Chulalongkorn University

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Chulalongkorn University
จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย
Phra Kiao.svg
Former names
  • Royal Pages School
  • Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn
Motto
  • ความรู้คู่คุณธรรม (official)
  • เกียรติภูมิจุฬาฯ คือเกียรติแห่งการรับใช้ประชาชน (unofficial)
Motto in English
  • Knowledge with Virtue (official)
  • Honour of Chula is the Honour of Serving the Public (unofficial)
Type Public
Established March 26, 1917
Founder King Vajiravudh of Siam
President Prof. Dr. Bundhit Eua-arporn,
(บัณฑิต เอื้ออาภรณ์)
Students 38,097
Undergraduates 25,627 [1]
Postgraduates 9,639
2,696
Location Pathum Wan District, Bangkok, Thailand Thailand
13°44′18″N 100°31′57″E / 13.73826°N 100.532413°E / 13.73826; 100.532413Coordinates: 13°44′18″N 100°31′57″E / 13.73826°N 100.532413°E / 13.73826; 100.532413
Campus Downtown 2.0944 km2 (0.8087 sq mi)
Anthem "Maha Chulalongkorn"
("Great Chulalongkorn")
Colours      Pink
Mascot Rain Tree (Albizia saman)
Affiliations ASAIHL, AUN, APRU
Website www.chula.ac.th
Pillar of the Kingdom

Chulalongkorn University (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย; rtgsChulalongkon Mahawitthayalai; pronounced [t͡ɕù.lāː.lōŋ.kɔ̄ːn má.hǎː.wít.tʰá.jāː.lāj]), abbreviated either CU or Chula (Thai: จุฬาฯ), is a public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. It is the oldest university in the Thai modern educational system.[2]

The university began taking shape during King Chulalongkorn's reign when he founded the Royal Pages School in 1902 at The Grand Palace of Thailand. During the reign of his son, King Vajiravudh, the Royal Pages School became the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn. The Rockefeller Foundation was instrumental in helping the college form its academic foundation. On March 26, 1917, King Vajiravudh renamed the college Chulalongkorn University.[3]

Chulalongkorn University is the most highly ranked university in Thailand in every field of study and is supported by the Office of Nation Education Standards and Quality Assessment of Thailand. CU is one of the National Research Universities. Moreover, CU is the only Thai university which is a member of Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU). Admission to CU is highly selective, and applicants are required to have high test scores. Applicants ranking within the top 10 national scores are chosen for study at CU.[4]

Bird-angle view of Chulalongkorn University

CU comprises nineteen faculties, a School of Agriculture, three colleges, ten institutes and two other schools. Its campus occupies a vast area in downtown Bangkok. Graduates customarily received their diplomas from the King of Thailand, a tradition begun by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII); King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), the reigning monarch, has since delegated the responsibility to his daughter, Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, for health reasons.

History[edit]

The university was named after King Chulalongkorn
Statue of King Chulalongkorn and King Vajiravudh

The demands of officials specialized in various fields by the government in the late 19th century Siam was an result of King Chulalongkorn's bureaucratic reforms, which aimed to transform the feudal Thai society into a modernized state. In 1899, the king founded the Civil Service Training School[5] near the northern gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from the school would become royal pages. Being royal pages, they learned how to administer organizations by working closely with the king, which was a traditional way of entrance to Siamese bureaucracy. After being royal pages, they would then serve in the Mahattai Ministry or other government ministries.

On April 1, 1902[6] the king thought the name of the school should be renamed to increase dignity of students and graduates. Hence the name Royal Pages School (Thai: โรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก) was later used. Later, on January 1, 1911,[7] King Vajiravudh renamed the school again to Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn (Thai: โรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) as a memorial to his father and moved the school to Windsor Palace (Thai: วังวินด์เซอร์ หรือวังใหม่) in the Pathumwan district.

