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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Coordinates: 66°40′N 171°00′E / 66.667°N 171.000°E / 66.667; 171.000
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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Чукотский автономный округ
Other transcription(s)
 • ChukchiЧукоткакэн автономныкэн округ
Coat of arms of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Anthem: Anthem of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug[3]
Coordinates: 66°40′N 171°00′E / 66.667°N 171.000°E / 66.667; 171.000
Federal districtFar Eastern[1]
Economic regionFar Eastern[2]
Administrative centerAnadyr
 • BodyDuma[4]
 • Governor[6]Vladislav Kuznetsov[5]
 • Total721,481 km2 (278,565 sq mi)
 • Rank7th
 • Total47,490
 • Estimate 
 • Rank82nd
 • Density0.066/km2 (0.17/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+12 (MSK+9 Edit this on Wikidata[10])
ISO 3166 codeRU-CHU
License plates87
OKTMO ID77000000
Official languagesRussian[11]
Recognised languagesChukchi

Chukotka (Russian: Чуко́тка, romanizedChukotka), officially the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug,[note 1] is the easternmost federal subject of Russia. It is an autonomous okrug situated in the Russian Far East, and shares a border with the Republic of Sakha to the west, Magadan Oblast to the south-west, and Kamchatka Krai to the south, as well as a maritime border on the Bering Strait with the U.S. state of Alaska to the east. Anadyr is the largest town and the capital, and the easternmost settlement to have town status in Russia. It is the closest point from Russia to the United States, measuring at 88.51 kilometres or 55 miles.

Chukotka is primarily populated by ethnic Russians, Chukchi, and other indigenous peoples. It is the only autonomous okrug in Russia that is not included in, or subordinate to, another federal subject, having separated from Magadan Oblast in 1992. It is home to Lake Elgygytgyn, an impact crater lake, and Anyuyskiy, an extinct volcano. The village of Uelen is the easternmost settlement in Russia and the closest substantial settlement to the United States (Alaska).

The autonomous okrug covers an area of over 737,700 square kilometers (284,800 sq mi), and is the seventh-largest federal subject in Russia, although it has a population of only 50,526.[13] Chukotka is the second-least-populated federal subject, and the least densely populated federal subject in Russia. The region is the northeasternmost region of Russia, and since the sale of Alaska in 1867, it has been the only part of Russia lying partially in the Western Hemisphere.


Frozen wilderness of far northern Chukotka

Chukotka is bordered in the north by the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea, which are part of the Arctic Ocean; in the east by the Bering Strait and the Bering Sea, part of the Pacific Ocean; in the south by Kamchatka Krai and Magadan Oblast; and in the west by the Sakha Republic. The Chukchi Peninsula projects eastward forming the Bering Strait between Siberia and the Alaska Peninsula, and encloses the north side of the Gulf of Anadyr. The peninsula's easternmost point, Cape Dezhnev, is also the easternmost point of mainland Russia.

Ecologically, Chukotka can be divided into three distinct areas: the northern Arctic desert, the central tundra, and the taiga in the south. About half of its area is above the Arctic Circle. This area is very mountainous, containing the Chukotsky Mountains (highest point Iskhodnaya) and the Anadyr Highlands.

Chukotka's rivers spring from its northern and central mountains. The major rivers are:

The largest lakes are Lake Krasnoye, west of Anadyr, Lake Pekulney and Lake Elgygytgyn in central Chukotka. Other important lakes are Koolen, Lake Ioni, Pychgynmygytgyn, Medvezhye, Achchyon and Maynits.

The okrug's extensive coastline has several peninsulas, the main ones being the Kyttyk Peninsula, Cape Shelagsky, the Aachim Peninsula, the Chukchi Peninsula and Russkaya Koshka.

