Chulalongkorn University

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Chulalongkorn University
จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย
Phra Kiao.svg
Former names
  • Royal Pages School
  • Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn
Motto
  • ความรู้คู่คุณธรรม (official)
  • เกียรติภูมิจุฬาฯ คือเกียรติแห่งการรับใช้ประชาชน (unofficial)
Motto in English
  • Knowledge with Virtue (official)
  • Honour of Chula is the Honour of Serving the Public (unofficial)
Type Public
Established March 26, 1917
Founder King Vajiravudh of Siam
President Prof. Bundhit Eua-arporn, Ph.D.
(บัณฑิต เอื้ออาภรณ์)
Students 37,609
Undergraduates 25,464 [1]
Postgraduates 8,419
2,582
Location Pathum Wan District, Bangkok, Thailand
13°44′19″N 100°31′50″E / 13.738593°N 100.530523°E / 13.738593; 100.530523Coordinates: 13°44′19″N 100°31′50″E / 13.738593°N 100.530523°E / 13.738593; 100.530523
Campus Downtown 2.0944 km2 (0.8087 sq mi)
Anthem "Maha Chulalongkorn"
("Great Chulalongkorn")
Colours      Pink
Mascot Rain Tree (Albizia saman)
Affiliations ASAIHL, AUN, APRU
Website www.chula.ac.th
Pillar of the Kingdom

Chulalongkorn University (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย; rtgsChulalongkon Mahawitthayalai; pronounced [t͡ɕù.lāː.lōŋ.kɔ̄ːn má.hǎː.wít.tʰá.jāː.lāj]), abbreviated either CU or Chula (Thai: จุฬาฯ), is a public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. It is the oldest university in the Thai modern educational system.[2]

The university began taking shape during King Chulalongkorn's reign when he founded the Royal Pages School in 1902 at The Grand Palace of Thailand. During the reign of his son, King Vajiravudh, the Royal Pages School became the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn. The Rockefeller Foundation was instrumental in helping the college form its academic foundation. On March 26, 1917, King Vajiravudh renamed the college Chulalongkorn University.[3]

Chulalongkorn University is the most highly ranked university in Thailand in every field of study and is supported by the Office of Nation Education Standards and Quality Assessment of Thailand. CU is one of the National Research Universities. Moreover, CU is the only Thai university which is a member of Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU). Admission to CU is highly selective, and applicants are required to have high test scores. Applicants ranking within the top 10 national scores are chosen for study at CU.[4]

Bird-angle view of Chulalongkorn University

CU comprises nineteen faculties, a School of Agriculture, three colleges, ten institutes and two other schools. Its campus occupies a vast area in downtown Bangkok. Graduates customarily received their diplomas from the King of Thailand, a tradition begun by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII); King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), the reigning monarch, has since delegated the responsibility to his daughter, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, for health reasons.

History[edit]

The university was named after King Chulalongkorn
Statue of King Chulalongkorn and King Vajiravudh

The demands of officials specialized in various fields by the government in the late 19th century Siam was an result of King Chulalongkorn's bureaucratic reforms, which aimed to transform the feudal Thai society into a modernized state. In 1899, the king founded the Civil Service Training School[5] near the northern gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from the school would become royal pages. Being royal pages, they learned how to administer organizations by working closely with the king, which was a traditional way of entrance to Siamese bureaucracy. After being royal pages, they would then serve in the Mahattai Ministry or other government ministries.

On April 1, 1902[6] the king thought the name of the school should be renamed to increase dignity of students and graduates. Hence the name Royal Pages School (Thai: โรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก) was later used. Later, on January 1, 1911,[7] King Vajiravudh renamed the school again to Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn (Thai: โรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) as a memorial to his father and moved the school to Windsor Palace (Thai: วังวินด์เซอร์ หรือวังใหม่) in the Pathumwan district.

