Chagatai, Chughtai, or Çağatay (Persian: چغتائی) is a family name in portions of South Asia, Central Asia, Middle East. Chughtais are descendants from various Turco-Mongol armies, or simply Tartars. Chughtais are originally Caucasoid Turks of Central Asia with some Mongoloid mixture. When Chagatai Khan ruled Central Asia, all nations started to name themselves Chughtais to describe themselves that they served Chagatai Khan. Many Chughtais conquered Sindh and Punjab. Chughtais are mostly found in Sindh and in Punjab.
Chughtais were Turkic or Tartar nomads of Central Asia. Origin of Chughtais is considered to be East Uzbekistan somewhere near Samarkand. Chughtais are originally Old Uzbeks and had their own language. These people were simple Tartars but were named "Chughtai" after their leader Chagatai Khan who was son of Genghis Khan . Side by side, Chughtais not only campaigned Chagatai Khan but also served Hulagu Khan and Kublai Khan. Chughtais were very strong and fierce Tartars who helped Mongols in conquering almost whole of Asia. Middle East and Indian Subcontinent were conquered by Chughtai Tartars or Turco-Mongols. Many people think that there are Hadiths regarding Chughtais because these people destroyed Baghdad which was main centre for Muslims to get knowledge. But this place got completely demolished. After conquering of Baghdad, at time of Timur they attacked Afghanistan and India. Afghanistan was conquered and Pashtuns ran away because they were less equipped and shorter than Tartars. During reign of Tiimur, Islam was embraced by all Chughtais. Chughtais went on their way with Mughal Emperors. In Afghanistan Babur established a city in eastern Afghanistan and named it Chughtai Sara (In Kunar province and is pronounced by people as Chegah Sarai. Later on government changed it to Asa'ad Abad. However, ordinary people still call it Chegha Sarai). Baber settled many households of Chughtai descent to eastern Afghanistan from Kunar to Laghman to ensure security of his logistical routes from Central Asia to India. Later on to strengthen this route, Mughal-i-Azam, Jalaludin Akbar, established another city in the area and named it Jalalabad. Therefore, one can easily say that most of the inhabitants of eastern Afghanistan have a central Asian descent from Chughtai tribe and other Persian speaking people.
Origin of the name, Surnames & Language
Chughtai is a distorted form of Chaghadai which is a version of Chagan (white) formed using the –dai suffix as described in "On the Documentation and Construction of Period Mongolian Names" by Baras-aghur Naran; it defines Chaghadai as he who is white.
In South Asia and Central Asia, Chughtais also use Mirza, Baig and Khan as a surname. Chughtais had their own language, which was Chagatai Turkic, also known as Middle Turkic. This language was once widely spoken in Central Asia but became extinct in the 19th century. Chagatai Turkic is known by Babur as Turki. The word Urdu is itself a Chagatai Turkic word which means "A Group". Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi are greatly influenced by Chagatai Turkic Language.
"If you (Muslims) don't fight with these little eyed, pug nosed, shield faced, thick skinned people , the doomsday won't come." (Bukhari, e's-Sahih, Kitabu'l-Cihad/96; Muslim, e's-Sahih, kitabu'l-Fiten/62 hadith #: 2912; Abu Dawod, Sünen, hadith #: 4304; Tirmizi, hadith #: 2251; İbn Maja, hadith #: 4096-4099)
“This is a sign for the doomsday, too: You will fight the people who wear shoes which are made of bristle and kill them. The fight against the people with wide shield faces is a sign for the doomsday. The doomsday won't come until you kill the little eyed, red faced, pug nosed, shield faced, thick skinned Turks.." (Bukhari, e's-Sahih, kitabu'l-Cihad/95; Muslim, e's-Sahih, Kitabu'l-Fiten/66, hadith #: 2912; İbn Maja, hadith #: 4097-4098).
“You (Muslims) and the little eyed people, Turks are going to fight. You are going to run after them 3 times. Finally you are going to meet them in the Arabic peninsula. At first, *whoever can run away will survive. In the second time, *some will escape and some will be killed. In the third time, all of them will be destroyed." (Abu Dawod, sünen, hadith #: 4305.)
‘‘Muslims! The doomsday won't come until the Turks are all killed. (Muslim, e's-Sahih, Kitabu'l-Fiten/62-65, hadith #:2912; Abu Dawod, Sünen, Kitabu'l-Melahim/9 Babun fi Kıtali't Türk, hadith #: 4303; Nesei, Sünen, Kitabu'l-Cihad/ Babu Gazveti't-Turk)
From the "KITALUT-TURK" ("WAR WITH TURKS") hadiths: In the end Turks will be slaughtered... (Abu Dawod, Kitabu'l-Cihad/9, hadith #:4305.) *
- 11417 Chughtai
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- Chagatai Khan
- Chagatai Khanate
- Chagatai language
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- Nasir Baig Chughtai