Chungseon of Goryeo

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King Chungseon of Goryeo
고려 충선왕
King of Goryeo
(1st reign)
Reign1298
PredecessorChungnyeol of Goryeo
SuccessorChungnyeol of Goryeo
King of Goryeo
(2nd reign)
Reign1308 – 1313
PredecessorChungnyeol of Goryeo
SuccessorChungsuk of Goryeo
Born20 October 1275
Kingdom of Goryeo
Died23 June 1325 (1325-06-24) (aged 49)
Dadu, Yuan Dynasty
ConsortGrand Princess Gyeguk
IssueKing Chungsuk of Goryeo
Temple name
헌효대왕
憲孝大王
HouseHouse of Wang
FatherKing Chungnyeol of Goryeo
MotherQueen Jangmok
ReligionBuddhism
Chungseon of Goryeo
Hangul
충선왕
Hanja
忠宣王
Revised RomanizationChungseon wang
McCune–ReischauerCh'ungsŏn wang
Courtesy name
Hangul
중앙
Hanja
仲昻
Revised RomanizationJung-ang
McCune–ReischauerChungang

King Chungseon of Goryeo (20 October 1275 – 23 June 1325) (r. 1298 and 1308–1313) was the 28th king of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea. He is sometimes known by his Mongolian name, Iǰirbuqa (益知禮普花, means 'small ox'). Adept at calligraphy and painting, rather than politics, he generally preferred the life of the Yuan capital Beijing to that of the Goryeo capital Kaesong. He was the eldest son of King Chungryeol; his mother was a Yuan royal, Queen Jangmok, a daughter of Khublai Khan also known by her Mongolian name/title Qutlugh-kelmysh.

Biography[edit]

In 1277, King Chungseon was confirmed as Crown Prince; in the following year he travelled to China and received his Mongolian name.[citation needed]

In 1296, he was married to the Yuan Princess Botapsillin. However, the king already had three Korean wives, the daughters of the powerful nobles Jo In-gyu, Hong Mun-gye, and Seo Won-hu.

King Chungseon's mother died in 1297, and this was followed by a violent purge brought on by allegations that she had been murdered. Perhaps upset by these events, King Chungnyeol petitioned Yuan to abdicate the throne and was accordingly replaced by King Chungseon in 1298. Faced with intense plotting between the faction of his Mongolian queen and his Korean queen, King Chungseon returned the throne to his father shortly thereafter.

He became the Prince[N 1] of Shenyang,[N 2] a new title, in 1307[1] or 1308.[2] After his father's death in 1308, King Chungseon was obliged to return to the throne of Goryeo and made efforts to reform court politics, but spent as much time as possible in China. The title King of Shenyang was renamed Prince of Shen[N 3][3] in 1310. He is a very rare case of personal unions in East Asia. He retired from the throne in 1313, and was replaced by King Chungsuk of Goryeo. King Chungseon was briefly sent into exile in Tibet (lately Sakya) after the death of the emperor Renzong of Yuan (元仁宗) but was permitted soon thereafter to return to Beijing, where he died in 1325.

Family[edit]

  • Father: King Chungnyeol of Goryeo (3 April 1236 – 30 July 1308) (고려 충렬왕)
    • Grandfather: King Wonjong of Goryeo (5 April 1219 – 23 July 1274) (고려 원종)
    • Grandmother: Queen Jeongsun of the Gyeongju Kim clan (1222 – 29 July 1237) (정순왕후 김씨)
  • Mother: Queen Jangmok of the Borjigin clan (28 June 1259 – 21 May 1297) (장목왕후)
    • Grandfather: Kublai Khan of Yuan (23 September 1215 – 18 February 1294) (쿠빌라이 칸)
    • Grandmother: Asokjin Khatun (아속진가돈)
  • Consorts:
  1. Grand Princess Gyeguk of the Borjigin clan (? – 1315) (계국대장공주)
  2. Royal Consort Yasokjin Ui-Bi (? – 18 July 1316) (의비 야속진)
    1. Wang Gam, Prince Gwangreung (? – May 1310) (광릉군 왕감)
    2. King Chungsuk of Goryeo (30 July 1294 – 3 May 1339) (고려 충숙왕)
  3. Royal Consort Jeong-Bi of the Kaesong Wang clan (? – 1345) (정비 왕씨)
  4. Royal Consort Jo-Bi of the Pyeongyang Jo clan (조비)
  5. Royal Consort Sunhwa Won-Bi of the Namyang Hong clan (? – 13 August 1306) (순화원비 홍씨)
  6. Royal Consort Sun-Bi of the Yangcheon Heo clan (1271 – 1335) (순비 허씨)
  7. Unnamed consort
    1. Wang Hye, Prince Deokheung (1314 – 1367) (덕흥군 왕혜)
    2. Unnamed son
    3. Princess Suchun (? – 1345) (수춘옹주)

Popular culture[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The title wang (王) can be translated as "prince" (e.g., 秦王 Prince of Qin, Emperor Taizong of Tang's title until Xuanwu Gate Incident) or "king" (e.g., 魏王 King of Wei, Cao Cao's title when he died) in English.
  2. ^ 瀋陽王 (Simplified Chinese characters: 沈阳王; Mandarin Chinese Pinyin: Shěnyáng Wáng; Korean hangul: 심양왕, Revised Romanization: Simyang-wang)
  3. ^ 瀋王 (Simplified Chinese characters: 沈王; Mandarin Chinese Pinyin: Shěn Wáng; Korean hangul: 심왕, Revised Romanization: Sim-wang)

References[edit]

  1. ^ According to the History of Yuan (specifically, 元史·卷二十二·武宗一)
  2. ^ According to Goryeosa (specifically, 高麗史·卷三十三·世家)
  3. ^ History of Yuan (specifically, 《元史·卷二十三·武宗二》)
  • 충선왕 (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia.
Chungseon of Goryeo
Born: 20 October 1275 Died: 23 June 1325
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King Chungnyeol
King of Goryeo
1298
Succeeded by
King Chungnyeol
King of Goryeo
1308–1313
Succeeded by
King Chungsuk
Chinese royalty
New creation Prince of Shenyang
c. 1308 – 1310
Succeeded by
Himself
as Prince of Shen
Preceded by
Himself
as Prince of Shenyang
Prince of Shen
1310–1316
Succeeded by
Wang Go