The academic demands, however, increased all over the country as a whole as Siam was modernized. King Vajiravudh then took the remaining funds of Chulalongkorn's Royal Equestrian Statue construction, which was collected from people. Then combined with his own funds to subsidize the construction of a university campus. The king organized various schools around the city proper into the Chulalongkorn's College. The college offered 8 majors taught by 5 schools including;

Chulalongkorn University main auditorium

King Rama VI then realized that the education should be provided to all people not only for the bureaucrats. On March 26, 1917, the college was upgraded to the Chulalongkorn University (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย),[8] and the schools were transformed into four faculties: Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Public Administration, Faculty of Engineering, and Faculty of Medicine.

The university firstly granted certificates to its graduates. The education for a degree was then prepared. The Rockefeller Foundation reorganized the curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine. In 1923, the Faculty of Medicine became the first faculty to accept students from the secondary education (known as Mattayom). The remaining faculties then followed suit. After the 1932 Revolution, the Khana Ratsadon wanted the legal and political studies to be independent from "royalists'" Chulalongkorn University so they took the Faculty of Law and Political Science into their new Thammasat University in 1933.

In 1938, the Chulalongkorn University's Preparatory School was founded to provide pre-collegiate education for its students. Those who managed to enter the university had to spend two years in the Preparatory School before going on to the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Preparatory School, however, ceased to be a university-owned preparatory school in 1947 and became independent Triam Udom Suksa School. Later, the university established Chulalongkorn University Demonstration School (CUD) system as laboratory primary and high schools for Faculty of Education.

View of the main lawn of Chulalongkorn University with The Statue of King Chulalongkorn and King Vajiravudh. Chulalongkorn University auditorium is in the center of background

Symbols[edit]

Phra Kiao[edit]

See also: Phra Kiao
Model of Pra Kiao in CU Museum

Since the establishment of the Royal Pages School, the former name of the university, Chulalongkorn authorized the use of his personal emblem as school emblem.[9] The emblem is 'Phra Kiao', or Thai style coronet which is made to fit hair topknot. As the school was transformed into university, the King of Thailand authorized the use of Phra Kiao until nowadays. Today, Phra Kiao is used in formal letters, transcripts, souvenirs made by university and student uniforms.

Student Uniform[edit]

Undergraduate students are required to wear uniform as they are studying, taking examinations and contacting the university. For graduate students, collared or polo shirt and dark trousers are required for male students while plain blouse with properly long skirt are required for female students.

Originally, the university uniform was adapted from uniform worn by Chulalongkorn's heirs.[10] Later, the uniform was changed into more modernized version but original one is reserved as a formal uniform. Formal uniform is usually worn by student leaders and bachelor graduates.

Today, the normal uniform for male undergraduate students are plain white shirt with long or short sleeves and black (or dark blue) trousers. Dark blue necktie with colored Phra Kiao in its front is required for first year students but optional for higher years. However, black tie with silver Phra Kiao pin is usually used by higher year students in some faculties. For female students, they are required to wear short-sleeved blouse with fold along the spine. The buttons must be made of metal and Phra Kiao emblem must be pinned on right chest. Slightly dark blue or black pleated skirt and any black, white, brown shoes that conceal heels are also required. For female first year students, white leather shoes are required.[11] Chulalongkorn University's uniform has long been template of uniforms used in other universities in Thailand.

Academic Dress[edit]

The academic dress of Chulalongkorn University is based on ceremonial attire called suea krui, which is long-sleeved robe made of very fine mesh. Like dresses worn in United Kingdom, the robe is open-fronted and calf-length. Cap and hood, however, are omitted. Colored felt strip decorated with gold-colored ribbon is attached to the margin of the gown including elbow and wrist. Bachelors and masters use black strip, while respective scarlet and pink are for doctors (including honorary degrees recipients) and lecturers. Yellow strip is used specially for the king of Thailand.[12]

In addition, the colored yarn (bachelor) or ribbon (master and doctor) is added to the center of the strip longitudinally, according to degree-granting faculty.[13] The gown was authorized for use by Vajiravudh.[14]

Example of Felt Strips[edit]

Rain Tree[edit]

Rain Tree in front of CU Auditorium

Rain tree is very common on the university campus. It was deeply associated to the university since the past. Fresh green leaves in the beginning of the semester represent freshmen's enjoyment. As the tree produces slimy pods and sheds leaves, the below ground becomes dirty and slippery. As a simile, it is described as a warning to students to be ready for examination. When they walk carefully, they do not slip (able to pass examination). Whereas if they walk carelessly, they would slip and get injured (unable to pass examination).[15]

