Church of the Holy Sepulchre
|Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Ναός της Αναστάσεως
|Location||Old City of Jerusalem|
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Active|
|Architect(s)||Komnenos Mitilenos (1810)|
|Architectural type||Church, Basilica|
|Architectural style||Romanesque, Baroque|
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also called the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a church within the Christian Quarter of the walled Old City of Jerusalem. It is a few steps away from the Muristan.
The site is venerated as Golgotha (the Hill of Calvary), where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, and is said also to contain the place where Jesus was buried (the Sepulchre). The church has been a paramount – and for many Christians the most important – pilgrimage destination since at least the 4th century, as the purported site of the resurrection of Jesus. Today it also serves as the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, while control of the building is shared between several Christian churches and secular entities in complicated arrangements essentially unchanged for centuries. Today, the church is home to branches of Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy as well as to Roman Catholicism. Anglican and Protestant Christians have no permanent presence in the Church – and some have regarded the alternative Garden Tomb, elsewhere in Jerusalem, as the true place of Jesus's crucifixion and resurrection.
- 1 History
- 2 Entrance
- 3 Calvary (Golgotha)
- 4 Stone of Anointing
- 5 Rotunda and Aedicule
- 6 Catholicon and Ambulatory
- 7 Armenian compound
- 8 Status quo
- 9 Connection to Temple of Aphrodite
- 10 Location
- 11 Challenges to authenticity
- 12 Influence
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
In the early 2nd century AD, the site of the present Church had been a pagan temple, although it had been claimed by Christian writers such as Eusebius that the site had been a Christian place of veneration since the crucifixion. The first Christian Emperor, Flavius Constantinus, ordered in about 325/326 that the temple be replaced by a church. During the building of the Church Constantine's mother, Helena, is believed to have rediscovered the True Cross, and a tomb (although there are some discrepancies among authors).
Constantine's church was built as two connected churches over the two different holy sites, including a great basilica (the Martyrium visited by Egeria in the 380s), an enclosed colonnaded atrium (the Triportico) with the traditional site of Golgotha in one corner, and a rotunda, called the Anastasis ("Resurrection"), which contained the remains of a rock-cut room that Helena and Macarius identified as the burial site of Jesus.
According to tradition, Constantine arranged for the rockface to be removed from around the tomb, without harming it, in order to isolate the tomb; in the centre of the rotunda is a small building called (in Greek) the Kouvouklion or (in Latin) the Aedicule, which supposedly encloses this tomb.
Damage and destruction
This building was damaged by fire in 614 when the Sassanid Empire, under Khosrau II, invaded Jerusalem and captured the True Cross which was restored in 630 by the Emperor Heraclius when he recaptured and rebuilt the church. After Jerusalem was captured by the Arabs it remained a Christian church with the early Muslim rulers protecting the city's Christian sites.
On October 18, 1009, Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the complete destruction of the church as part of a more general campaign against Christian places of worship in Palestine and Egypt. The damage was extensive, with few parts of the early church remaining. Christian European react with shock with expulsions of Jews and an impetus to later Crusades.
In wide ranging negotiations between the Fatimids and the Byzantine Empire in 1027-8 an agreement was reached whereby the new Caliph Ali az-Zahir (Al-Hakim's son) agreed to allowing the rebuilding and redecoration of the Church. The rebuilding was finally completed with the financing of the huge expense by Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos and Patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople in 1048. As a concession, the mosque in Constantinople was re-opened and sermons were to be pronounced in az-Zahir's name. Muslim sources say a by-product of the agreement was the recanting of Islam by many Christians who had been forced to convert under Al-Hakim's persecutions. In addition the Byzantines, while releasing 5,000 Muslim prisoners, made demands for the restoration of other churches destroyed by Al-Hakim and the re-establishment of a Patriarch in Jerusalem. Contemporary sources credit the emperor with spending vast sums in an effort to restore the Church of the Holy Sepulchre after this agreement was made. Despite the Byzantines spending vast sums on the project, "a total replacement was far beyond available resources. The new construction was concentrated on the rotunda and its surrounding buildings: the great basilica remained in ruins." The rebuilt church site consisted of "a court open to the sky, with five small chapels attached to it." The chapels were "to the east of the court of resurrection, where the wall of the great church had been. They commemorated scenes from the passion, such as the location of the prison of Christ and of his flagellation, and presumably were so placed because of the difficulties for free movement among shrines in the streets of the city. The dedication of these chapels indicates the importance of the pilgrims' devotion to the suffering of Christ. They have been described as 'a sort of Via Dolorosa in miniature'... since little or no rebuilding took place on the site of the great basilica. Western pilgrims to Jerusalem during the eleventh century found much of the sacred site in ruins." Control of Jerusalem, and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, continued to change hands several times between the Fatimids and the Seljuk Turks (loyal to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad) until the arrival of the Crusaders in 1099.
