Jump to content

Church of Satan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Church of Satan
Sigil of Baphomet, an official symbol of LaVeyan Satanism[1]
ClassificationNew religious movement
OrientationLaVeyan Satanism
ScriptureThe Satanic Bible
GovernanceCouncil of Nine
High PriestPeter H. Gilmore
HeadquartersPoughkeepsie, New York
FounderAnton Szandor LaVey
OriginApril 30, 1966
The Black House, San Francisco, California
SeparationsTemple of Set (1975), First Satanic Church (1999)
MembersNot disclosed
Other name(s)The Satanic Church
PublicationsThe Black Flame, The Cloven Hoof
Official websitewww.churchofsatan.com

The Church of Satan (CoS) is a religious organization dedicated to the religion of Satanism as defined by Anton Szandor LaVey. Founded in San Francisco in 1966, by LaVey, it is considered the "oldest satanic religion in continual existence", and more importantly the most influential, inspiring "numerous imitator and breakaway groups".[2][Note 1] According to the Church, Satanism has been "codified" as "a religion and philosophy" by LaVey and his church.[4] Founded in an era when there was much public interest in the occult, witchcraft and Satanism, the church enjoyed a heyday for several years after its founding. Celebrities attended LaVey's satanic parties and he was invited on talk shows. His Satanic Bible sold nearly a million copies.[2][5]

LaVey was the church's High Priest until his death in 1997.[6] In 2001, Peter H. Gilmore was appointed to the position of high priest, and the church's headquarters were moved to Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, New York City. Members do not believe that Satan literally exists and do not worship him.[7] Instead, Satan is viewed as a positive archetype embracing the Hebrew root of the word "Satan" as "adversary", who represents pride, carnality, and enlightenment, humanity's natural instincts which Abrahamic faiths have wrongly suppressed. According to High Priest Peter H. Gilmore, Satan is "a name for the reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will" .[6] In LaVey's book, The Satanic Bible, the Satanist's concept of a god is described as the Satanist's true "self"— a projection of his or her own personality, not an external deity.[8] Satan is used as a representation of personal liberty and individualism.[9]

The Church dismisses the idea of a “Satanic Community” and does not share membership lists with its members, arguing members are "radical individualists" who "may share very little in common beyond" being Satanists.[10] The Church rejects the legitimacy of any other organizations who claim to be Satanists.[11][12] Scholars agree that there is no reliably documented case of Satanic continuity prior to the founding of the Church of Satan.[13] It was the first organized church in modern times to be devoted to the figure of Satan,[14] and according to Faxneld and Petersen, the Church represented "the first public, highly visible, and long-lasting organization which propounded a coherent satanic discourse".[15]



LaVey described his religion as "just Ayn Rand's philosophy with ceremony and ritual added";[16] similarly, sociologist of religion James R. Lewis described it as "a blend of Epicureanism and Ayn Rand's philosophy, flavored with a pinch of ritual magic."[17] There is no belief in or worship of the Devil or a Christian notion of Satan.[18] High priest Peter Gilmore describes its members as "skeptical atheists", indicating the Hebrew root of the word "Satan" as "adversary" or "opposer."[19] Gilmore rejects the legitimacy of theistic Satanists, who believe Satan to be a supernatural being or force that may be contacted or supplicated to, dubbing them "devil worshipers".[18] In an interview with David Shankbone, High Priest Peter Gilmore stated "My real feeling is that anybody who believes in supernatural entities on some level is insane. Whether they believe in the Devil or God, they are abdicating reason." He added, "Satanism begins with atheism. We begin with the universe and say, 'It’s indifferent. There’s no God, there’s no Devil. No one cares!'"[20] According to Gilmore,

[W]e do not believe in the supernatural. To the Satanist, he is his own God. Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates. Some Satanists extend this symbol to encompass the evolutionary "force" of entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. To the Satanist, Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather it is a name for the reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will .[6]

The church has stated its contention that they are the first formally organized religion to adopt the term "Satanism" and describes the term "Theistic Satanism" as "oxymoronic".[21]

