Chrysler Centura

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Chrysler Centura
1975-1977 Chrysler Centura (KB) GL sedan 01.jpg
1975–1977 Chrysler Centura (KB) GL sedan
Overview
Manufacturer Chrysler Australia
Production March 1975–1978
Assembly Tonsley Park, Australia [1]
Body and chassis
Class Mid-size car
Body style 4-door sedan
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel drive
Related Chrysler 180
Powertrain
Engine 2.0 L Type 180 I4
3.5 L Hemi I6
4.0 L Hemi I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,660 mm (104.7 in)[2]
Length 4,580 mm (180.3 in)
Width 1,730 mm (68.1 in)
Height 1,430 mm (56.3 in)
Curb weight 1,105–1,125 kg (2,436–2,480 lb)
Chronology
Successor Chrysler Sigma[3]

The Chrysler Centura is a midsize car which was produced by Chrysler Australia between 1975 and 1978. It was based on Chrysler Europe's Chrysler 180 model, but was also available with larger Australian-made Hemi Six engines. 19,770 Centuras were built.[4]

Development[edit]

Engineers from Chrysler Australia and Simca considered modifying the body of a Chrysler 180 sedan and shortening the drive train so they could place the Australian 6-cylinder Hemi engines further back in the body but instead decided to lengthen the nose, as Chrysler Australia apparently felt this created a more aggressive and better-looking car. It also meant fewer changes were needed to "Australianise" the car, making it economical to assemble. Additional, largely cosmetic changes included a new grill, headlights, bonnet and rear panel and taillights.

A brake proportioning valve was fitted to all 4 and 6 cylinder Centuras from factory to compensate for weight transfer during braking . When the car "nose-dived" under heavy braking, a mechanical link connected to the proportioning valve reduced the brake pressure on the rear wheels, to prevent them from locking up and causing the back of the car to slide around. This was typical of many European cars of the time but uncommon in Australian cars.

Chrysler also experimented with fitting a 5.2-litre (318 ci) American-made V8 but decided that the body lacked the rigidity to cope with the larger engine and the V8 version never went into production.

KB Centura[edit]

The KB Centuras sold and assembled in Australia not only had a 1,981 cc version of the 4-cylinder Simca engine but were also available with Australian-made 6-cylinder pushrod 3,523/4,014 cc hemi engines and BorgWarner 3-speed automatic and 3- or 4-speed manual gearboxes. The four offered 122 hp (SAE), the sixes 142/167 hp (SAE) respectively.[2] The KB series was sold in XL and GL trims, the latter having more equipment, including tachometer, clock, low fuel light (rare for 1975), rear bumper overriders, console (no storage) and optional vinyl roofs.[5] There were no rear demister fitted, although a Smiths unit was fitted by some dealers. The KB model's European pedigree was obvious, with instrumentation in the opposite order and steering column controls on opposite sides. All KB GL spec cars came equipped with a tachometer, however it was optional on XL spec cars (whereas later KC cars only gained a tachometer through special order, or as part of the Sports option package) Interior flow ventilation was improved over the larger Valiant models, as the Centura had two face-level ventilation outlets. Although the A55 6 cylinder Centura Sports Package was fitted to some vehicles ( included body stripes, styled wheels, woodgrain instrument cluster with tachometer, clock and Boca Raton cloth trim), it was common to see dealer fitted options including the styled road wheel option, and stencilled side stripes and bonnet black outs. The sixes also came with larger brakes (60 mm ventilated front discs and 25.4 mm rear finned drums) and a tandem brake reservoir. The six-cylinder Hemi cars used a 5-stud wheel bolt pattern, and the early 4-cylinder cars used a 4-stud wheel bolt pattern and only featured solid unventilated brake discs. Later 4-cylinder cars shared the same brakes and stud pattern as the 6 cylinder cars, and thus the same wheels. All Centura models were factory fitted with rack-and-pinion steering, however there was no power steering option. Steering could be heavy, so correct tyre fitment and pressures were a must. Factory / dealer fitted air, with the unit located below the heater controls was available but seldom optioned. Rumors still exist of some Centura cars leaving the factory with the E33 option code, denoting fitment of a 4.3-litre 265 Hemi engine. No cars have ever been verified to have left a dealership with factory fitment of the 265 Hemi engine and E33 option code.

Problems[edit]

1975–1977 Chrysler Centura (KB) GL

. Early KB Centuras also experienced quality issues with interior fixtures, with door trims cracking, and torn vinyl trim near stitching lines not uncommon. A story going around is that no Centura models were fitted with starter motor relays, which simply put the load onto the ignition switch when cranking instead, which reduced the ignition switch life in some cars.The starter motor relay is attached to the firewall above the starter motor in all models. Traction in wet weather proved to be poor, with an open differential, relatively large six-cylinder Hemi engine and very light weight over the rear wheels.

The importation of the bodies from France into Australia was complicated in 1973 by industrial action, with dockside unions protesting against French Pacific island nuclear testing.The union bans lasted 2 years. There was a myth that many early KB bodies spent months on wharfs exposed to salt air, creating corrosion problems later in these cars' lives. This was not the case. The main problem this caused was to delay the car's initial release onto the market.