Many historians maintain that the main concern of Pope Urban II, when calling for the First Crusade, was the threat to Constantinople from the Turkish invasion of Asia Minor in response to the appeal of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Historians agree that the fate of Jerusalem and thereby the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was of concern if not the immediate goal of papal policy in 1095. The idea of taking Jerusalem gained more focus as the Crusade was underway. The rebuilt church site was taken from the Fatimids (who had recently taken it from the Abassids) by the knights of the First Crusade on 15 July 1099.
The First Crusade was envisioned as an armed pilgrimage, and no crusader could consider his journey complete unless he had prayed as a pilgrim at the Holy Sepulchre. Crusader Prince Godfrey of Bouillon, who became the first crusader monarch of Jerusalem, decided not to use the title "king" during his lifetime, and declared himself Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Protector (or Defender) of the Holy Sepulchre). By the crusader period, a cistern under the former basilica was rumoured to have been the location that Helena had found the True Cross, and began to be venerated as such; although the cistern later became the Chapel of the Invention of the Cross, there is no evidence for the rumour prior to the 11th century, and modern archaeological investigation has now dated the cistern to the 11th century repairs by Monomachos.
According to the German clergyman and orient pilgrim Ludolf von Sudheim, the keys of the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre were in hands of the "ancient Georgians" and the food, alms, candles and oil for lamps were given them by the pilgrims in the south door of the church.
The chronicler William of Tyre reports on the renovation of the Church in the mid-12th century. The crusaders investigated the eastern ruins on the site, occasionally excavating through the rubble, and while attempting to reach the cistern, they discovered part of the original ground level of Hadrian's temple enclosure; they decided to transform this space into a chapel dedicated to Helena (the Chapel of Saint Helena), widening their original excavation tunnel into a proper staircase. The crusaders began to refurnish the church in a Romanesque style and added a bell tower. These renovations unified the small chapels on the site and were completed during the reign of Queen Melisende in 1149, placing all the Holy places under one roof for the first time. The church became the seat of the first Latin Patriarchs, and was also the site of the kingdom's scriptorium. The church was lost to Saladin, along with the rest of the city, in 1187, although the treaty established after the Third Crusade allowed for Christian pilgrims to visit the site. Emperor Frederick II regained the city and the church by treaty in the 13th century, while he himself was under a ban of excommunication, leading to the curious result of the holiest church in Christianity being laid under interdict. Both city and church were captured by the Khwarezmians in 1244.
The Franciscan friars renovated it further in 1555, as it had been neglected despite increased numbers of pilgrims. The Franciscans rebuilt the Aedicule, extending the structure to create an ante-chamber. After the renovation of 1555, control of the church oscillated between the Franciscans and the Orthodox, depending on which community could obtain a favorable firman from the Sublime Porte at a particular time, often through outright bribery, and violent clashes were not uncommon. There was no agreement about this question, although it was talked about it at the negotiations to the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. In 1767, weary of the squabbling, the Porte issued a firman that divided the church among the claimants.
A fire severely damaged the structure again in 1808, causing the dome of the Rotunda to collapse and smashing the Edicule's exterior decoration. The Rotunda and the Edicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809–1810 by architect Komminos of Mytilene in the then current Ottoman Baroque style. The fire did not reach the interior of the Aedicule, and the marble decoration of the Tomb dates mainly to the 1555 restoration, although the interior of the ante-chamber, now known as the Chapel of the Angel, was partly re-built to a square ground-plan, in place of the previously semi-circular western end. Another decree in 1853 from the sultan solidified the existing territorial division among the communities and set a status quo for arrangements to "remain forever", caused differences of opinion about upkeep and even minor changes, including disagreement on the removal of the "Immovable Ladder", an exterior ladder under one of the windows; this ladder has remained in the same position since then.