The academic demands, however, increased all over the country as a whole as Siam was modernized. King Vajiravudh then took the remaining funds of Chulalongkorn's Royal Equestrian Statue construction, which was collected from people. Then combined with his own funds to subsidize the construction of a university campus. The king organized various schools around the city proper into the Chulalongkorn's College. The college offered 8 majors taught by 5 schools including;

Chulalongkorn University main auditorium

King Rama VI then realized that the education should be provided to all people not only for the bureaucrats. On March 26, 1917, the college was upgraded to the Chulalongkorn University (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย),[8] and the schools were transformed into four faculties: Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Public Administration, Faculty of Engineering, and Faculty of Medicine.

The university firstly granted certificates to its graduates. The education for a degree was then prepared. The Rockefeller Foundation reorganized the curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine. In 1923, the Faculty of Medicine became the first faculty to accept students from the secondary education (known as Mattayom). The remaining faculties then followed suit. After the 1932 Revolution, the Khana Ratsadon wanted the legal and political studies to be independent from "royalists'" Chulalongkorn University so they took the Faculty of Law and Political Science into their new Thammasat University in 1933.

In 1938, the Chulalongkorn University's Preparatory School was founded to provide pre-collegiate education for its students. Those who managed to enter the university had to spend two years in the Preparatory School before going on to the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Preparatory School, however, ceased to be a university-owned preparatory school in 1947 and became independent Triam Udom Suksa School. Later, the university established Chulalongkorn University Demonstration School (CUD) system as laboratory primary and high schools for Faculty of Education.

View of the main lawn of Chulalongkorn University with The Statue of King Chulalongkorn and King Vajiravudh. Chulalongkorn University auditorium is in the center of background

Symbols[edit]

Phra Kiao[edit]

See also: Phra Kiao
Model of Pra Kiao in CU Museum

Since the establishment of the Royal Pages School, the former name of the university, Chulalongkorn authorized the use of his personal emblem as school emblem.[9] The emblem is 'Phra Kiao', or Thai style coronet which is made to fit hair topknot. As the school was transformed into university, the King of Thailand authorized the use of Phra Kiao until nowadays. Today, Phra Kiao is used in formal letters, transcripts, souvenirs made by university and student uniforms.

Student Uniform[edit]

Undergraduate students are required to wear uniform as they are studying, taking examinations and contacting the university. For graduate students, collared or polo shirt and dark trousers are required for male students while plain blouse with properly long skirt are required for female students.

Originally, the university uniform was adapted from uniform worn by Chulalongkorn's heirs.[10] Later, the uniform was changed into more modernized version but original one is reserved as a formal uniform. Formal uniform is usually worn by student leaders and bachelor graduates.

Today, the normal uniform for male undergraduate students are plain white shirt with long or short sleeves and black (or dark blue) trousers. Dark blue necktie with colored Phra Kiao in its front is required for first year students but optional for higher years. However, black tie with silver Phra Kiao pin is usually used by higher year students in some faculties. For female students, they are required to wear short-sleeved blouse with fold along the spine. The buttons must be made of metal and Phra Kiao emblem must be pinned on right chest. Slightly dark blue or black pleated skirt and any black, white, brown shoes that conceal heels are also required. For female first year students, white leather shoes are required.[11] Chulalongkorn University's uniform has long been template of uniforms used in other universities in Thailand.

Academic Dress[edit]

The academic dress of Chulalongkorn University is based on ceremonial attire called suea krui, which is long-sleeved robe made of very fine mesh. Like dresses worn in United Kingdom, the robe is open-fronted and calf-length. Cap and hood, however, are omitted. Colored felt strip decorated with gold-colored ribbon is attached to the margin of the gown including elbow and wrist. Bachelors and masters use black strip, while respective scarlet and pink are for doctors (including honorary degrees recipients) and lecturers. Yellow strip is used specially for the king of Thailand.[12]

In addition, the colored yarn (bachelor) or ribbon (master and doctor) is added to the center of the strip longitudinally, according to degree-granting faculty.[13] The gown was authorized for use by Vajiravudh.[14]

Example of Felt Strips[edit]

