|Tallest in the world from May 27, 1930 to April 30, 1931[I]|
|Preceded by||40 Wall Street|
|Surpassed by||Empire State Building|
|Architectural style||Art Deco|
|Location||405 Lexington Avenue, Manhattan, New York 10174|
|Completed||May 27, 1930|
|Owner||Abu Dhabi Investment Council (90%)
Tishman Speyer (10%)
|Antenna spire||1,046 ft (318.9 m)|
|Roof||925 ft (282 m)|
|Top floor||899 ft (274 m)|
|Floor area||1,196,958 sq ft (111,201.0 m2)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||William Van Alen|
Location in New York City
|Architectural style||Art Deco|
|NRHP reference #||76001237|
|Added to NRHP||1976|
|Designated NHL||December 8, 1976|
|Designated NYCL||Exterior and interior: September 12, 1978|
The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco-style skyscraper located on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue in the Turtle Bay neighborhood. At 1,046 feet (318.9 m), the structure was the world's tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931.
It is the tallest brick building in the world with a steel structure. After the September 11 attacks which destroyed the World Trade Center in 2001, it was again the second-tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised onto the 1,200-foot (365.8 m) Bank of America Tower, making the Chrysler building the third tallest building in New York. In addition, The New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height. Both buildings were then demoted to fourth tallest building in the city when the under-construction One World Trade Center surpassed their height, and then to fifth position by 432 Park Avenue, which was completed in 2015.
The Chrysler Building is a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many contemporary architects to be one of the finest buildings in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked ninth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. It was the headquarters of the Chrysler Corporation from 1930 until the mid-1950s. Although the building was built and designed specifically for the car manufacturer, the corporation did not pay for its construction and never owned it, as Walter P. Chrysler decided to pay for it himself, so that his children could inherit it.
The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen for a project of Walter P. Chrysler. When the ground breaking occurred on September 19, 1928, there was an intense competition in New York City to build the world's tallest skyscraper. Despite a frantic pace (the building was built at an average rate of four floors per week), no workers died during the construction of this skyscraper.
Van Alen's original design for the skyscraper called for a decorative jewel-like glass crown. It also featured a base in which the showroom windows were tripled in height and topped by 12 stories with glass-wrapped corners, creating an impression that the tower was floating in mid-air. The height of the skyscraper was also originally designed to be 246 meters (807 ft). However, the design proved to be too advanced and costly for building contractor William H. Reynolds, who disapproved of Van Alen's original plan. The design and lease were then sold to Walter P. Chrysler, who worked with Van Alen and redesigned the skyscraper for additional stories; it was eventually revised to be 282 m (925 ft) tall. As Walter Chrysler was the chairman of the Chrysler Corporation and intended to make the building into Chrysler's headquarters, various architectural details and especially the building's gargoyles were modeled after Chrysler automobile products like the hood ornaments of the Plymouth; they exemplify the machine age in the 1920s (see below).
Construction commenced on September 19, 1928. In total, 391,881 rivets were used and approximately 3,826,000 bricks were manually laid, to create the non-loadbearing walls of the skyscraper. Contractors, builders and engineers were joined by other building-services experts to coordinate construction.
Prior to its completion, the building stood about even with a rival project at 40 Wall Street, designed by H. Craig Severance. Severance increased the height of his project and then publicly claimed the title of the world's tallest building. (This distinction excluded structures that were not fully habitable, such as the Eiffel Tower.) In response, Van Alen obtained permission for a 38-meter (125 ft) long spire and had it secretly constructed inside the frame of the building. The spire was delivered to the site in four different sections. On October 23, 1929, the bottom section of the spire was hoisted to the top of the building's dome and lowered into the 66th floor of the building. The other remaining sections of the spire were hoisted and riveted to the first one in sequential order in just 90 minutes.
Upon completion on May 27, 1930, the added height of the spire allowed the Chrysler Building to surpass 40 Wall Street as the tallest building in the world and the Eiffel Tower as the tallest structure. It was the first man-made structure to stand taller than 1,000 feet (305 m). Van Alen's satisfaction in these accomplishments was likely muted by Walter Chrysler's later refusal to pay the balance of his architectural fee. Less than a year after it opened to the public on May 27, 1930, the Chrysler Building was surpassed in height by the Empire State Building, but the Chrysler Building is still the world's tallest steel-supported brick building.
The east wall of the base, out of which the tower rises, runs at a slant to the Manhattan street grid, following a property line that predated the Commissioners' Plan of 1811. The land on which the Chrysler Building stands was donated to The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art in 1902. The land was originally leased to William H. Reynolds, but, when he was unable to raise money for the project, the building and the development rights to the land were acquired by Walter P. Chrysler in 1928. Contrary to popular belief, the Chrysler Corporation was never involved in the construction or ownership of the Chrysler Building, although it was built and designed for the corporation and served as its headquarters until the mid-1950s. It was a project of Walter P. Chrysler for his children.