LaVey's views on magic were ambiguous. He insisted Satanism was a "materialist philosophy" but also often talked of magic.[22] He included this rule in his "Rules of the Earth":[22]

Acknowledge the power of magic if you have employed it successfully to obtain your desires. If you deny the power of magic after having called upon it with success, you will lose all you have obtained.”[23]

LaVey also often talked of a "Satanic magical formula" of "nine parts respectability to one part outrageousness",[24] satanism requiring some element of sinisterness, but not so much as to put off potential congregants. The "Rules of the Earth" in LaVey's Satanic Bible specifically prohibited unwanted sexual advances and harming animals or children,[25][26] but the Church also "often featured a nude woman serving as an altar" in its black masses.[27]

Though not emphasizing social or political causes, like Ayn Rand, LaVey explicitly opposed egalitarianism and supported social stratification, calling for the end of the “myth of ‘equality’”, which only “supports the weak at the expense of the strong”.[28] But he also suggested that in loving themselves, hedonists developed the ability to love others. He was quoted as saying, “If Satanists didn’t care, they wouldn’t be so dark and pessimistic.”[29][24]



Early years


In the 1960s Anton Szandor LaVey formed a group called the Order of the Trapezoid, which later became the governing body of the Church of Satan. The group included: "The Baroness" Carin de Plessen, Dr. Cecil Nixon, Kenneth Anger, San Francisco city assessor Russell Wolden, and Donald Werby.[30][31] According to the Church of Satan historiography, other LaVey associates from this time include noted science fiction and horror writers Anthony Boucher, August Derleth, Robert Barbour Johnson, Reginald Bretnor, Emil Petaja, Stuart Palmer, Clark Ashton Smith, Forrest J. Ackerman,[32] and Fritz Leiber Jr.[33]

The Church of Satan was established at the Black House in San Francisco, California, on Walpurgisnacht, April 30, 1966, by LaVey, who was the church's High Priest until his death in 1997.[6]

In the first year of its foundation, LaVey and the Church of Satan publicly performed a Satanic marriage of Judith Case and journalist John Raymond. The ceremony was attended by Joe Rosenthal. LaVey performed the first publicly recorded Satanic baptism in history for his youngest daughter Zeena, which garnered worldwide publicity and was originally recorded on The Satanic Mass LP.[34][35][36][37] A Satanic funeral for naval machinist-repairman, third-class Edward Olsen, was performed at the request of his wife, complete with an honor guard.[38]

The Church of Satan was the subject of a number of books, magazine and newspaper articles during the 1960s and 1970s. It is also the subject of a documentary, Satanis (1970). LaVey appeared in Kenneth Anger's film Invocation of My Demon Brother, acted as technical adviser on The Devil's Rain, which starred Ernest Borgnine, William Shatner, and introduced John Travolta. The Church of Satan was also featured in a segment of Luigi Scattini's film Angeli Bianchi, Angeli Neri, released in the United States as Witchcraft '70.[39]

One attempt to establish the church abroad was done in connection with Maarten Lamers of the Netherlands who read The Satanic Bible and in 1971 flew to San Francisco to meet LaVey. Back in Amsterdam, Lamers established the first CoS grotto outside the U.S. -- the Magistralis Grotto or the Kerk van Satan. The "Kerk" was in the Red Light District and connected to club called Walpurga Abbey where customers could paid by the minute to observe “monastic sisters” of the Abbey masturbate on stage. Lamers insisted that since the sisters were "performing religious acts of sexual magic", Walpurga Abbey was tax-exempt. The Dutch government disagreed and in 1987, "after a decade of police raids and legal battles", Lamers was compelled to pay 10 million guilders in back taxes.[40]

In 1972, LaVey stopped holding weekly rituals at the Black House and announced these would be done at the local grottos. Then on September 27, 1974, he declared the end of all regional organizations and that individual members and grottos should report to the Church's Central Grotto in San Francisco. LaVey called this move “Phase IV of his master plan”[40]