Rain Tree[edit]

Rain Tree in front of CU Auditorium

Rain tree is very common on the university campus. It was deeply associated to the university since the past. Fresh green leaves in the beginning of the semester represent freshmen's enjoyment. As the tree produces slimy pods and sheds leaves, the below ground becomes dirty and slippery. As a simile, it is described as a warning to students to be ready for examination. When they walk carefully, they do not slip (able to pass examination). Whereas if they walk carelessly, they would slip and get injured (unable to pass examination).[15]

Around 1937–1957, many rain trees were to be cut down to allocate the area for new buildings and enhance cleanliness. The King Bhumibol Adulyadej recognized the dramatic decrease in the number of rain trees. Hence on January 15, 1962 the king planted five trees that he brought from Hua Hin in front of the university auditorium and said "Hence I give these five trees as eternal memorial" (Thai: จึงขอฝากต้นไม้ไว้ห้าต้นให้เป็นเครื่องเตือนใจตลอดกาล).

Organization[edit]

Chulalongkorn Business School
Faculty of Communication Arts

Chulalongkorn University consists of 19 faculties, 3 colleges, 1 school and many institutes which function as a teaching and researching unit.[16][17]

In 1917, the university had four faculties: Arts and Sciences, Public Administration, Engineering and Medicine. The Faculty of Law was established in 1933 as part of the Faculty of Law and Political Science.[18] During the 1930s to the 1950s it expanded to various fields including Pharmacy (1934), Veterinary Science (1935), Architecture (1939), Dentistry (1940), and Commerce and Accountancy (1943). In 1943, the regency government under General Phibun separated the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Science to become the University of Medical Sciences (now Mahidol University). In 1948, the Faculty of Political Science was re-established. The Faculty of Education was established in 1957 from the School of Teacher Training at Baan Somdet Chao Phraya (Thai: โรงเรียนฝึกหัดครู บ้านสมเด็จเจ้าพระยา).[19] In 1967, the Faculty of Veterinary Science was returned from Kasetsart University and the Faculty of Medicine at Chulalongkorn Hospital was moved from University of Medical Sciences to Chulalongkorn University. In 1972, the Faculty of Dentistry and Faculty of Pharmacy were retrieved.

Office of Commission on Agricultural Resource Education (OCARE) was established in 2009.[20] It is actually not administration office but school in which teaching and research are carried out. It intakes students from two groups: one from Northern Thailand provinces (Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit) and another from the rest of country. It has been upgraded into School of Agricultural Resources with full degree-granting power by university council on 5 March 2014.[17]

Health Sciences[edit]

Sciences and Technologies[edit]

  • Faculty of Architecture
  • Faculty of Engineering
  • Faculty of Science
  • School of Agricultural Resources

Social Sciences and Humanities[edit]

  • Chulalongkorn Business School
  • Faculty of Arts (Language&Literature)
  • Faculty of Communication Arts
  • Faculty of Economics
  • Faculty of Education
  • Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts (Art)
  • Faculty of Law
  • Faculty of Political Science

Graduate institutes[edit]

Research institutes[edit]

  • Aquatic Resources Research Institute
  • Energy Research Institute
  • Environmental Research Institute
  • Institute of Asian Studies
  • Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
  • Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute
  • Social Research Institute
  • Transportation Institute

Associated institutes[edit]

  • Police Nursing College
  • Red Cross College of Nursing

Research[edit]

Chulalongkorn University has research organizations in many fields of study.

  • Aquatio Resources Research Institute
  • Energy Research Institute
  • Environment Research Institute
  • Social Research Institute
  • The Institute of Biotechnology and Genetics Engineering
  • Metallurgy ang Material Science Research Institute
  • Institute of Asian Studies
  • Transportation Institute

The other research organnization is Unisearch which has the purpose to promote academic staffs and researchers to publish their researches and The Intellectual Property Institute has the purpose to register patents. CU also supports endownment to set up Research Units(RU) and Center of Excellence(CE). Nowadays, CU has over 100 research units and 20 national Center of Excellence.

