|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||228.29 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||Orthorhombic bipyramidal plates|
|Melting point||254 °C (489 °F; 527 K)|
|Boiling point||448 °C (838 °F; 721 K)|
|Solubility in ethanol||1 g/1300 mL|
|Pyrene, Tetracene, Triphenylene|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Chrysene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the molecular formula C
12 that consists of four fused benzene rings. It is a natural constituent of coal tar, from which it was first isolated and characterized. It is also found in creosote at levels of 0.5-6 mg/kg.
The name "chrysene" originates from Greek Χρύσoς (chrysos), meaning "gold", and is due to the golden-yellow color of the crystals of the hydrocarbon, thought to be the proper color of the compound at the time of its isolation and characterization. However, high purity chrysene is colorless, the yellow hue being due to the traces of its yellow-orange isomer tetracene, which cannot be separated easily.
More than 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have been implicated as starting materials for the formation of life. PAHs seem to have been formed shortly after the Big Bang, are widespread throughout the universe, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets.
As with other PAHs, chrysene is suspected to be a human carcinogen. Some evidence suggests that it causes cancer in laboratory animals, but chrysene is often contaminated with more strongly carcinogenic compounds. Chrysene is estimated to have about 1% of the toxicity of benzopyrene.
- Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2259.
- Merck Index, 14th edition
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chrysene". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 319.
- Anja Sörensen and Bodo Wichert "Asphalt and Bitumen" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_169.pub2http://www.qrpoil.com/site/?bitumen
- Hoover, Rachel (February 21, 2014). "Need to Track Organic Nano-Particles Across the Universe? NASA's Got an App for That". NASA. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database
- Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; Van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon (2011). "Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (12): 613–628. doi:10.3390/ijerph8020613. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC . PMID 21556207.
- TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS
- Ian C.T. Nisbet, Peter K. LaGoy "Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)" Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 1992, Volume 16, Pages 290-300. doi:10.1016/0273-2300(92)90009-X