The cladding of red marble applied to the Aedicule by Komminos has deteriorated badly and is detaching from the underlying structure; since 1947 it has been held in place with an exterior scaffolding of iron girders installed by the British Mandate. No plans have been agreed upon for its renovation.
The current dome dates from 1870, although it was restored during 1994–1997, as part of extensive modern renovations to the church, which have been ongoing since 1959. During the 1970–1978 restoration works and excavations inside the building, and under the nearby Muristan, it was found that the area was originally a quarry, from which white meleke limestone was struck. To the east of the Chapel of Saint Helena, the excavators discovered a void containing a 2nd-century drawing of a Roman ship, two low walls which supported the platform of Hadrian's 2nd-century temple, and a higher 4th-century wall built to support Constantine's basilica. After the excavations of the early 1970s, the Armenian authorities converted this archaeological space into the Chapel of Saint Vartan, and created an artificial walkway over the quarry on the north of the chapel, so that the new Chapel could be accessed (by permission) from the Chapel of Saint Helena.
There was some controversy in 2010, when the Jerusalem City Council threatened to cut off water to the site, due to disputed water bills.
The entrance to the church is through a single door in the south transept. This narrow way of access to such a large structure has proven to be hazardous at times. For example, when a fire broke out in 1840, dozens of pilgrims were trampled to death.
On the south side of the altar via the ambulatory (an aisle surrounding the end of the choir or chancel of a church) is a stairway climbing to Calvary (Golgotha), traditionally regarded as the site of Jesus' crucifixion and the most lavishly decorated part of the church. The main altar there belongs to the Greek Orthodox, which contains The Rock of Calvary (12th Station of the Cross). The rock can be seen under glass on both sides of the altar, and beneath the altar there is a hole said to be the place where the cross was raised. Due to the significance of this, it is the most visited site in the Holy Sepulchre. The Roman Catholics (Franciscans) have an altar to the side, The Chapel of the Nailing of the Cross (11th Station of the Cross). On the left of the altar, towards the Eastern Orthodox chapel, there is a statue of Mary, believed to be working wonders (the 13th Station of the Cross, where Jesus' body was removed from the cross and given to his family).
Beneath the Calvary and the two chapels there, on the main floor, there is The Chapel of Adam. According to tradition, Jesus was crucified over the place where Adam's skull was buried. The Rock of Calvary is seen cracked through a window on the altar wall, the crack traditionally being said to be caused by the earthquake that occurred when Jesus died on the cross, and being said by more critical scholars to be the result of quarrying against a natural flaw in the rock.
Stone of Anointing
Just inside the entrance is The Stone of Anointing, also known as The Stone of Unction, which tradition claims to be the spot where Jesus' body was prepared for burial by Joseph of Arimathea. However, this tradition is only attested since the crusader era, and the present stone was only added in the 1810 reconstruction. The wall behind the stone was a temporary addition to support the arch above it, which had been weakened after the damage in the 1808 fire; the wall blocks the view of the rotunda, sits on top of the graves of four 12th-century kings, and is no longer structurally necessary. There is a difference of opinion as to whether it is the 13th Station of the Cross, which others identify as the lowering of Jesus from the cross and locate between the 11th and 12th station up on Calvary. The lamps that hang over the stone are contributed by Armenians, Copts, Greeks and Latins.
Rotunda and Aedicule
The Rotunda is located in the centre of the Anastasis, beneath the larger of the church's two domes. In the centre of the Rotunda is the chapel called the Aedicule, which contains the Holy Sepulchre itself. The Aedicule has two rooms, the first holding the Angel's Stone, which is believed to be a fragment of the large stone that sealed the tomb; the second is the tomb itself.