Rankings[edit]

Ranking
National Ranking
QS Asian (2016) 1[21]
QS World (2016) 1[22]
CWUR (2016) 1[23]
RUR (2016) 1[24]
CWTS (2016) 1[25]
THE World (2016) 2[26]
SIR (2016) 2[27]
Nature Index (2016) 1[28]
U.S. News (2016) 2[29]
UI Green Metric (2015) 1[30]
Global
QS Asian (2016) 45[21]
QS World (2016) 252[22]
CWUR (2016) 320[23]
RUR (2016) 424[24]
CWTS (2016) 432[25]
THE World (2016) 601 -800[26]
SIR (2016) 475[27]
U.S. News (2016) 579[29]
UI Green Metric (2015) 30[30]
  • In the QS Asian University Rankings 2016. Chulalongkorn has been ranked as the top Thai university and ranked 45th in Asia[21]
  • In the QS World University Rankings 2016/17. Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in national rankings and ranked 252nd in the world[22]
  • In the Center for World University Ranking or CWUR, Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in national rankings and 320th in world rankings in 2016, considered by alumni, researches, quality of curriculums and instructors.[23]
  • In the Round University Ranking. Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in national rankings and ranked 424th in the world.[24]
  • In the CWTS Leiden Ranking 2016. Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in national rankings and ranked 432nd in the world.[25]
  • In the THE World University Rankings 2016. Chulalongkorn was ranked 601- 800 in the world.[26]
  • In the SCImago institutions Ranking, which ranks international researches of universities. Chulalongkorn was ranked 475th in World rankings in 2016, up six places from last year.[27]
  • In the U.S. News. Chulalongkorn was ranked 579th in the world.[29] considered by the university's reputation, medium, citations, international cooperation, quantity of PhD students, etc.

QS World University Ranking by Subject 2016[31]

World rank Subject
51 – 100
  • Chemical Engineering
101 – 150
  • Modern Languages
  • Chemistry
  • Accounting & Finance
151 – 200
  • Business & Management
  • Linguistics
  • Civil & Structural Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Mechanical, Aeronautical & Manufacturing Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacy & Pharmacology
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Geography
  • Materials Sciences
201 – 300
  • Computer Science
  • Biological Sciences
  • Economics & Econometrics
301 – 400
  • Mathematics

27 subjects that CU tops in the country's list includes:

Arts & Humanities

  • Anthropology
  • English Language & Literature
  • History
  • Modern Languages
  • Linguistics
  • Philosophy

Engineering & Technology

  • Chemical Engineering
  • Computer Science
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Mechanical, Aeronautical & Manufacturing Engineering
  • Mineral & Mining Engineering

Life Sciences & Medicine

  • Biological Sciences
  • Dentistry
  • Psychology
  • Veterinary Science

Natural Sciences

  • Physics & Astronomy
  • Mathematics
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Earth & Marine Sciences
  • Chemistry
  • Materials Sciences
  • Geography

Social Sciences & Management

  • Accounting & Finance
  • Communication & Media Studies
  • Social Policy & Administration
  • Economics & Econometrics
  • Politics & International Studies

9 subjects that CU comes in second on the country's list includes:

Arts & Humanities

  • Architecture / Built Environment

Engineering & Technology

  • Engineering – Civil & Structural

Life Sciences & Medicine

  • Medicine
  • Nursing
  • Pharmacy & Pharmacology

Social Sciences & Management

  • Education
  • Business & Management
  • Sociology
  • Statistics & Operational Research

3 subjects that CU ranks third in the country's list includes:

Arts & Humanities

  • Performing Arts

Social Sciences & Management

  • Development Studies
  • Law

Other Rankings

  • In the Nature Index, the affiliations of high quality scientific articles. Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in Thailand in 2016.[28]
  • In the UI Green Metric, Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in national rankings and the 30th in world rankings.[30] considered by Setting and Infrastructure, Energy and Climate Change, Waste, Water, Transportation and Education.
  • The Webometric ranking indicates quantity and quality is the university's medium, considered by being searched by search engines, online documents and citations in Google Scholar. Chulalongkorn was ranked 407th in the world.[32]

