Chudasama dynasty

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Chudasama dynasty
c. 9th century–1472
CapitalVamanasthali
Junagadh
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
• c. 9th century
Chudachandra
• c. 10th century
Graharipu
• late 11th century
Navaghana
• early 12th century
Khengara
• 1294 - 1306
Mandalika I
• 1451 - 1472
Mandalika III
History 
• Established
c. 9th century
• Disestablished
1472
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Chavda dynasty
Gujarat Sultanate

The Chudasama dynasty ruled parts of the present-day Saurashtra region of Gujarat state in India between the 9th and 15th centuries. Their capital was based in Junagadh and Vamanasthali, and they were later classified among the Rajput clans.

The early history of Chudasama dynasty is almost lost. The bardic legends differs very much in names, order and numbers so they are not considered reliable. Traditionally, the dynasty is said to have been founded in the late 9th century by Chudachandra. Subsequent rulers such as Graharipu, Navaghana and Khengara were in conflict with Chaulukya rulers Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Thus they are mentioned in contemporary and later Jain chronicles. After end of the rule of Chaulukya and their successor Vaghela dynasty in Gujarat, the Chudasamas continued to rule independently or as a vassal of successor states, Delhi Sultanate and Gujarat Sultanate. Mandalika I was the first known ruler from inscriptions during whose reign Gujarat was invaded by Khalji dynasty of Delhi. The last king of the dynasty, Mandalika III, was defeated and forcibly converted to Islam in 1472 by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada, who also annexed the state.[1][2]

Titles[edit]

Ra, Rao, Raval, Raul were the titles adopted by the rulers of Chudasama dynasty which are found in their inscriptions, manuscripts and bardic literature.

The Chudasamas are sometimes referred to as the Abhira Ranaka or Ahir Ranas, and Tambs-Lyche says that, "The structure of the Chudasama state ... seems to have been an alliance between a small royal clan — later to be classified as Rajputs — and the Ahir tribe."[3] In Dvyashraya and Prabandhchintamani written by Hemchandra and Merutunga respectively, the king of Vamanasthali is described as Abhira Ranaka and the term can fairly be applied to Chudasama prince Navaghana as he was placed on throne with the aid of the Ahirs, according to bardic tales.[4]

Chudasama rulers had Yadava in their names claiming yaduvanshi kinship [5][6][7][8] In Saurashtra ni Rashdar written by noted poet Jhaverchand Meghani , the chudasama rajputs are described as Yaduvanshi Rajputs.[9][10]

Origin, genealogy and chronology[edit]

Archaeologist K. V. Soundararajan considers the Chudasama dynasty as originally of Abhira clan.[11]

There are no inscriptions of the period before the king Mandalika I available. Still it is certain that they had established their rule in the Saurashtra region before the Chaulukya king Mularaja came to power in Anahilavada because literary sources tell about battles between Chudasama kings and Chaulukya kings; Mularaja and Jayasimha Siddharaja. Dhandusar inscription (VS 1445) says that the founder of the dynasty was Chudachandra. A Vanthali inscription tells about Mandalika, a kings whose kingdom was captured by Jagatsimha, a feudatory of Chaulukya king Viradhavala. This Mandalika king must be another Mandalika king mentioned in latter half genealogy. As Viradhavala is known to live in VS 1288, he must be assigned the same date. As another Vanthali inscription date VS 1346, it must have been under the Jagatsimha's family till then. It seems that a later Chudasama king Mandalika regained Vanthali when Chaulukya rule weakened. So the later genealogy starts from him in later inscriptions. The Chudasamas continued to rule till VS 1527 (1472 CE) when they were defeated by Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada. As inscriptions says about their resistance to Gujarat Sultans, it can be said that they were the most powerful dynasty in Saurashtra region at that time.[12]

Coins[edit]

Based on historical records, it is known that the coins known as Kodis, Karshapan or Pan, Vishopak, Dram and Rupak were used in Chudasama domains. 80 Kodis were equal to one Karshapan and 16 Karshapan were equal to one Dram. One Dram was equal to 20 Vishopak.[13]