Around 1937–1957, many rain trees were to be cut down to allocate the area for new buildings and enhance cleanliness. The King Bhumibol Adulyadej recognized the dramatic decrease in the number of rain trees. Hence on January 15, 1962 the king planted five trees that he brought from Hua Hin in front of the university auditorium and said "Hence I give these five trees as eternal memorial" (Thai: จึงขอฝากต้นไม้ไว้ห้าต้นให้เป็นเครื่องเตือนใจตลอดกาล).

Organization[edit]

Chulalongkorn Business School
Faculty of Communication Arts

Chulalongkorn University consists of 19 faculties, 3 colleges, 1 school and many institutes which function as a teaching and researching unit.[16][17]

In 1917, the university had four faculties: Arts and Sciences, Public Administration, Engineering and Medicine. The Faculty of Law was established in 1933 as part of the Faculty of Law and Political Science.[18] During the 1930s to the 1950s it expanded to various fields including Pharmacy (1934), Veterinary Science (1935), Architecture (1939), Dentistry (1940), and Commerce and Accountancy (1943). In 1943, the regency government under General Phibun separated the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Science to become the University of Medical Sciences (now Mahidol University). In 1948, the Faculty of Political Science was re-established. The Faculty of Education was established in 1957 from the School of Teacher Training at Baan Somdet Chao Phraya (Thai: โรงเรียนฝึกหัดครู บ้านสมเด็จเจ้าพระยา).[19] In 1967, the Faculty of Veterinary Science was returned from Kasetsart University and the Faculty of Medicine at Chulalongkorn Hospital was moved from University of Medical Sciences to Chulalongkorn University. In 1972, the Faculty of Dentistry and Faculty of Pharmacy were retrieved.

Office of Commission on Agricultural Resource Education (OCARE) was established in 2009.[20] It is actually not administration office but school in which teaching and research are carried out. It intakes students from two groups: one from Northern Thailand provinces (Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit) and another from the rest of country. It has been upgraded into School of Agricultural Resources with full degree-granting power by university council on 5 March 2014.[17]

Health Sciences[edit]

Sciences and Technologies[edit]

  • Faculty of Architecture
  • Faculty of Engineering
  • Faculty of Science
  • School of Agricultural Resources

Social Sciences and Humanities[edit]

  • Faculty of Arts (Language&Literature)
  • Chulalongkorn Business School
  • Faculty of Communication Arts
  • Faculty of Economics
  • Faculty of Education
  • Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts (Art)
  • Faculty of Law
  • Faculty of Political Science

Graduate institutes[edit]

Research institutes[edit]

  • Aquatic Resources Research Institute
  • Energy Research Institute
  • Environmental Research Institute
  • Institute of Asian Studies
  • Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
  • Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute
  • Social Research Institute
  • Transportation Institute

Associated institutes[edit]

  • Police Nursing College
  • Red Cross College of Nursing

Research[edit]

Chulalongkorn University has research organizations in many fields of study.

  • Aquatio Resources Research Institute
  • Energy Research Institute
  • Environment Research Institute
  • Social Research Institute
  • The Institute of Biotechnology and Genetics Engineering
  • Metallurgy ang Material Science Research Institute
  • Institute of Asian Studies
  • Transportation Institute

The other research organnization is Unisearch which has the purpose to promote academic staffs and researchers to publish their researches and The Intellectual Property Institute has the purpose to register patents. CU also supports endownment to set up Research Units(RU) and Center of Excellence(CE). Nowadays, CU has over 100 research units and 20 national Center of Excellence.