Starting in the early 1970s, the Church faced internal dissent and a series of schisms. The first breakaway was by the Babylonian Grotto and its leader Wayne West, who LaVey excommunicated. A bigger schism happened with the excommunication of the Stygian Grotto, whose leader established the Church of Satanic Brotherhood in 1973 with units in Dayton, Indianapolis, Louisville, New York City, and St. Petersburg (FL). From the Church's Belphegor Grotto, another splinter group created the Order of the Black Goat, which was allegedly neo-Nazi in orientation, led by Michael Grumbowski. A later, more resilient offshoot was the World Church of Satanic Liberation, which ran from 1986 to 2011.[41]

In 1975, the Church of Satan underwent a significant fracture. Michael Aquino, the editor of the church newsletter and a fairly high level leader in the church, who disagreed with LaVey's changes, left to found the Temple of Set, taking a significant portion of the CoS leadership with him. This schism involved the largest Church branch, the Nineveh Grotto in NJ, and the Lilith Grotto in NY, among others. The Temple of Set reportedly had more than 500 members at its founding, although Anton LaVey claimed that only 29 people left.[42]

LaVey announced that the Temple of Set schism was not a setback but "Phase V" of his master plan,[40] however, according to author Amina Lap, from this point on Satanism became a "splintered and disorganized movement".[43]

Schisms from the Church were caused by several factors, according to sociologist Foertsch. He focused on differences in costliness or barriers to entry for members, disputes over authority and doctrine, and opportunities for niche development in the American counter-culture world of occultism, and persecution of alleged Satanists during the moral panic (described below) of the 1980s.[44]

The same year LaVey painted the Black House beige to lessen unwanted attention and "largely retired from public life".[45] (In 1986, the Black House was repainted black.) According to at least one critic, James R. Lewis, LaVey was not instituting "a Master Plan" but demonstrating that he “was not up to making the necessary personal sacrifices that being a founding prophet and leader required" because his motives for founding the Church were personal enrichment and self-aggrandizement, not spreading some religious truth.[46]

1980s, early 1990s, and "Satanic Panic"


In the 1980s a phenomenon that became known as the "Satanic Panic" arose and the media reported concerns of criminal conspiracies by the Church of Satan. According to a report released in 2020, LaVey indicated to FBI agents who interviewed him on October 31, 1980 that he had lost interest in the Church.


(Kenneth Lanning, an FBI expert in investigating child sexual abuse,[48] produced a report on Satanic Ritual Abuse (SRA) in 1994 aimed at child protection authorities, in which wrote that despite hundreds of investigations, no corroboration of SRA had been found. Following this report, several convictions based on SRA allegations were overturned and the defendants released.)[49]

During the 1980s and 90s, LaVey was no longer interested in making media appearances, and began a "long period of silence", becoming "increasingly reclusive",[40] he began sending his daughter Zeena to represent the CoS. She appeared on television and radio broadcasts, (including The Phil Donahue Show, Nightline with Ted Koppel, Entertainment Tonight, The Late Show, Secrets & Mysteries and the Sally Jesse Raphael Show), [Note 2] in part to educate about the Church, and in part to debunk Satanic ritual abuse and any connection between it and true Satanism, and specifically the Church of Satan.[51] She also became a High Priestess in the Church during this time[52] and in 1988, married Nikolas Schreck, a prominent CoS member and changed her name to Zeena Schreck.[40]

In the 1980s and 1990s remaining members of the Church of Satan became active in media appearances to refute allegations of criminal activity. Members of the Church who were active in producing movies, music, films, and magazines devoted to Satanism include Adam Parfrey's Feral House publishing, the musician Boyd Rice, musician King Diamond, and the filmmaker Nick Bougas (a.k.a. A. Wyatt Mann).[53][54]

On Walpurgisnacht 30 April 1990, Zeena formally renounced any association with the Church or LaVey, whom she now called her “unfather.” She and her husband joined the Temple of Set for a time but in 2002 formed the Sethian Liberation Movement, their own occult left-hand path group. Not long after, Zeena testified against LaVey on behalf of her mother, Diane Hegarty. The court awarded Hegarty half of LaVey’s property, bankrupting him.[40]

