". About.com Home.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. .
- Chrysanthemum. Flora of China. eFloras.
- Flowers Chrysanthemum Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- History of the Chrysanthemum. National Chrysanthemum Society, USA
- The Scientific World Journal Volume 2014, Article ID 625658
- The New York Botanical Garden, Curtis' Botanical Magazine, Volume X Bronx, New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 1797
- "AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 19. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "American serpentine leafminer - Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess)". entnemdept.ufl.edu. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
- B. C. Wolverton; Rebecca C. McDonald; E. A. Watkins, Jr. "Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes" (PDF). Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Flower Meaning. Retrieved 22 September 2007. Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Chrysanthemum (Mums) Flower Meaning & Symbolism". Teleflora.
- "Metairie Cemetery". PBase.
- "Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments". Language of Flowers. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- "Birth Month Flower of November – The Chrysanthemum – Flowers, Low Prices, Same Day Delivery". 1st in Flowers!. 27 October 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- "中国开封菊花花会更名为中国开封菊花文化节_新浪新闻". news.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
- "Remarkable Investment Attraction Result of Tongxiang City". Zhejiang Foreign Frade and Economic Cooperation Bureau. Archived from the original on 16 December 2003. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- 2010年03月27日星期六 二月十二庚寅(虎)年. "国学365-中国历代菊花诗365首". Guoxue.com. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- Chao, E. (2009). Niubi: the real Chinese you were never taught in school. Plume.
- "Chinese Symbols." The British Museum, 2008. Accessed 4 October 2017.
- LOVE OF FLOWERS. "Sketches of Japanese manners and customs" Jacob Mortimer Wier Silver, 1867
- Buckley, Sandra (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture. Routledge.
- Inoue, Nobutaka (2 June 2005). "Shinmon". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- "二本松の菊人形". City.nihonmatsu.lg.jp. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
- Jones, Colin. "Badges of honor: what Japan's legal lapel pins really mean". The Japan Times. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
- "Markings on Japanese Arisaka Rifles and Bayonets of World War II".
- Jivanji J. Modi, Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, Bombay: M.J.Karani, 1937, p. 375.
- "INTRODUCING THE 'MODI' FLOWER: ISRAEL NAMES CHRYSANTHEMUM AFTER INDIAN PM". The Jerusalem Post. 5 July 2017.
- "Chrysanthemum flower named after Narendra Modi". Livemint. 5 July 2017.
- "Flowering Plants and Shrubs". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
- La Peninsula, xlii (1)
- Chrysanthemum: The Official Flower of Chicago. Chicago Public Library.
- City of Salinas Permit Center. City of Salinas Community Development Department.
- "Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, University of Oklahoma, Mu Chapter".
- "Sigma Alpha, University of California, Davis chapter".
- "All Saints' Day". poland.pl. 1 November 2019.
- "UK: National Plant Collection to preserve chrysanthemums". Floral Daily. 10 March 2016. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
- "Chrysanthemum L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- Carvalho, S. M. P.; et al. (2005). "Temperature affects Chrysanthemum flower characteristics differently during three phases of the cultivation period". Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 8 (2): 209–216. doi:10.1080/14620316.2005.11511919.
- van der Ploeg, A.; E. Heuvelink. (2006). "The influence of temperature on growth and development of chrysanthemum cultivars: a review". Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 81 (2): 174–182. doi:10.1080/14620316.2006.11512047.
- Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir 1980. Les Livres De France
- Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian; Nicholson, Paul 1995 Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers ISBN 0-8109-3225-3
- Life of the Ancient Egyptian Strouhal, Eugen 1992 University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0-8061-2475-X
- Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, The Redford, Donald B. (Editor) 2001 American University in Cairo Press, The ISBN 9774245814
- Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, The Shaw, Ian 2000 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815034-2
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chrysanthemum.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Chrysanthemum|
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Chrysanthemum
- About.com page on Chrysanthemums
- United States National Chrysanthemum Society website
- ICBN: List of conserved genera (scroll down for Chrysanthemum)
- Auburn University (College of Agriculture) web page on Chrysanthemums
- University of California web page on aphid management