Rankings[edit]

Ranking
National Ranking
Webometrics (2012) 1[21]
Times (Asia) (2012) 3[22]
QS Asian (2012) 2
QS World (2012) 1
SIR (2555) 1
Global
Webometrics (2012) 169[21]
Times (2012) 82[22]
QS Asian (2012) 43[23]
QS World (2012) 201[24]
SIR (2012) 480[25]
University World Ranking in 2005 – 2012 by QS World University Rankings[26]
2012[27] 2011[28] 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005
Overall 201 171 180 138 166 223 161 161
Arts & Humanities 113 69 78 49 119 136
Natural Sciences 140 138 186 136 171 159
Engineering & IT 106 104 101 78 86 100
Social Sciences 80 68 78 51 72 83
Life Sciences 92 78 130 51 108 138

In the QS Top Universities ranking, Chulalongkorn was ranked 243 in "World University Rankings 2014/15" and 53 in "Asian University Rankings 2015/16".[29]

In the Webometric ranking, Chulalongkorn was ranked 422 in world rankings and 69 in Asia ranking in 2015.[30] Webometrics ranking indicates quantity and quality is the university's medium, considered by being searched by search engines, online documents and citations in Google Scholar.

In the SCImago institutions Ranking, which ranks international researches of universities. Chulalongkorn was ranked 479 in world rankings and the 1st in national rankings since 2009.[31]

In the Center for World University Ranking or CWUR, Chulalongkorn was ranked the 1st in national rankings and 311 in world rankings in 2015, considered by alumni, researches, quality of curriculums and instructors.[32]

In U.S. News & World Report, Chulalongkorn was ranked the 2nd in national rankings and the 579 in world rankings,[33] considered by the university's reputation, medium, citations, international cooperation, quantity of PhD students, etc.

The university suffered a drop in academic reputation in the Times Asia University Rankings 2014, and fell out of the top 100 universities in Asia, losing ground to King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (number 50) and Mahidol University (number 82).[34]

Honorary Degrees[edit]

The University has given honorary degrees to heads of state and other international dignitaries, including two US Presidents:

Traditions[edit]

Chulalongkorn University student traditions include:

  • Chula–Thammasat Traditional Football Match: The annual football match between Chulalongkorn University and Thammasat University in January at Suphashalasai Stadium. It first started in 1934.
  • Loy Krathong: an annual celebration of the full moon night, which usually falls on the first full moon day in November. Since the festival is open to the public, it attracts many people, especially Chulalongkorn students and faculty and those who live in downtown Bangkok, to come to the university to float their Krathongs on the university's pond.
  • Chulalongkorn Academic Exhibition: a triennial academic and research exhibition presented by Chulalongkorn University's students and faculty. It is regarded as one of the most important academic fairs in Thailand.

Student activities and clubs[edit]

Students dormitory

The University is host to 40 student clubs, including the Buddhism and Tradition Club, the Religious Studies Club, the Mind Study Club, and the Thai Classical Music Club. Chulalongkorn also have a Morals Network, which actively campaigns to protect student activities from damaging the university's reputation. The University's Cheer Club annually organizes the Chula-Thammasat traditional football match.

Notable alumni[edit]

International Reputation[edit]

Robocup competitions[edit]

The university Robocup team, Plasma‐Z, got several prizes from the robotics competition as follow.[36]

  • In 2005, almost reached the quarter final at Osaka RoboCup.
  • In 2006, the third place and technical challenge at Bremen RoboCup.
  • In 2007, second place Atlanta World RoboCup.
  • In 2008, finally the team got champion of World RoboCup Small‐Sized Robot League at Suzhou, China.

Moreover, another university Robocup team, Plasma-RX has participated in Rescue robot league at World RoboCup 2008, Suzhou, China, and won the first prize and the best-in-class in mobility award.[37][38]

Controversy[edit]