There are also several islands belonging to Chukotka, from west to east the main ones being Ayon Island, Ryyanranot Island, Chengkuul Island, Mosey Island, the Routan Islands, Shalaurov Island, Wrangel Island, Herald Island, Kosa Dvukh Pilotov Island, Karkarpko Island, Kolyuchin Island, Serykh Gusey Islands, Idlidlya Island, Big Diomede Island, Ilir Island, Arakamchechen Island, Yttygran Island, Merokinkan Island, Achinkinkan Island and Kosa Meechkyn Island.

Large parts of Chukotka are covered with moss, lichen, and arctic plants, similar to western Alaska. Surrounding the Gulf of Anadyr and in the river valleys grow small larch, pine, birch, poplar, and willow trees. More than 900 species of plants grow in Chukotka, including 400 species of moss and lichen. It is home to 220 bird species and 30 fresh water fish species.[14]



Chukotka's climate is influenced by its location on the three neighboring seas: the Bering Sea, the East Siberian Sea, and the Chukchi Sea with its weather characterized by cold northerly winds that can quickly change to wet southern winds. Cape Navarin has the highest number of hurricanes and storms in Russia. The coastal areas are windy with little precipitation, between 200 and 400 mm (7.9 and 15.7 in) per year. Temperature varies between −35 and −15 °C (−31 and 5 °F) in January, and between +5 and +14 °C (41 and 57 °F) in July. Growing season is short, lasting only 80 to 100 days per year.





The first inhabitants were Paleo-Siberian hunters who came to Chukotka from Central and East Asia. The area was then part of the Beringia land bridge that is thought to have enabled human migration to the Americas.[citation needed]



Traditionally, Chukotka was the home of the native Chukchi people, Siberian Yupiks, Koryaks, Chuvans, Evens/Lamuts, Yukaghirs, and Inuit.[citation needed] As of 1930, the population was primarily Chukchi.[15]

Russian exploration and conquest


After the Russians conquered the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates in the 16th century, the trade routes to the Urals, Siberia, and Central Asia opened for travel and traders and Cossacks moved eastwards. The Cossacks built forts in strategic locations and subjected the indigenous people to the Tsar.

An early (1773) map of Chukotka, showing the route of Dezhnyov expedition of 1648

During the first half of the 17th century, Russians reached the far north-east. In 1641, the first reference to Chukchi people was made by the Cossacks. In 1649, Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnyov explored the far north-eastern coast and established winter quarters on the upstream portion of the Anadyr River that became the fortified settlement of Anadyrsk. Dezhnyov tried to subjugate the Chukchi and exact tribute during the next ten years, but was mostly unsuccessful. Eventually, the fort was abandoned, because of the harsh northern conditions and lack of game animals for food.

At the end of the 17th century, the fort regained some importance when the sea route from Anadyrsk to Kamchatka was discovered. It was used as the staging base for expeditions to Kamchatka and all other forts and settlements were made subject to Anadyrsk. When the wealth of Kamchatka's natural resources was discovered, the Russian government started to give the far north-eastern region more serious attention. In 1725, Tsar Peter the Great ordered Vitus Bering to explore Kamchatka and Afanasy Shestakov to lead a military expedition to subjugate the Chukchi. This expedition failed when the fleet suffered shipwreck and the survivors, including Shestakov, were killed by the Chukchi.

In 1731, Dmitry Pavlutsky tried again, aided by Cossacks, Yukaghirs, and Koryaks (indigenous Siberian tribes that were subjugated earlier). Pavlutsky sailed up the Anadyr River and destroyed the Chukchi garrison on the Arctic Ocean. His ruthless methods had some limited success in forcing tribute from some Chukchi. But in 1747, the Chukchi defeated the Russian regiment and killed Pavlutsky.

Realizing that the Chukchi could not easily be subjugated by military means, the Russians changed tactics and offered the Chukchi citizenship in the Russian Empire. A peace treaty was concluded in 1778 in which the Chukchi were exempted from paying yasak.