These vehicles are generally not rust-prone compared to contemporary vehicles of the time, however rust tends to occur in the usual places where moisture and mud tend to accumulate. Areas to check are below the windscreen on both sides of the car, the firewall where the heater is mounted, and the lower sills, especially behind the back wheels and below the front doors. The vinyl roof cover which was a popular and standard fitment on GL models (delete option only) was also a source of water entrapment, creating the possibility of rust in the "A" pillars and gutters. KC models were more prone to rusting than KB models. This can be attributed to the KC panels being made in Australia from different steel than the KB's imported panels.

In addition to the union bans on French imports, parts supply and local Chrysler support for used vehicles also became more complicated when in 1978, Chrysler Europe went bankrupt and was taken over by Peugeot. This Peugeot takeover was soon followed by several French Peugeot/Talbot factory strikes worsening the problems in sourcing parts in Australia. The mix of metric and imperial fasteners used on the 6-cylinder cars is not anything unusual as the contemporary cars such as Holden Commodores had the same mix. The combination of French and Australian parts can make them challenging vehicles to maintain, however most wearing components are readily available from spare-parts suppliers. From the early '80s parts became difficult to source, with owners reliance on existing stocks being available, and with the wait for French parts sometimes a long one. In the early 1990s Mitsubishi ceased supporting these vehicles with spare parts. Existing stocks of spare parts were auctioned off, and all stock which wasn't sold was disposed of.

In the market[edit]

Six-cylinder cars sold four-to-one in the Australian market over the four-cylinder cars. They had a reputation for providing reasonably decent handling, good torque and outstanding acceleration. Sports options available on Centura models ranged from dealer fitted stenciled sports stripes (bonnet and sides), special 'Boca-Raton' striped cloth seats and styled steel or alloy wheels. Most of the interior and exterior dealer options from the larger Valiant models were applicable to the Centura, from the dealership.

The Centura's main competitors in Australia were 4- and 6-cylinder Australian-made versions of the Ford Cortina and General Motors' LH Holden Torana and Sunbird. The Centura boasted much more interior room and boot space than these main rivals, along with a more favorable power-to-weight ratio. Centura's were also seen to compete to a lesser extent with larger-bodied Australian Holdens, Chrysler Valiants (including the sporting Charger coupe) and Ford Falcons. Most competitors, although often lacking the fierce acceleration of the 6-cylinder Centura, proved less rust-prone and generally had more modern styling. In retrospect the rather compact Centura was not a typical 1970s medium-sized car. It wouldn't be until after the cancellation of the Centura, when Holden released the Commodore in October 1978, for the market to have a vehicle with similar internal dimensions to the Centura.

Chrysler Australia was being starved of funds by its troubled American parent at this time, leaving the larger Valiant sedans persisting with the same chassis platform and basic body shape and interior (Valiants did not have face-level flow-through vents, unlike those in the Centura) for many years. This created an old-fashioned image of the Australian Chrysler-Valiant brand that may have also have adversely impacted Centura sales. The Chrysler 180 design was also rather dated by the time the cars arrived in the Australian market (later than intended), further adding to the old-fashioned image of the brand. The bigger Valiants were still popular with rural Australians, who seemed to prefer large, powerful American-style cars, but the Centura didn't have the size or style to meet the needs of that market, either.

KC Centura[edit]

The KC model (from June 1977 to the end of 1978) series dropped the 2.0 and 3.5 engines, replacing them with a low-compression (7.6:1) 4.0-litre Hemi engine which ran on standard-grade fuel and aided fuel economy, and a 4.0-litre high-compression 2-barrel (9.0:1) version of the Hemi for more performance and towing ability. The KC was also more Australian, using VDO gauges, Valiant-style steering wheel, steering column and various other parts from the larger Australian Valiant lineup. While the 3.5-litre had a 3.23:1 differential ratio, the 4.0 got a 2.92:1 ratio. The KC was offered in GL or upscale GLX trims, along with the addition of sports package options.

By 1979, the Centura had been replaced by the 4-cylinder Chrysler Sigma, of Mitsubishi origins.[3]

Centuras today[edit]

KC Centura rear

Centuras are now very rare on Australian roads, although they appear more common in South Australia. This is probably due to an enduring loyalty to the Chrysler brand, as they had a manufacturing plant in that state before selling it to Mitsubishi in 1980. The nuclear bans impact on production and parts supply, subsequent rust problems, extremely light weight over the rear of the car and difficulty early in the cars' used sales life in getting parts from France were probably all factors that contributed to their relatively rapid disappearance from Australian roads. The 1977–1978 4-litre Hemi KC with either manual or auto transmission and sports wheels is now the most sought after by enthusiasts and collectors.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gavin Farmer, Great Ideas in Motion, 2010, page 357
  2. ^ a b Speciale Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 77/78. Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. 1977. p. 134. 
  3. ^ a b Costa, André & Georges-Michel Fraichard, ed. (September 1979). Salon 1979: Toutes les Voitures du Monde (in French) (Paris: l'Auto Journal) (14 & 15): 212.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Gavin Farmer, Great Ideas in Motion, 2010, page 413
  5. ^ Zatz, David. "Chrysler 180, 160, and 160GT, Simca 1501, and Chrysler 2 Litre; and the Chrysler Centura and Barreiros". www.allpar.com. Retrieved 19 June 2013.