  • In April 2012, Times Higher Education raised concerns that Chulalongkorn failed to act against Supachai Lorlowhakarn, a senior government official who was found by a university investigation to have plagiarised his PhD thesis and who has also been accused of plagiarising an academic paper about organic asparagus production.[39][40][41] Later, on 21 June 2012, the University formally withdrew the degree of PhD from Supachai Lorlowhakarn, the first time it had ever revoked a PhD.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office of the Registrar, Chulalongkorn University. Statistics on Students in Different Level. Last updated January 16, 2016
  2. ^ History of Chulalongkorn University
  3. ^ Chulalongkorn University official website. CU History. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  4. ^ "World Science & Engineering University Portal: THES- World University Ranking 2007". Universityportal.net. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  5. ^ Thai: โรงเรียนสำหรับฝึกหัดวิชาข้าราชการฝ่ายพลเรือน
  6. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการประกาศตั้งโรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก. เล่ม ๑๙, ตอน ๑, ๖ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๔๔๕, หน้า ๑๖ (Royal Order to establish Royal Page School)
  7. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการประกาศตั้งโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนฯ , เล่ม ๒๗, ตอน ก, ๑๑ มกราคม พ.ศ.๒๔๕๔, หน้า ๑๒๓ (Royal Order to establish the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn)
  8. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการ ประกาศประดิษฐานโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวขึ้นเป็นโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือน, เล่ม ๒๗, ตอน ก, ๑๕ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๔๖๐ (ประกาศเมื่อวันที่ ๒๖ มีนาคม พ.ศ.๒๔๖๐, หน้า ๑๒๓ (Royal Order to establish the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn.)
  9. ^ About Phra Kiao by Chulalongkorn Memorial Hall
  10. ^ History about CU uniform.
  11. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ข้อบังคับจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยเครื่องแบบ เครื่องหมาย และเครื่องแต่งกายนิสิต พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓ (The university regulation on uniform and dress codes, 2010)
  12. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา.พระราชกำหนดเสื้อครุยบัณฑิตของจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ.๒๔๗๓. เล่ม ๔๗, ๖ กรกฎาคม ๒๔๗๓. (Regulation on Chulalongkorn University Graduation Gown, 1930)
  13. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา.ข้อบังคับจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยการกำหนดปริญญาในสาขาวิชา อักษรย่อสำหรับสาขาวิชา ครุยวิทยฐานะ เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓.เล่ม ๑๒๗ ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน ๒๕๕๓. (University Regulation on Degrees Granted, Graduation and Faculty Gowns, 2010)
  14. ^ Graduation Gown of Chulalongkorn University
  15. ^ Rain Tree-The Symbol of Chulalongkorn University
  16. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย เรื่อง ส่วนงานของมหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๒, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๑๖ ง, ๑ กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๓, หน้า ๗๐ (University notification (rather command) on academic units, 2008)
  17. ^ a b ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย เรื่อง ส่วนงานของมหาวิทยาลัย (ฉบับที่ ๒) พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๗, เล่ม ๑๓๑, ตอนพิเศษ ๔๙ ง, ๑๘ มีนาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๗, หน้า ๓ (Amendment to 2008 regulation, ratified 2014)
  18. ^ www.law.chula.ac.th
  19. ^ Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University
  20. ^ Principles and history of establishing OCARE.
  21. ^ a b Webometrics: Thailand, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  22. ^ a b Asia University Rankings 2013 Top 100, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  23. ^ QS asian university ranking 2012, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  24. ^ QS world university ranking 2012, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  25. ^ SIR World Report 2012, Retrieved 12 April 2012
  26. ^ Chulalongkorn University World University Ranking
  27. ^ "Chulalongkorn University Rankings". Top Universities. Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  28. ^ World University Ranking 2011
  29. ^ "Chulalongkorn University Undergraduate". QS Top Universities. QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  30. ^ http://www.webometrics.info/en/Asia
  31. ^ http://www.scimagoir.com/research.php?country=THA
  32. ^ http://www.cwur.org/2015/thailand.html CWUR university rankings, 2015
  33. ^ http://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/search?country=thailand U.S. news Thailand university rankings.
  34. ^ "Asia University Rankings 2014". Times Higher Educations World University Rankings. The Times. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  35. ^ "Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory". Db.nelsonmandela.org. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  36. ^ PlasmaZ Extended Team Description Paper
  37. ^ "IEEE Xplore - Sign In". Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  38. ^ Plasma-RX: Autonomous Rescue Robots
  39. ^ "Innovation boss in duplication row". Times Higher Education. Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  40. ^ "University rankings from Chula's perspective". New Mandala. Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  41. ^ "Thai 'plagiarism' saga takes a new turn". SciDev.Net. Retrieved July 16, 2015. 
  42. ^ University World News 18 August 2012 Suluck Lamubol "Plagiarism controversy raises questions over academic integrity"

External links[edit]