That same year, British Captain James Cook made an exploration of Cape North (now Cape Schmidt) and Providence Bay. Anxious that other European powers would occupy the area, Tsaritsa Catherine II ordered the exploration and mapping of the area. Starting in 1785, an expedition led by Joseph Billings and Gavril Sarychev mapped the Chukchi Peninsula, the west coast of Alaska, and the Aleutian Islands. Then from 1821 to 1825, Ferdinand von Wrangel and Fyodor Matyushkin led expeditions along the coast of the East Siberian Sea and explored the Kolyma, Great Anyuy, and Little Anyuy Rivers.

Western influence

Painting of Chukchi by Louis Choris, 1816

Chukotka remained mostly outside the control of the Russian Empire and consequently other foreign powers (American, British, Norwegian) began to hunt and trade in the area from about 1820 onwards. After the sale of Alaska to the United States, American whalers and traders especially extended their activities into Chukotka and foreign influence reached its peak. By 1880, the Russians reacted by setting up coastal patrols to stop American ships and confiscate their property. And in 1888, the administrative region of Anadyr was created. Yet Russian control diminished again and around 1900, a large stream of foreigners entered Chukotka, lured to the region by the Yukon gold rush in 1898.

In 1909, in order to keep the region within Russian control, two districts were created within the Anadyr Region: the districts of Anadyr and Chukotka. The Russian government granted concessions to foreign companies such as the Hudson's Bay Company and the US Northeast Siberia Company, which was granted gold, iron, and graphite mining rights in the entire Chukotka between 1902 and 1912.

Wrangel Island in particular was subject to claims by the United States and Canada. In 1916, the Russians officially claimed the uninhabited island. But in 1921, Canadian Vilhjalmur Stefansson made a serious attempt to claim it for Canada by populating it and building a small settlement. Another contingent arrived in 1923 but a year later, the Soviets permanently conquered the island, removing the remaining inhabitants, and thereby ending all foreign influence.

Soviet period


Chukotka was subject to collectivization and resettlement of the indigenous people, but this process started later and was less extreme than in other parts of the Soviet Union.[16][17]

When Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, everything was done to start tin production as quickly as possible in Chukotka. Mining rapidly developed, and this industry would become its economic base. Also during the war, geologists discovered large reserves of gold that would be mined in the 1950s.

The Chukotka National Okrug (later Autonomous Okrug) was created in 1930 and was originally subordinated to Far Eastern Krai. In 1932, Kamchatka Oblast was created within the Far Eastern Krai (later Khabarovsk Krai) and was given jurisdiction over Chukotka from 1932 to 1953. Since the formation of Magadan Oblast from the northern parts of Khabarovsk Krai in 1953, Chukotka was administratively subordinated to the region.

Post-Soviet period

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in Chukotka, 2008

In 1991, Chukotka declared its separation to become a subject of the Russian Federation in its own right, a move that was confirmed by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in 1993.

From 2001 to 2008, Roman Abramovich was the Governor of Chukotka. He invested billions of rubles, including his own money, into the Chukotka economy by developing its infrastructure, schools, and housing. This has helped to double the GDP of the region and to more than triple the income of its residents.[18] In 2004, Abramovich tried to resign from this position but was reappointed governor for another term by Vladimir Putin. In early July 2008, it was announced that President Dmitry Medvedev had accepted Abramovich's latest request to resign as governor of Chukotka, although his various charitable activities in the region would continue. In the period 2000–2006 the average salaries in Chukotka increased from about US$165 (€117/£100) per month in 2000 to US$826 (€588/£500) per month in 2006.[19]

On 11 July 2008, Dmitry Medvedev nominated Roman Kopin to be the governor. On 13 July, the local legislators unanimously confirmed Kopin as the next governor of Chukotka.[citation needed] As of 2023, Vladislav Kuznetsov is the current governor of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.



Chukotka has large reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, gold, and tungsten, which are slowly being mined, but much of the rural population survives on subsistence reindeer herding, whale hunting, and fishing. The urban population is employed in mining, administration, construction, cultural work, education, medicine, and other occupations.