After LaVey


After Anton Szandor LaVey's death on October 29, 1997, the role of High Priest was empty for some time. On November 7, 1997[55] Karla LaVey made a press release about continuing the church with fellow high priestess Blanche Barton. Barton eventually received ownership of the organization, which she held for 4 years. Karla LaVey ultimately left the Church of Satan and founded First Satanic Church. On October 16, 2001, the Black House, the original home of the Church, was demolished after a fundraising effort failed to raise enough to buy it.[56] (In 1992, LaVey had sold the house to a real estate developer to raise money to settle a divorce but the developer allowed LaVey to continue to live in the house for free.)[40]

High Priest Peter H. Gilmore

In 2001, Blanche ceded her position to longtime members Peter H. Gilmore and Peggy Nadramia, the current High Priest and High Priestess and publishers of The Black Flame, the official magazine of The Church of Satan, who managed an active CoS group in New York. The Central Office of the Church of Satan has also moved from San Francisco to New York City's Hell's Kitchen neighborhood, where the couple resides. The Church of Satan does not recognize any other organizations as holding legitimate claim to Satanism and its practice, though it does recognize that one need not be a member of the Church of Satan to be a Satanist.

In October 2004, the Royal Navy officially recognised its first registered Satanist, 24-year-old Chris Cranmer, as a technician aboard HMS Cumberland.[57]

6/6/06 High Mass


On June 6, 2006, the Church of Satan held the first public ritual Satanic Mass in 40 years at the Steve Allen Theater in the Center for Inquiry in Los Angeles. The date corresponds to the number of the Beast, 666, from the biblical Book of Revelation. The ritual, based on the rites outlined in The Satanic Bible and The Satanic Rituals, was conducted by Reverend Bryan Moore and Priestess Heather Saenz.[58]

The event was by invitation only, and over one hundred members of the Church of Satan from around the world filled the theatre to capacity. Many members of the Church of Satan were interviewed by the BBC with permission.[59][60] The music for the mass was created and performed by Lustmord and was subsequently released on his album Rising.[61]

Example of law abidingness


In December 2007 the Associated Press reported on a story concerning the Church of Satan, in which a teenager had sent an email to High Priest Gilmore stating he wanted to "kill in the name of our unholy lord Satan". Gilmore then reported the message to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, who informed local police, who arrested the teenager.[62]

Realm of Satan documentary


In January 2024, the film Realm of Satan was shown at the Sundance Film Festival. The film is similar to a documentary, though it consists primarily of scenes staged with members of the Church of Satan. One reviewer described it as "an 80-minute art installation in which Satanists are rendered—and deliberately render themselves—performative characters in a diabolical play of their own making."[63] The film is directed by Scott Cummings and it shows a variety of satanic rituals, which may been performed for the film alone.[64]



The Church of Satan claims they do not solicit memberships nor proselytize. Individuals seeking membership must be legally defined as adults in their nation of residence. As of at least January 2023, no one "under the legal age of consent" may join the Church of Satan, with the exception those whose "parents or legal guardians are already members in good standing".[65]

Active Members begin at the First Degree. One must apply and be approved for an Active Membership, and this is subject to one's answers to a lengthy series of questions. One cannot apply for higher Degrees, and the requirements for each degree are not open to the public. Promotion to a higher degree is by invitation only. Members of the Third through Fifth degrees constitute the Priesthood and may be addressed as "Reverend" (although the titles of "Magister/Magistra" and "Magus/Maga" are more often used when referring to members of the Fourth and Fifth Degrees, respectively). Members of the Fifth degree may also be known as "Doctor", although "The Doctor" usually refers to LaVey. Memberships may be terminated at the discretion of the ruling body of the Church of Satan consisting of the High Priest, the High Priestess and the Council of Nine.[citation needed]

The church emphasizes that one does not have to join the organization to consider themselves a Satanist, and that one only needs to recognize themselves in The Satanic Bible and live according to the tenets outlined therein.[66]