Under the status quo, the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Armenian Apostolic Churches all have rights to the interior of the tomb, and all three communities celebrate the Divine Liturgy or Holy Mass there daily. It is also used for other ceremonies on special occasions, such as the Holy Saturday ceremony of the Holy Fire led by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch. To its rear, within a chapel constructed of iron latticework upon a stone base semicircular in plan, lies the altar used by the Coptic Orthodox. Historically, the Georgians also retained the key to the Aedicule.
Beyond that to the rear of the Rotunda is a rough-hewn chapel containing an opening to a chamber cut from the rock, from which several kokh-tombs radiate. Although this space was discovered recently,[when?] and contains no identifying marks, many Christians believe[vague] it to be the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea, and it is where the Syriac Orthodox celebrate their Liturgy on Sundays. To the right of the Sepulchre on the southeastern edge of the Rotunda is the Chapel of the Apparition, which is reserved for Roman Catholic use.
Catholicon and Ambulatory
- The Catholicon - On the east side opposite the Rotunda is the Crusader structure housing the main altar of the Church, today the Greek Orthodox catholicon. The second, smaller dome sits directly over the centre of the transept crossing of the choir where the compas, an omphalos once thought to be the centre of the world (associated to the site of the Crucifixion and the Resurrection), is situated. East of this is a large iconostasis demarcating the Orthodox sanctuary before which is set the throne of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem on the south side facing the throne of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch on the north side.
- Prison of Christ - In the north-east side of the complex there is The Prison of Christ, alleged by the Franciscans to be where Jesus was held. The Greek Orthodox allege that the real place that Jesus was held was the similarly named Prison of Christ, within their Monastery of the Praetorium, located near the Church of Ecce Homo, at the first station on the Via Dolorosa. The Armenians regard a recess in the Monastery of the Flagellation, a building near the second station on the Via Dolorosa, as the Prison of Christ. A cistern among the ruins near the Church of St. Peter in Gallicantu is also alleged to have been the Prison of Christ.
Further to the east in the ambulatory are three chapels (from south to north):
- Greek Chapel of St. Longinus - The Orthodox Greek chapel is dedicated to St. Longinus, a Roman soldier who according the New Testament pierced Jesus with a spear.
- Armenian Chapel of Division of Robes -
- Greek Chapel of the Derision - the southernmost chapel in the ambulatory.
- Chapel of Saint Helena- between the first two chapels are stairs descending to Chapel of Saint Helena.
- Chapel of Saint Vartan - on the north side of the Chapel of Saint Helena is an ornate wrought iron door, beyond which a raised artificial platform affords views of the Quarry, and which leads to the Chapel of Saint Vartan. The latter Chapel contains archaeological remains from Hadrian's temple and Constantine's basilica. These areas are usually closed.
- Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross - another set of 22 stairs from the Chapel of Saint Helena leads down to the Roman Catholic Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross believed to be the place where the True Cross was found.
North of the Aedicule
- The Franciscan Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene - The chapel indicates the place where Mary Magdalene met Jesus after his resurrection.
- The Franciscan Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament (or Chapel of the Apparition) - in memory of Jesus' meeting with his mother after the Resurrection.
South of the Aedicule
The three Greek Orthodox chapels of St. James the Just, St. John the Baptist and of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, south of the rotunda and on the west side of the front courtyard originally formed the baptistery complex of the Constantinean church, the southern most chapel being the vestibule, the middle chapel being the actual baptistery and the north chapel being the chamber in which the patriarch chrismated the newly baptized before leading them into the rotunda north of this complex.
The primary custodians are the Eastern Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, and Roman Catholic Churches, with the Greek Orthodox Church having the lion's share. In the 19th century, the Coptic Orthodox, the Ethiopian Orthodox and the Syriac Orthodox acquired lesser responsibilities, which include shrines and other structures within and around the building. Times and places of worship for each community are strictly regulated in common areas.
Establishment of the 1853 status quo did not halt the violence, which continues to break out every so often even in modern times. On a hot summer day in 2002, a Coptic monk moved his chair from its agreed spot into the shade. This was interpreted as a hostile move by the Ethiopians, and eleven were hospitalized after the resulting fracas.
In another incident in 2004, during Orthodox celebrations of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, a door to the Franciscan chapel was left open. This was taken as a sign of disrespect by the Orthodox and a fistfight broke out. Some people were arrested, but no one was seriously injured.