Exploring Chulalongkorn University[edit]

Panoramic view of Chulalongkorn: http://www.chula.ac.th/CUpanoV1/CuPano.html

International Programs[edit]

International Programs offered at Chulalongkorn University

Undergraduate[edit]

Faculty/College/School Degree Calendar System Programs
Architecture B.Sc. Semester Architectural Design
B.A. Semester Communication Design
Arts B.A. Semester Language and Culture
Commerce and Accountancy B.B.A. Semester Accounting
B.B.A. Semester International Business Management
Communication Arts B.A. Semester Communication Management
Economics B.A. Semester Economics
Engineering B.Eng. Semester Aerospace Engineering
B.Eng. Semester Automotive Design and Manufacturing Engineering
B.Eng. Semester Information and Communication Engineering
B.Eng. Semester Nano Engineering
Psychology B.Sc. Semester Psychological Science
Science B.Sc. Semester Applied Chemistry

Graduate[edit]

Faculty/College/School Degree Calendar System Programs Faculty/College/School Degree Calendar System Programs
Allied Health Sciences M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Food and Nutrition Nursing Ph.D. Semester Nursing Science
Architecture M.Arch. Semester Architectural Design Pharmaceutical Science M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Pharmaceutical Technology
Arts M.A./Ph.D Semester Thai Studies M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Commerce and Accountancy M.M. Semester International Business Management Ph.D Semester Pharmaceutical Care
M.Sc. Trimester Finance Political Science M.A. Trimester International Development Studies
M.Sc. Trimester Financial Engineering M.A. Trimester Governance
D.B.A. Semester Business Administration (Management/Finance/Marketing) Science M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Computer Science and Information Technology
Ph.D. Semester Information Technology in Business M.Sc. Semester Food Science and Technology
Ph.D. Semester Quantitative Finance M.Sc. Trimester Petroleum Geoscience
Communication Arts M.A. Semester Strategic Communication Management Graduate School Grad.Dip. Semester Fashion Business
Dentistry M.Sc. Semester Esthetic Restorative and Implant Dentistry M.A. Semester Cultural Management
Ph.D. Semester Dental Public Health M.A./Ph.D. Semester English as an International Language
Economics M.A. Trimester Business and Managerial Economics M.A./Ph.D. Trimester European Studies
M.A. Trimester International Economics and Finance M.A./Ph.D. Semester Environment, Development, and Sustainability
M.A. Trimester Labour Economics and Human Resource Management M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Hazardous Substance and Environmental Management
M.Sc. Trimester Health Economics and Health Care Management M.A. Semester Korean Studies
Ph.D. Trimester Economics M.A. Trimester Russian Studies
Education Higher Grad. Dip. Semester Higher Education Management M.A. Semester Southeast Asian Studies
M.Ed. Semester Teaching English as a Foreign Language Ph.D Semester Agricultural Technology
Engineering M.Eng Semester Engineering Management Ph.D Semester Logistics Management and Supply Chain Management
M.Eng Semester Petroleum Engineering Ph.D Semester Nanoscience and Technology
M.Eng Semester Georesources and Petroleum Engineering Public Health Sciences M.P.H./Ph.D. Trimester Public Health
D.Eng. Semester Civil Engineering M.Sc./Ph.D. Trimester Public Health Sciences
Law LL.M. Trimester Business Law SASIN M.B.A./M.Sc./Executive Module Business Administration
Medicine M.Sc. Semester Health Development Grad.Dip./M.Sc. Module Human Resource Management
M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Medical Sciences Ph.D. Quarters Business Administration (Finance/Marketing)
M.Sc./Ph.D. Semester Clinical Sciences Petroleum and Petrochemical M.S Semester Petroleum Technology
Ph.D. Semester Biomedical Science and Biotechnology M.S./Ph.D. Semester Petrochemical Technology
M.S./Ph.D. Semester Polymer Science