As the Church of Satan does not publicly release membership information, it is not known how many members belong to the Church. However, according to an interview with the Church of Satan, "interest in the Church of Satan and Satanism is growing all the time if our mailboxes, answering and fax machines, and e-mail is any indication."[67] Another source (The Washington Post) states the church claimed to have "hundreds of thousands" of members.[68] However, according to Joseph Laycock, the Church grew rapidly in its first five years before declining, and had an estimated 250 members (according to one source). According to The Washington Post, up until at least 1998, Church membership was never totaled "more than 300".[68]



The church follows a formulated system of degrees based on meritocracy. These degrees are not open to application or to request and are only awarded to those who demonstrate excellence in the understanding and communication of Satanic Theory coupled with personal achievements in the outside world.[69]

These degrees are:

  • Registered Member (no degree)
  • Active Member/Satanist (first degree)
  • Witch/Warlock (second degree)
  • Priestess/Priest (third degree)
  • Magistra/Magister (fourth degree)
  • Maga/Magus (fifth degree)

Agents of the Church of Satan are individuals who have been trained to serve as contacts for local media and other interested parties.[69]

Priesthood of Mendes and Council of Nine


Members of the Priesthood make up the Council of Nine, which is the ruling body of the Church of Satan, of which Magistra Templi Rex Blanche Barton is the chair-mistress. Individuals who are part of the priesthood are those who act as spokespersons of the Church of Satan. The priesthood is exclusive to third-, fourth-, and fifth-degree members. Members of the priesthood may be referred to as "reverend".[69] The High Priest and Priestess act as administrative chiefs and primary public representatives; each position (High Priest and High Priestess) is held by a single individual at a time. The current High Priest is Peter H. Gilmore,[70] the current High Priestess is Peggy Nadramia.[71]

The Church of Satan evaluates active members for the Priesthood by their accomplishment in society—mastered skills and peer recognition within a profession—rather than by mastery of irrelevant occult trivia. While expected to be experts in communicating the Satanic philosophy, members of the Priesthood are not required to speak on behalf of the Church of Satan and may even choose to keep their affiliation and rank secret in order to better serve their personal goals, as well as those of the organization. Membership in the Priesthood is by invitation only.

The Grotto System


Within Satanism, a Grotto is a clandestine association or gathering of Satanists within geographical proximity for means of social, ritual, and special interest activities.[72] The Church of Satan no longer formally recognizes or charters grottos.[73] The primary reason for the end of the Grotto system is that only a small minority of members ever participated. This was further compounded by the fact that a publicly listed Grotto defeated the ability to remain secret and unknown to the larger populace. The Grotto system was in practice replaced by social media, private online forums, and other methods for members to interact with one another outside of the need for a so-called Grotto Master and annual reports to the central office of the Church of Satan.[73]




  1. ^ Religious studies scholar R. Van Luijk writes, “Genealogically speaking, every known Satanist group or organization in the world today derives directly or indirectly from LaVey’s 1966 Church of Satan, even if they are dismissive of LaVey or choose to emphasize other real or alleged forerunners of Satanism.”[3]
  2. ^ She explained that she did this on behalf of her father while being interviewed alongside her husband by televangelist Bob Larson.[50]