Their copper coins had a humped bull (Nandi) seated facing left on obverse and a Devanagari letter 'Sri' within dotted and line circle on reverse. They weighted around 2.18 g and were 14.38mm is diameter.[citation needed]

Constructions[edit]

The Uparkot Fort of Junagadh was occupied by Chudasamas during the reign of Graharipu. Later it is said to have been rebuilt by Navaghana who had transferred his capital from Vamanasthali to Junagadh. He is also attributed with the constructions of Navghan Kuvo and Adi Kadi Vav, a well and a stepwell respectively, in the fort. His descendant Khengara is attributed with a stepwell, Ra Khengar Vav, on the way to Vanthali from Junagadh though it was built by Tejpal, the minister in the Vaghela court.[14]

Notable People[edit]

Bhupendrasinh Chudasama - Cabinet minister of Education (Primary, Secondary and Adult), Higher and Technical Education, Law & Justice, Parliamentary Affairs, Civil Aviation, Salt Industry Gau Savardhan in 13th Gujarat Legislative Assembly. He is a lawyer by profession.[15]

Rajendrasinh Chudasama - IPS (Gujarat) presently Superintendent of Police, Panchmahal is transferred and appointed as  Superintendent of Police, Bharuch, Gujarat.[16]


Conflict with Chaulukyas[edit]

The Chudasama dynasty were in constant conflict with the Chaulukyas. Hemachandra states that Mularaja of the Chaulukya dynasty fought against Abhira raja, Graharipu ruling at Junagadh to protect the pilgrims going to Prabhas Patan.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Gujarat, Malwa and Khandesh". The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1934. pp. 307–308. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  2. ^ Gupta, R. K.; Bakshi, S. R., eds. (2008). Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages: Marwar and British Administration. 5. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-8-17625-841-8. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  3. ^ Lyche, Harald Tambs (2002). "Townsmen, Tenants and Tribes: War, Wildness and Wilderness in the Traditional Politics of Western India". In Ratha, S. N.; Pfeffer, Georg; Behera, Deepak Kumar (eds.). Contemporary Society: Concept of Tribal Society. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-8-17022-983-4. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
  4. ^ Kumar, Sushil (2003). Kumar, Naresh (ed.). Encyclopaedia of folklore and folktales of South Asia. 10. Anmol Publications. p. 2771. ISBN 978-8-12611-400-9.
  5. ^ J, Chaube. History of Gujarat Kingdom, 1458-1537. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 16.
  6. ^ Chopra, Pran Nath. History of Gujarat. S Chand. p. 101.
  7. ^ Singh, Rajvi. Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan. S Chand. p. 1391.
  8. ^ DB, Diskalkar. Sanskrit and Prakrit Poets Known from Inscriptions. Anandashram Samstha. p. 178.
  9. ^ Kālīdāsa Meghāṇī, Jhaveracanda (2006). Saurashtra Ni Rashdhar 2 - Ra Navghan. Gurjar Granthratna Karyalay. p. 30. ISBN 8189166182.
  10. ^ Saurashtra ni Rashdhar - ઝવેરચંદ મેઘાણી. p. 36.
  11. ^ KV, Soundararajan. Junagadh. Archaeological Survey of India. p. 10.
  12. ^ Diskalkar, D. B. (December 1938). "Inscriptions Of Kathiawad". New Indian Antiquary. 1. pp. 578–579, .
  13. ^ Gazetteers: Junagadh. Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications. 1975. p. 467.
  14. ^ Jutta Jain-Neubauer (1981). The Stepwells of Gujarat: In Art-historical Perspective. Abhinav Publications. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-391-02284-3.
  15. ^ "Bhupendrasinh".
  16. ^ "Rajendra sinh Chudasama".
  17. ^ Romila Thapar (2004). "Somanatha". History. Penguin Books. p. 108.