The largest companies in the region include Chukotka Mining and Geological Company (Kinross Gold), Severnoye zoloto, Mayskoye Gold Mining Company (Polymetal), FSUE Chukotsnab.[20] In April 2022, Kinross announced that it was selling 100% of its Russian assets following other international companies obliged to exit the Russian economy.


Uelen on the Arctic Ocean is the easternmost settlement in Russia and the whole of Eurasia.

Chukotka is mostly roadless and air travel is the main mode of passenger transport. There are local permanent roads between some settlements (e.g. Egvekinot-Iultin (200 km (124 mi))). When cold enough, winter roads are constructed on the frozen rivers to connect regional settlements in a uniform network. The Anadyr Highway is under construction to link Chukotka to Magadan, and to connect the settlements of Anadyr, Bilibino, Komsomolsky and Egvekinot within Chukotka.

In 2009, replacement of the emergency bridge through Loren River on the busy local road from Lavrentiya to Lorino (40 km (25 mi)) became the main event in transport in Chukotka.

The main airport is Ugolny Airport near Anadyr. Coastal shipping also takes place, but ice prevents this for at least half the year.

Local government


The legislative (representative) body of state power is the Duma of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. It consists of 15 deputies elected for a term of 5 years. As of 2016, it is represented by three factions: United Russia, LDPR, and CPRF.



The current governor of Chukotka is Vladislav Kuznetsov, who replaced Roman Kopin on 15 March 2023. Kuznetsov previously served as deputy prime minister of the unrecognized Luhansk People's Republic.[5]

The governor is elected by universal suffrage for a term of 5 years.[21][22]

Governors of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
1991 – 2000 Aleksandr Nazarov
2000 – 2008 Roman Abramovich
2008 – 2023 Roman Kopin
2023 – present Vladislav Kuznetsov (acting)

Roman Abramovich was governor of Chukotka from 2000 to 2008. Abramovich had spent over US$1 billion in the region (partly as normal tax payments) on developing infrastructure and providing direct aid to the inhabitants[23] during his time as governor from 2000 until 2008. In 2004, there were also reports, however, that Chukotka gave Abramovich's company Sibneft tax breaks in excess of US$450 million.[24]

On 13 July 2008, the deputies of the Duma of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, during a secret ballot, unanimously approved Roman Kopin as governor, whose candidacy was submitted for consideration to the Duma of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug on 11 July 2008 by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in connection with the early resignation of Abramovich. On 8 September 2013, Kopin was elected governor.

On 15 March 2023, Vladislav Kuznetsov replaced Kopin as the governor of Chukotka.[25]

Districts of Chukotka. Chaunsky District and Anadyr town highlighted.
View of Egvekinot
Bilibinsky District in Chukotka

Administrative divisions


Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is administratively divided into the following districts:

Along the Arctic coast (from west to east): Bilibinsky District (northwest), Chaunsky District around Chaunskaya Bay, then Iultinsky District, and finally Chukotsky District at the eastern cape.

Along the Pacific coast (from north to south): Providensky District south of Chukotsky, southern Iultinsky District around Kresta Bay, and finally eastern Anadyrsky District at the Anadyr Estuary.

Interior: The western quarter of the Okrug is Bilibinsky District, and the rest of the interior is Anadyrsky District.



Population: 47,490 (2021 Census);[26] 50,526 (2010 Russian census);[13] 53,824 (2002 Census);[27] 157,528 (1989 Soviet census).[28] The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is one of the very few places in Russia where there are more men than women.


