Ma Chu

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Chu

907–951
L.LIANG.jpg
CapitalChangsha
Common languagesMiddle Chinese
GovernmentMonarchy
Prince/King 
• 907–930
Ma Yin
• 950–951
Ma Xichong
Historical eraFive Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
• Became the State
907
• establishment of the Kingdom
927
• Ended by Southern Tang
951
CurrencySilk, Cash coins (Iron)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tang Dynasty
Southern Tang

Chu (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chǔ), often referred to as Ma Chu (马楚) or Southern Chu (南楚) to distinguish it from other historical states called Chu, was a kingdom in south China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960). It existed from 907 to 951.

Founding[edit]

Ma Yin was named regional governor by the Tang court in 896 after fighting against a rebel named Yang Xingmi. He declared himself as the Prince of Chu with the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907. Ma’s position as Prince of Chu was confirmed by the Later Tang in the north in 927 and was given the posthumous title of King Wumu of Chu.

Territories[edit]

The capital of the Chu Kingdom was Changsha (Tanzhou).[1] Present-day Hunan and northeastern Guangxi were under the control of the kingdom.

Economy[edit]

Chu was peaceful and prosperous under Ma Yin's rule, exporting horses, silk and tea. Silk and lead coinage were often used as currency, particularly with external communities which would not accept other coinage of the land. Taxation was low for the peasantry and merchants.

Fall of Chu[edit]

After Ma Yin died the leadership was subject to struggle and conflict which resulted in the fall of the kingdom. The Southern Tang, fresh from its conquest of the Min Kingdom, took advantage and conquered the kingdom in 951. The ruling family was removed to the Southern Tang capital of Jinling. However, the following year, Chu generals rose against Southern Tang and expelled the Southern Tang expeditionary force, leaving the former Chu territory to be ruled by several of those generals called Wuping Jiedushi in succession until 963, when the territory was seized by Song Dynasty. During these post-Chu years of de facto independence, the center of power was usually at Lang Prefecture (朗州, in modern Changde, Hunan).

Rulers[edit]

Sovereigns in Chu Kingdom 907–951 (+ Rulers of Formerly Chu Lands 951–963)
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號; miaò haò) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Did not exist Wǔmù Wáng 武穆王 Mǎ Yīn
馬殷
907–930 Did not exist
Did not exist None (commonly known as Prince of Hengyang (衡陽王; Héngyáng Wáng)) Mǎ Xīshēng
馬希聲
930–932 Did not exist
Did not exist Wénzhāo Wáng 文昭王 Mǎ Xīfàn
馬希範
932–947 Did not exist
Did not exist None (commonly known as Deposed Prince (廢王; Fèi Wáng)) Mǎ Xīguǎng
馬希廣
947–951 Did not exist
Did not exist Gōngxìao Wáng 恭孝王 Mǎ Xī'è
馬希萼
951 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Mǎ Xīchóng
馬希崇
951 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Líu Yán
劉言
951–953 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Wáng Kúi
王逵
953–956 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Zhōu Xíngféng
周行逢
956–962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Zhōu Bǎoquán
周保權
962–963 Did not exist

Ma rulers family tree[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 66 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-04-20..

References[edit]

  • Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China (900-1800). Harvard University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-674-01212-7.
  • "Chu 楚". The Ten Kingdoms. Retrieved 12 April 2005.