  1. ^ Gilmore, Magus Peter H. "F.A.Q. Symbols and Symbolism". Church of Satan. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Laycock, Satanism, 2023: section 4. The Church of Satan
  3. ^ R. van Luijk, Children of Lucifer: The Origins of Modern Religious Satanism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), p. 305.
  4. ^ Ethan, Joel. "The Satanic Temple Fact Sheet". Church of Satan. Retrieved January 11, 2024.
  5. ^ Owen Davies, Grimoires: A History of Magic Books (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 274.
  6. ^ a b c d "Official Church of Satan Website". Churchofsatan.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  7. ^ Abrams, Joe (Spring 2006). Wyman, Kelly (ed.). "The Religious Movements Homepage Project - Satanism: An Introduction". virginia.edu. University of Virginia. Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  8. ^ Wright 1993, p. 143.
  9. ^ Cavaglion & Sela-Shayovitz 2005, p. 255.
  10. ^ Gilmore, Peter H. "Myth of the 'Satanic Community' and other Virtual Delusions by Magus Peter H. Gilmore". Church of Satan. Retrieved January 7, 2024.
  11. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (November 7, 2014). "The Church of Satan wants you to stop calling these 'devil worshiping' alleged murderers Satanists". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
  12. ^ Wikinews:Satanism: An interview with Church of Satan High Priest Peter Gilmore
  13. ^ Asprem & Granholm 2014, p. 75.
  14. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 5.
  15. ^ Faxneld & Petersen 2013, p. 81.
  16. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 9.
  17. ^ Lewis 2002, p. 2.
  18. ^ a b "Satanism: An interview with Church of Satan High Priest Peter Gilmore". Wikinews. November 5, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
  19. ^ "H7854 - śāṭān - Strong's Hebrew Lexicon (kjv)". Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved February 22, 2024.
  20. ^ Interview with Peter H. Gilmore, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 5, 2007.
  21. ^ "F.A.Q. Fundamental Beliefs". Church of Satan. Archived from the original on December 22, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  22. ^ a b Laycock, Satanism, 2023: section 5. The Temple of Set and Esoteric Satanism. The Temple of Set
  23. ^ LaVey, “Eleven Satanic Rules of the Earth.”
  24. ^ a b Laycock, Satanism, 2023: section 4. The Church of Satan. LaVey’s Satanism
  25. ^ A. S. LaVey (1967). "The Eleven Satanic Rules of the Earth". Church of Satan. Retrieved January 8, 2023.
  26. ^ A. S. LaVey (1987). "The Nine Satanic Sins". Church of Satan.
  27. ^ Laycock, Satanism, 2023: section 4. The Church of Satan. From the Magic Circle to the Church of Satan
  28. ^ LaVey, Anton (1988). "Pentagonal Revisionism: A Five-Point Program". Church of Satan. Retrieved January 8, 2023.
  29. ^ B. Barton, The Secret Life of a Satanist: The Authorized Biography of Anton LaVey (Los Angeles, CA: Feral House, 1990), p. 213.
  30. ^ Lacey, Michael. "Pieces of the Action: What's worse? A venture capitalist or a guy who smokes cunderage hookers?". SF Weekly Jun 20 2007.
  31. ^ ""Satan's Den in Great Disrepair" Lattin, Don (January 25, 1999)". San Francisco Chronicle. January 25, 1999. Archived from the original on July 20, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
  32. ^ Boulware, Jack (June 17, 1998). "Has the Church of Satan Gone to Hell?". SF Weekly. San Francisco. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  33. ^ "A Brief History of the Church of Satan 2. The Magic Circle". Churchofsatan.com. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  34. ^ "The Satanic Mass/Zeena's Baptism Track A9 go to 3:42". YouTube.
  35. ^ "The Satanic Mass, Track A9 (Zeena's Baptism)". Murgenstrumm, 1968 Vinly LP. 1968.
  36. ^ "Satanist Anton LaVey Baptising Daughter". San Francisco, California, USA: Bettmann/CORBIS. May 23, 1967. LaVey [...] said the mystic ceremony was the first such baptism in history.
  37. ^ "clippings of Zeena's baptism world wide".
  38. ^ "Navy Machinist's Mate Third Class Edward D. Olsen, 26". Almy. Retrieved January 6, 2024.
  39. ^ "Witchcraft '70 Original title: Angeli bianchi... angeli neri". IMDb. Retrieved January 7, 2024. A mondo style report of satanic rites from around the world. Includes devil worshipping, voodoo cults, church of satan, black magic, naked exorcism and pagan rituals.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Laycock, Satanism, 2023: section 4. The Church of Satan. The Rise and Fall of Anton LaVey