The ownership of the building has changed several times. The Chrysler family sold the building in 1953 to William Zeckendorf, and in 1957, it was purchased by Sol Goldman and Alex DiLorenzo, and owned by Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. The lobby was refurbished and the facade renovated in 1978–1979. The building was bought by Jack Kent Cooke in 1979. The spire underwent a restoration that was completed in 1995. In 1998, Tishman Speyer Properties and the Travelers Insurance Group bought the Chrysler Building and the adjoining Kent Building in 1997 for about $220 million (equal to $330 million in 2016) from a consortium of banks and the estate of Jack Kent Cooke. Tishman Speyer Properties had negotiated a 150-year lease from the Cooper Union, and the college continues to own the land under the Chrysler Building. Cooper Union's name is on the deed.
In 2001, a 75% stake in the building was sold, for US$300 million (equal to $410 million in 2016), to TMW, the German arm of an Atlanta-based investment fund. On June 11, 2008 it was reported that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council was in negotiations to buy TMW's 75% economic interest, and a 15% interest from Tishman Speyer Properties in the building, and a share of the Trylons retail structure next door for US$800 million. On July 9, 2008 it was announced that the transaction had been completed, and that the Abu Dhabi Investment Council was now the 90% owner of the building, with Tishman Speyer retaining 10%.
The Chrysler Building is considered a leading example of Art Deco architecture. The corners of the 61st floor are graced with eagles; on the 31st floor, the corner ornamentation are replicas of the 1929 Chrysler radiator caps. The building is constructed of masonry, with a steel frame, and metal cladding. The building currently contains a total of 3,862 windows on its facades. Inside, there are four banks of 8 elevators designed by the Otis Elevator Corporation. The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976, and a New York City Landmark in 1978.
The Chrysler Building is also renowned and recognized for its terraced crown. Composed of seven radiating terraced arches, Van Alen's design of the crown is a cruciform groin vault constructed into seven concentric members with transitioning setbacks, mounted up one behind another. The stainless-steel cladding is ribbed and riveted in a radiating sunburst pattern with many triangular vaulted windows, transitioning into smaller segments of the seven narrow setbacks of the facade of the terraced crown. The entire crown is clad with silvery "Enduro KA-2" metal, an austenitic stainless steel developed in Germany by Krupp and marketed under the trade name "Nirosta" (a German acronym for nichtrostender Stahl, meaning "non-rusting steel").
When the building first opened, it contained a public viewing gallery on the 71st floor, which was closed to the public in 1945. This floor is now the highest occupied floor of the Chrysler Building, it was occupied by an office space management firm in 1986. The private Cloud Club occupied a three-floor high space from the 66th–68th floors, but closed in the late 1970s. Above the 71st floor, the stories of the building are designed mostly for exterior appearance, functioning mainly as landings for the stairway to the spire. These top stories are very narrow with low, sloped ceilings, and are useful only for holding radio-broadcasting and other mechanical and electrical equipment. Television station WCBS-TV (Channel 2) originally transmitted from the top of the Chrysler in the 1940s and early 1950s, before moving to the Empire State Building. For many years, WPAT-FM and WTFM (now WKTU) also used the Chrysler Building as a transmission site, but they also moved to the Empire State Building by the 1970s. There are currently no commercial broadcast stations located at the Chrysler Building.
There are two sets of lighting in the top spires and decoration. The first are the V-shaped lighting inserts in the steel of the building itself. Added later were groups of floodlights that are on mast arms directed back at the building. This allows the top of the building to be lit in many colors for special occasions.
Representation and influence
In the summer of 2005, the Skyscraper Museum in Lower Manhattan asked 100 architects, builders, critics, engineers, historians, and scholars, among others, to choose their 10 favorites among 25 of the city's towers. The Chrysler Building came in first place, as 90% of respondents placed the building among their top 10 favorite buildings.
- Creative Artists Agency
- Blank Rome
- Clyde & Co 
- InterMedia Partners
- Troutman Sanders
- Reprieve (organisation)
- YES Network 
- Architecture of New York City
- List of buildings and structures
- List of New York City Landmarks
- List of tallest buildings and structures in the world
- List of tallest buildings in the United States
- List of tallest buildings in New York City
- List of tallest freestanding structures in the world
- National Register of Historic Places listings in New York County, New York
- Staff (September 12, 1978). Chrysler Building Designation Report (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
- CBS Team. "The Chrysler Building". CBS Forum.
- "Chrysler Building". CTBUH Skyscraper Database.
- Nash, Eric Peter; McGrath, Norman (1999). Manhattan Skyscrapers. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-56898-181-9. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- "Chrysler Building". Skyscraper Center. CTBUH. Retrieved 2017-09-09.
- Staff (September 12, 1978). Chrysler Building Interior Designation Report (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
- National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- "Chrysler Building". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- Chrysler Building at Emporis
- "The History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved May 1, 2012.