On Palm Sunday, in April 2008, a brawl broke out when a Greek monk was ejected from the building by a rival faction. Police were called to the scene but were also attacked by the enraged brawlers. On Sunday, November 9, 2008, a clash erupted between Armenian and Greek monks during celebrations for the Feast of the Cross.
Under the status quo, no part of what is designated as common territory may be so much as rearranged without consent from all communities. This often leads to the neglect of badly needed repairs when the communities cannot come to an agreement among themselves about the final shape of a project. Just such a disagreement has delayed the renovation of the edicule, where the need is now dire, but also where any change in the structure might result in a change to the status quo, disagreeable to one or more of the communities.
A less grave sign of this state of affairs is located on a window ledge over the church's entrance. Someone placed a wooden ladder there sometime before 1852, when the status quo defined both the doors and the window ledges as common ground. This ladder, the "Immovable Ladder", remains there to this day, in almost exactly the same position it can be seen to occupy in century-old photographs and engravings. An engraving by David Roberts in 1839 also shows the same ladder in the same position.
No one controls the main entrance. In 1192, Saladin assigned responsibility for it to the Muslim Nuseibeh family. The Joudeh Al-Goudia family were entrusted as custodian to the keys of the Holy Sepulchre by the Ottomans few hundred years later, and both families now share the responsibility. This arrangement has persisted into modern times.
Connection to Temple of Aphrodite
The site of the Church had been a temple of Aphrodite prior to Constantine's edifice being built. Hadrian's temple had actually been located there because it was the junction of the main north-south road with one of the two main east-west roads and directly adjacent to the forum (which is now the location of the (smaller) Muristan); the forum itself had been placed, as is traditional in Roman towns, at the junction of the main north-south road with the (other) main east-west road (which is now El-Bazar/David Street). The temple and forum together took up the entire space between the two main east-west roads (a few above-ground remains of the east end of the temple precinct still survive in the Russian Mission in Exile).
From the archaeological excavations in the 1970s, it is clear that construction took over most of the site of the earlier temple enclosure and that the Triportico and Rotunda roughly overlapped with the temple building itself; the excavations indicate that the temple extended at least as far back as the Aedicule, and the temple enclosure would have reached back slightly further. Virgilio Canio Corbo, a Franciscan priest and archaeologist, who was present at the excavations, estimated from the archaeological evidence that the western retaining wall, of the temple itself, would have passed extremely close to the east side of the supposed tomb; if the wall had been any further west any tomb would have been crushed under the weight of the wall (which would be immediately above it) if it had not already been destroyed when foundations for the wall were made.
Other archaeologists have criticised Corbo's reconstructions. Dan Bahat, the former city archaeologist of Jerusalem, regards them as unsatisfactory, as there is no known Temple of Aphrodite matching Corbo's design, and no archaeological evidence for Corbo's suggestion that the Temple Building was on a platform raised high enough to avoid including anything sited where the Aedicule is now; indeed Bahat notes that many temples to Aphrodite have a rotunda-like design, and argues that there is no archaeological reason to assume that the present rotunda wasn't based on a rotunda in the temple previously on the site.
The Bible describes Jesus' tomb as being outside the city wall, as was normal for burials across the ancient world, which were regarded as unclean, but the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is in the heart of Hadrian's city, well within the Old City walls, which were built by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in 1538[clarification needed] Some[who?] have claimed that the city had been much narrower in Jesus' time, with the site then having been outside the walls; since Herod Agrippa (41–44) is recorded by history as extending the city to the north (beyond the present northern walls), the required repositioning of the western wall is traditionally attributed to him as well.