Vital statistics

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 103,000 1,751 599 1,152 17.0 5.8 11.2
1975 124,000 2,113 627 1,486 17.0 5.1 12.0
1980 143,000 2,208 653 1,555 15.4 4.6 10.9
1985 154,000 2,659 627 2,032 17.3 4.1 13.2
1990 160,000 2,208 598 1,610 13.8 3.7 10.1
1991 153,000 1,912 631 1,281 12.5 4.1 8.4
1992 136,000 1,565 763 802 11.5 5.6 5.9
1993 118,000 1,191 907 284 10.1 7.7 2.4
1994 104,000 1,153 884 269 11.1 8.5 2.6
1995 90,000 935 816 119 10.4 9.1 1.3
1996 81,000 816 119 11.5 10.1 1.5
1997 75,000 818 598 220 10.9 8.0 2.9
1998 70,000 855 612 243 12.3 8.8 3.5
1999 64,000 672 530 142 10.4 8.2 2.2
2000 60,000 686 570 116 11.5 9.6 1.9
2001 56,000 719 701 18 12.7 12.4 0.3
2002 54,000 653 611 42 12.1 11.3 0.8
2003 53,000 679 562 117 12.8 10.6 2.2
2004 787 623 164 15.0 11.9 3.1
2005 52,000 795 597 198 15.2 11.4 3.8
2006 771 585 186 14.8 11.3 3.6
2007 801 595 206 15.5 11.5 4.0
2008 51,000 751 620 131 14.6 12.1 2.5
2009 695 640 55 13.6 12.5 1.1 1.67
2010 746 698 48 14.7 13.8 0.9 1.89
2011 688 560 128 13.6 11.1 2.5 1.81
2012 711 580 131 14.0 11.4 2.6 1.97
2013 662 533 129 13.1 10.5 1.91
2014 690 551 139 13.7 10.9 2.8 2.04
2015 50,000 683 485 198 13.5 9.6 3.9 2.10
2016 671 501 170 13.4 10.0 3.4 2.10(e)
Historical population
Source: Census data

Life expectancy


As of June 2022, Chukotka had the lowest life expectancy in Russia. This statistic varies greatly from year to year due to the region's relatively small population.[30][31]

Life expectancy at birth in Chukotka [30][31]

Ethnic groups


According to the 2021 Census, the ethnic composition was:[32]

Historical figures are given below:

1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census 2021 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Chukchis 12,111 56.2% 9,975 21.4% 11,001 10.9% 11,292 8.1% 11,914 7.3% 12,622 24.0% 12,772 26.7% 13,292 28.3%
Chuvans 944 0.6% 951 1.8% 897 1.9% 742 1.6%
Yupik 800 3.7% 1,064 2.3% 1,149 1.1% 1,278 0.9% 1,452 0.9% 1,534 2.9% 1,529 3.2% 1,460 3.1%
Evens 817 3.8% 820 1.8% 1,061 1.0% 969 0.7% 1,336 0.8% 1,407 2.7% 1,392 2.9% 1,285 2.7%
Russians 5,183 24.1% 28,318 60.7% 70,531 69.7% 96,424 68.9% 108,297 66.1% 27,918 53.1% 25,068 52.5% 25,503 54.2%
Ukrainians 571 2.7% 3,543 7.6% 10,393 10.3% 20,122 14.4% 27,600 16.8% 4,960 9.4% 2,869 6.0% 1,526 3.2%
Others 2,055 9.5% 2,969 6.4% 7,049 7.0% 9,859 7.0% 12,391 7.6% 3,233 6.1% 2,961 6.2% 3,236 6.9%
All 21,537 46,689 101,194 139,944 163,934 53,824 50,526 47,490
1 446 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[33]

There are 86 recognized ethnic groups in the okrug as of 2021. Indigenous peoples make up 37% of the total population.

Ethnographic maps shows the Yupik peoples as the indigenous population of some villages near Provideniya, Chuvans in the Chuvanskoye village some 100 km (62 mi) west of Markovo, the Evens in some inland areas, and the Chukchi throughout the rest of the region.[34]



The Russian Orthodox Church in Chukotka is represented by the Eparchy (Diocese) of Anadyr and Chukotka (Russian: Анадырская и Чукотская епархия). The controversial conservative Bishop of Anadyr and Chukotka, Diomid, who had occupied the Anadyr see since 2000 and had been instrumental in the development of the church in the peninsula, was removed by the Holy Synod in the summer of 2008. Diomid would later go on to establish a True Orthodox denomination in Chukotka, which has become largely inactive.[35] Diomid was succeeded by Mark (Tuzhikov) as he was the acting Archbishop of Khabarovsk at the time.