  41. ^ Foertsch, Steven. "An organizational analysis of the schismatic Church of Satan." Review of Religious Research 64, no. 1 (2022): 55-76, pp. 61-62
  42. ^ Foertsch, Steven. "An organizational analysis of the schismatic Church of Satan." Review of Religious Research 64, no. 1 (2022): 55-76, pp. 63-4
  43. ^ Lap 2013, p. 84.
  44. ^ Foertsch, Steven. "An organizational analysis of the schismatic Church of Satan." Review of Religious Research 64, no. 1 (2022): 55-76.
  45. ^ R. van Luijk, Children of Lucifer: The Origins of Modern Religious Satanism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), p. 363
  46. ^ R. Lewis, Legitimating New Religions (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003), p.111.
  47. ^ Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Freedom of Information Act/Privacy Acts Release – Subject: Anton LaVey,” capitalization as in original. quoted in Joseph Laycock, Satanism, 2023
  48. ^ Heimbach, MJ (May 1, 2002). "Testimony of Michael J. Heimbach, Crimes Against Children Unit". United States Congress. Archived from the original on December 30, 2006. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
  49. ^ Nathan, Debbie (1995). Satan's Silence: Ritual Abuse and the Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt (published January 1, 1995). p. 230. ISBN 9780595189557.
  50. ^ "The First Family of Satanism". YouTube. Denver Colorado. 1989.
  51. ^ "KJTV Interviews Zeena LaVey". YouTube. Los Angeles. 1987.
  52. ^ "Zeena Schreck Interview in Vice Magazine, Beelzebub's Daughter, by Annette Lamothe-Ramos". September 26, 2012.
  53. ^ "Nick Bougas, a.k.a. A Wyatt Mann".
  54. ^ "Buzzfeed article by Joseph Bernstein "History Of The Internet's Favorite Anti-Semitic Image"". BuzzFeed. February 5, 2015.
  55. ^ Quinn, Andrew (November 7, 1997). "'Black Pope' of Satanic Church dies aged 67". San Francisco. Reuters.
  56. ^ Gilmore, Peter H. ""Yes, We Have No Occultism."". Retrieved January 8, 2024.
  57. ^ "UK | Navy approves first ever Satanist". BBC News. October 24, 2004. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  58. ^ "Los Angeles CityBeat — The Devil's Advocates". Lacitybeat.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  59. ^ "The Nick of time". BBC News. June 6, 2006.
  60. ^ "Church Of Satan High Priest: 6/6/06 Is 'Just A Day, Like Any Other'". BLABBERMOUTH.NET. April 24, 2006.
  61. ^ "Albums". Lustmord. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
  62. ^ "Teen Held After E-Mailing Satanic Group Threat to Kill Grandparents". FoxNews.com. December 15, 2007. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  63. ^ Schager, Nick (January 22, 2024). "'Realm of Satan': Meet the Church's Magicians, Porn Stars, and Broomstick Makers". Daily Beast.
  64. ^ Eddy, Cheryl (January 25, 2024). "Realm of Satan Brings Dark Glamour to a Misunderstood Culture". Gizmodo.
  65. ^ "Church of Satan Youth Communiqué". Church of Satan. Retrieved January 7, 2024. So, we simply cannot allow anyone under the legal age of consent to join the Church of Satan. The only exception to this rule would be if your parents or legal guardians are already members in good standing.
  66. ^ "Join the Church of Satan". Church of Satan. Retrieved January 7, 2024. ABOUT THE MEMBERSHIP FEE. We must emphasize that you don't have to join our organization to consider yourself a Satanist, you only need to recognize yourself in The Satanic Bible and live according to the tenets outlined therein. We don't proselytize, or otherwise campaign for people to join—that is your prerogative.
  67. ^ "The Church Of Satan – Interview - Worm Gear". Worm Gear. January 5, 2009.
  68. ^ a b Boulware, Jack (August 30, 1998). "A DEVIL OF A TIME". Washington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2024.
  69. ^ a b c Gilmore, Peter H. "Hierarchy - churchofsatan.com". churchofsatan.com.
  70. ^ "Peter H. Gilmore". Church of Satan. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  71. ^ "Peggy Nadramia". Church of Satan. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
  72. ^ The Church of Satan Website Archived 2012-07-01 at the Wayback Machine, under Affiliation: The Grotto System Retrieved December 3, 2010
  73. ^ a b Gilmore, Peter H. "The Grotto System | churchofsatan.com". www.churchofsatan.com. Retrieved August 23, 2015.

Works cited


Further reading