Scholarships[edit]

Research Scholarships[edit]

  • The 90th Anniversary of Chulalongkorn University Scholarship
  • CU.Graduate School Thesis Grant
  • Overseas Research Experience Scholarship for Graduate Student
  • Overseas Academic Presentation Scholarship for Graduate Students
  • Overseas Academic Presentation Scholarship Option II for Graduate Student's and Postdoctoral Fellow's Publication
  • Domestic Academic Presentation Scholarship for Graduate Student
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship

Education Scholarships[edit]

  • The 100th Anniversary Chulalongkorn University for Doctoral Scholarship
  • H.M. the King Bhumibhol Adulyadej's 72nd Birthday Anniversary Scholarship
  • Thainess Study Schorlarship for Graduate Students
  • 60/40 Support for Tuition Fee
  • Teaching Assistant Scholarship
  • Research Assistant Scholarship
  • Tuition fees Scholarship for Master to Doctoral
  • ASEAN Scholarship
  • Scholarship for International Graduate Students

for more details see Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University.

Honorary Degrees[edit]

The University has given honorary degrees to heads of state and other international dignitaries, including two US Presidents:

Traditions[edit]

Chulalongkorn University student traditions include:

  • Chula–Thammasat Traditional Football Match: The annual football match between Chulalongkorn University and Thammasat University in January at Suphashalasai Stadium. It first started in 1934.
  • Loy Krathong: an annual celebration of the full moon night, which usually falls on the first full moon day in November. Since the festival is open to the public, it attracts many people, especially Chulalongkorn students and faculty and those who live in downtown Bangkok, to come to the university to float their Krathongs on the university's pond.
  • Chulalongkorn Academic Exhibition: a triennial academic and research exhibition presented by Chulalongkorn University's students and faculty. It is regarded as one of the most important academic fairs in Thailand.

Student activities and clubs[edit]

Students dormitory

The University is host to 40 student clubs, including the Buddhism and Tradition Club, the Religious Studies Club, the Mind Study Club, and the Thai Classical Music Club. Chulalongkorn also have a Morals Network, which actively campaigns to protect student activities from damaging the university's reputation. The University's Cheer Club annually organizes the Chula-Thammasat traditional football match.

Notable alumni[edit]

International Reputation[edit]

  • Two medals from Olympic 2016 Rio de Janeiro games
  • The PH21 team, Computer Engineering students at Chulalongkorn University, got the 1st prize from the Microsoft Imagine Cup 2016 in the games category[34]
  • Chulalongkorn University Concert Choir Won Gold Award in World-Class Musical Competition 2014[35]

Robocup competitions[edit]

The university Robocup team, Plasma‐Z, got several prizes from the robotics competition as follow.[36]

  • In 2005, almost reached the quarter final at Osaka RoboCup.
  • In 2006, the third place and technical challenge at Bremen RoboCup.
  • In 2007, second place Atlanta World RoboCup.
  • In 2008, finally the team got champion of World RoboCup Small‐Sized Robot League at Suzhou, China.