The current Russian Orthodox bishop of Chukotka is Ipaty (Golubev) who was installed on 21 August 2018.

There is also a small evangelical presence in the city of Provideniya, founded by the Moldovan community there.[36]

See also



  1. ^


  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #45-OZ
  4. ^ Charter of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Article 27
  5. ^ a b "Putin appointed an official from the "LPR" as the head of Chukotka". Novaya Gazeta Europe (in Russian). 15 March 2023. Retrieved 15 March 2023.
  6. ^ Charter of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Article 40
  7. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on 9 February 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  8. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ Resolution of 10 December 1930.
  13. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  14. ^ WWF International, The Bering Sea Ecoregion, Chukotka's Natural Heritage at a Glance ("online version" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016.)
  15. ^ "Chukotka". Encyclopaedia Brittanica. 10 July 2024. Retrieved 15 July 2024.
  16. ^ "Корякский язык" (in Russian). UNESCO Moscow Office. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  17. ^ Хаковская, Л.Н. (2016). "Коллективизация оленеводческих хозяйств Чукотки в 1940-х гг" [Collectivization of Reindeer Husbandries in Chukotka through the 1940s] (PDF). Proceedings of III Всероссийская конференция, посвященная памяти А. П. Васьковского (in Russian). Magadan: 358–361. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  18. ^ Smale, Will (29 September 2005). "What Abramovich may do with his money". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  19. ^ Shaun Walker (4 July 2008). "Abramovich quits job in Siberia to spend more time on Western front". The Independent. London: Independent News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
  20. ^ Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО. СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  21. ^ Устав Чукотского автономного округа
  22. ^ "Закон Чукотского автономного округа «О порядке проведения выборов Губернатора Чукотского автономного округа»" [Law of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the procedure for holding elections of the Governor of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug"]. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
  23. ^ What Abramovich may do with his money Archived 6 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 29 September 2005
  24. ^ Abramovich region found bankrupt BBC News, 21 May 2004
  25. ^ "Путин назначил чиновника из «ЛНР» главой Чукотки". Новая газета Европа. 15 March 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
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  27. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  28. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  29. ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  30. ^ a b "Демографический ежегодник России" [The Demographic Yearbook of Russia] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service of Russia (Rosstat). Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  31. ^ a b "Ожидаемая продолжительность жизни при рождении" [Life expectancy at birth]. Unified Interdepartmental Information and Statistical System of Russia (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  32. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  33. ^ ВПН-2010 Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Map 3.6 (Chukotskiy Avtonomnyi Okrug) Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine from the series prepared for the INSROP (International Northern Sea Route Programme) Working Paper No. 90 Archived 21 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine in 1997.
  35. ^ Солдатов, Александр. "Загадочная гибель «чукотского Савонаролы»". Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  36. ^ Bourdon, Julie. "Bringing light to a dark corner of Russia". Retrieved 22 December 2016.


  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №45-ОЗ от 4 октября 2000 г. «О гимне Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №99-ОЗ от 7 ноября 2016 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "О гимне Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Крайний Север", No.2 (1243), 12 января 2001 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #45-OZ of 4 October 2000 On the Anthem of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #99-OZ of 7 November 2016 On Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Anthem of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of the day of official publication.).
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. №26-ОЗ 28 ноября 1997 г. «Устав Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №33-ОЗ от 5 мая 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Чукотского автономного округа». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №5, 19 декабря 1997 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. #26-OZ November 28, 1997 Charter of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #33-OZ of May 5, 2015 On Amending the Charter of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Всероссийский центральный исполнительный комитет. Постановление от 10 декабря 1930 г. «Об организации национальных объединений в районах расселения малых народностей Севера». (All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Resolution of 10 December 1930 On the Organization of the Ethnic Clusters in the Areas of Settlement of the Small-Numbered Peoples of the North. ).

Further reading

  • Josh Newell, The Russian Far East. A Reference Guide for Conservation and Development, 2004