- "Emporis Data – See Tallest buildings Ranking". Emporis. June 15, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "12 tallest skyscrapers in New York City". am New York. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
- "List of America's Favorite Architecture". FavoriteArchitecture.org. AIA. 2007. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Pierpont, Claudia Roth (November 18, 2002). "The Silver Spire: How two men's dreams changed the skyline of New York". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on August 25, 2004. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Emporis GmbH. "Emporis Data "...a celebrated three-way race to become the tallest building in the world."". Emporis.com. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "The Manhattan Company – Skyscraper.org; "...'race' to erect the tallest tower in the world."". Skyscraper.org. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Massey, Kenneth L. "History of Walter P. Chrysler and the Chrysler Building". Allpar. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "Chrysler Building". glasssteelandstone.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved October 11, 2008.
- Stravitz 2002, Pages 54, 158, image caption no. 39
- Emporis Data – See source no.4 line 4; "Briefly held the world's tallest title until it was eclipsed by the spire of Chrysler Building."
- "Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat".
- Stravitz 2002, Page 161. Image caption no. 39
- Stravitz 2002, Page 161, image caption no.54
- Stravitz 2002, Pages xiii (Paragraph 10) and 161. Image caption no. 39
- Noted in Kevin Walsh, Forgotten New York: The Ultimate Urban Explorer's Guide to All Five Boroughs, 2006:171.
- "Cooper Union and Chrysler Building". Cooper.edu. September 15, 2004. Archived from the original on July 8, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Gregor, Alison (February 13, 2008). "Smart Land Deals as a Cornerstone of Free Tuition". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Bagli, Charles V. (November 25, 1997). "A New Owner To Take Over An Old Classic". The New York Times. Retrieved February 15, 2016.
- Lewis, Michael J. (June 19, 2005). "An enduring hood ornament". U-T San Diego. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- Bagli, Charles V. (March 5, 2001). "German Group Buys Stake In Skyscraper". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Weiss, Lois (June 11, 2008). "Chrysler Building on the Block – Sovereign Arab Fund to Pay $800M". Archived from the original on April 18, 2009.
- Bagli, Charles V. (July 10, 2008). "Abu Dhabi Buys 90% Stake in Chrysler Building". The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Frangos, Alex (July 10, 2008). "Abu Dhabi Fund Acquires Most of Chrysler Building". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "1926 Chrysler Radiator Cap Used On The Chrysler Building". Imperialclub.com. December 13, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "GLOBAL PROJECT GALLERY: Chrysler Building". Otis Elevator Company. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Roberts, EurIng Brian. "Early 20thCentury New York, 1900-1931" (PDF). CIBSE Heritage Group. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Pitts, Carolyn (August 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Chrysler Building" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved May 3, 2009. and Accompanying 1 photo, exterior, undated (164 KB)
- "The City Review.com – Chrysler Building by AIA Carter B. Horsley". Thecityreview.com. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Article: Trade names associated with stainless steels". Bssa.org.uk. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- Michaelis, David (March 31, 2002). "Inside the Needle: The Chrysler Building Gets Lit by David Michaelis". MrBellersNeighborhood. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "W2XAB - CBS, New York". Early Television. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Dunlap, David W. (September 1, 2005). "In a City of Skyscrapers, Which Is the Mightiest of the High? Experts Say It's No Contest". The New York Times. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
- Goldberger, Paul (November 15, 1987). "Giving New Life to Philadelphia's Skyline". The New York Times. paragraph 6, line 4. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
The tower resembles nothing so much as the Chrysler Building...
- "Al Kazim Towers". umayalighting.com. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
- "Inside CAA's New Chrysler Building Offices in New York (Exclusive Photos)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
- Wura Adeoye (December 5, 2006). "Blank Rome Takes Another Full Floor at Chrysler Bldg.". CoStar Group. Retrieved November 23, 2013.
- "Locations". Clyde & Co. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- Contact InterMedia Partners Archived July 13, 2011, at Archive.is
- Theresa Agovino (February 17, 2009). "Cachet still counts at Chrysler Building". Crain's New York Business.
- "Contact". Reprieve.org. January 1, 1970. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-19.
- "About". YES Network. 2002-03-19. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- Stravitz, David (2002). The Chrysler Building: Creating a New York Icon Day by Day. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1-56898-354-9.
- Terranova, Antonio; Manferto, Valeria (2003). Skyscrapers. Vercelli, Italy: White Star. ISBN 88-8095-230-7.
- Form Follows Function: Skyscrapers and Skylines in New York and Chicago, Carol Willis, Princeton Architectural Press, 1995
- The Empire State Building, John Tauranac, St Martin’s Griffin, New York, 1997
- The Empire State Building, (Lewis W Hine photographs), Freddy Langer, Prestel Verlag, Munich, 2001
- Bascomb, Neal (2003). Higher: A Historic Race to the Sky and the Making of a City. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385506601.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Chrysler Building|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chrysler Building.|
- Official Tishman Speyer website
- Salon.com article (02/2002)
- New York Architecture Images - The Chrysler Building
- Chrysler Building: Lighthearted & Serious, by Anthony Romeo, AIA
|World's tallest structure
Empire State Building
40 Wall Street
|Tallest building in the world
|Tallest building in the United States