Moreover, another university Robocup team, Plasma-RX has participated in Rescue robot league at World RoboCup 2008, Suzhou, China, and won the first prize and the best-in-class in mobility award.[37][38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office of the Registrar, Chulalongkorn University. Statistics on Students in Different Level. Last updated January 16, 2016
  2. ^ "CU History". Retrieved 2016-09-28. 
  3. ^ Chulalongkorn University official website. CU History. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  4. ^ "World Science & Engineering University Portal: THES- World University Ranking 2007". Universityportal.net. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  5. ^ Thai: โรงเรียนสำหรับฝึกหัดวิชาข้าราชการฝ่ายพลเรือน
  6. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการประกาศตั้งโรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก. เล่ม ๑๙, ตอน ๑, ๖ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๔๔๕, หน้า ๑๖ (Royal Order to establish Royal Page School)
  7. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการประกาศตั้งโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนฯ , เล่ม ๒๗, ตอน ก, ๑๑ มกราคม พ.ศ.๒๔๕๔, หน้า ๑๒๓ (Royal Order to establish the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn)
  8. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการ ประกาศประดิษฐานโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวขึ้นเป็นโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือน, เล่ม ๒๗, ตอน ก, ๑๕ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๔๖๐ (ประกาศเมื่อวันที่ ๒๖ มีนาคม พ.ศ.๒๔๖๐, หน้า ๑๒๓ (Royal Order to establish the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn.)
  9. ^ About Phra Kiao by Chulalongkorn Memorial Hall
  10. ^ History about CU uniform.
  11. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ข้อบังคับจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยเครื่องแบบ เครื่องหมาย และเครื่องแต่งกายนิสิต พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓ (The university regulation on uniform and dress codes, 2010)
  12. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา.พระราชกำหนดเสื้อครุยบัณฑิตของจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ.๒๔๗๓. เล่ม ๔๗, ๖ กรกฎาคม ๒๔๗๓. (Regulation on Chulalongkorn University Graduation Gown, 1930)
  13. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา.ข้อบังคับจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยการกำหนดปริญญาในสาขาวิชา อักษรย่อสำหรับสาขาวิชา ครุยวิทยฐานะ เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓.เล่ม ๑๒๗ ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน ๒๕๕๓. (University Regulation on Degrees Granted, Graduation and Faculty Gowns, 2010)
  14. ^ Graduation Gown of Chulalongkorn University
  15. ^ Rain Tree-The Symbol of Chulalongkorn University
  16. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย เรื่อง ส่วนงานของมหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๒, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๑๖ ง, ๑ กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๓, หน้า ๗๐ (University notification (rather command) on academic units, 2008)
  17. ^ a b ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย เรื่อง ส่วนงานของมหาวิทยาลัย (ฉบับที่ ๒) พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๗, เล่ม ๑๓๑, ตอนพิเศษ ๔๙ ง, ๑๘ มีนาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๗, หน้า ๓ (Amendment to 2008 regulation, ratified 2014)
  18. ^ www.law.chula.ac.th
  19. ^ Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University
  20. ^ Principles and history of establishing OCARE.
  21. ^ a b c "QS University Rankings: Asia 2016". 2016-06-08. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  22. ^ a b c "QS World University Rankings 2016". 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  23. ^ a b c "CWUR 2016 | Top Universities in Thailand". cwur.org. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  24. ^ a b c User, Super. "RANKINGS". roundranking.com. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  25. ^ a b c (CWTS), Centre for Science and Technology Studies. "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2016". CWTS Leiden Ranking 2016. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  26. ^ a b c "World University Rankings". 2015-09-30. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  27. ^ a b c "Scimago Institutions Rankings". www.scimagoir.com. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  28. ^ a b "2016 tables: Institutions | 2016 tables | Institutions | Nature Index". www.natureindex.com. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  29. ^ a b c "Top World University Rankings | US News Best Global Universities". Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  30. ^ a b c "Overall Ranking 2015 | Greenmetric UI". greenmetric.ui.ac.id. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  31. ^ "CU Subjects Top Country's List in QS World University Ranking by Subject 2016". Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  32. ^ "World | Ranking Web of Universities". www.webometrics.info. Retrieved 2016-09-16. 
  33. ^ "Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory". Db.nelsonmandela.org. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  34. ^ "Games, Innovation and World Citizenship winners announced in Microsoft Imagine Cup, setting stage for Friday's World Championship - The Fire Hose". 2016-07-28. Retrieved 2016-09-18. 
  35. ^ "Chulalongkorn University Concert Choir Won Gold Award in World-Class Musical Competition". Retrieved 2016-09-18. 
  36. ^ PlasmaZ Extended Team Description Paper
  37. ^ "IEEE Xplore - Sign In". Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  38. ^ Plasma-RX: Autonomous Rescue Robots

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