However, a wall would imply the existence of a defensive ditch outside it, so an earlier wall could not be immediately adjacent to site of the tomb, which combined with the presence of the Temple Mount would make the city inside the wall quite thin; essentially for the traditional site to have been outside the wall, the city would have had to be limited to the lower parts of the Tyropoeon Valley, rather than including the defensively advantageous western hill. Since these geographic considerations imply that, not including the hill within, the walls would be willfully making the city prone to attack from it, some scholars, including the late 19th century surveyors of the Palestine Exploration Fund, consider it unlikely that a wall would ever have been built that would cut the hill off from the city in the valley; archaeological evidence for the existence of an earlier city wall in such a location has never been found. The area immediately to the south and east of the sepulchre was a quarry and outside the city during the early 1st century as excavations under the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer across the street demonstrated. This obviated the need for a defensive ditch or fosse since the line of the city wall would follow the south lip of the quarry. The quarry and tombs associated with it are north, not west of the main city and west only of the merchant area in the Tyropoeon Valley, which was enclosed by the Second Wall.
Although, in 2007, Dan Bahat stated that Six graves from the first century were found on the area of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. That means, this place [was] outside of the city, without any doubt, ...., the dating of the tombs is based on the fact that they are in the kokh style, which was common in 1st century; however, the kokh style of tomb was also common in the first to 3rd centuries BC.
The likelihood of a 1st-century tomb being built to the west of the city is questionable, as according to the late 1st-century rabbinic leader, Akiva ben Joseph, quoted in the Mishnah, tombs should not built to the west of the city, as the wind in Jerusalem generally blows from the west, and would blow the smell of the corpses and their impurity over the city, and the Temple Mount. Additionally, the Aedicule would be quite close to the city even if the west wall of the city had been to its east; yet Akiba remarks that Jewish law insists that tombs should not be built within 50 cubits of a city. The archaeological record indicates that the instructions reported by Akiba, for choosing a burial location, were rigidly adhered to; almost all of the tombs from classical Jerusalem are to the east of the city, on the Mount of Olives, except for a few located over a kilometre to the west, and those in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
However, what is assumed to be a niche for the Torah scroll in the building probably originally built as a Judeo-Christian synagogue between AD 70 and AD 135 on the traditional site of the Cenacle or upper room of the Last Supper and now identified as the site of the King David's Tomb is oriented not towards the Temple Mount, but towards the site of the Holy Sepulchre, which would seem to indicate that the Christian community that had built it had already began to transfer many of the religious traditions originally associated with the Temple to the sites they associated with Christ's death and resurrection (such as the burial place of Adam and the centre of the world).
Challenges to authenticity
Although the identification of the Aedicule as the site of Jesus' tomb is not a tenet of faith for any major Christian denomination, many Catholic and Orthodox Christians hold fast to this traditional location. However, due to the many issues the site raises, several scholars have rejected its validity. The very fact that outside the city of Jerusalem were at the beginning of the first Christian millennium many places called in the local jargon "Golgotha" (because all of them were used as a place of execution) complicates the task of finding that one where Jesus was executed. Meanwhile, the traditional location of Golgotha is considered by some historians as unfit, due to the rocky structure the tradition put forward as the exact place of execution.
After time spent in Palestine in 1882–83, General Charles George Gordon found a location outside the old city walls that he suggested to have been the real location of Golgotha. Although the Church of the Holy Sepulchre has its tomb just a few yards away from its Golgotha, there is no particular reason to regard this close juxtaposition as a necessity; however, Gordon followed this principle, concluding that his site for Golgotha must also be the approximate location for Jesus' burial, identifying a nearby tomb, now called the Garden Tomb, as the location for the event. Pottery and archaeological findings in the area have subsequently been dated to the 7th century BC so, in the opinion of archaeologists the Garden Tomb site would have been abandoned by the 1st century. Biblically this does not match three of the Gospel accounts (Matthew, Luke, and John) which specifically state the tomb was new and no one had ever been laid inside. Despite the archaeological discoveries, the Garden Tomb has become a popular place of pilgrimage among Protestants. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints leaders have been more hesitant to formally commit to the identification even though many Mormons regard the Garden Tomb as the correct location of Jesus' tomb.
Currently, no other potential site for the tomb has received much attention or academic support.
From the 9th century, the construction of churches inspired in the Anastasis was extended across Europe. One example is Santo Stefano in Bologna, Italy, an agglomeration of seven churches recreating shrines of Jerusalem.
Several churches and monasteries in Europe, for instance, in Germany and Russia, have been modeled on the Church of the Resurrection, some even reproducing other holy places for the benefit of pilgrims who could not travel to the Holy Land. They include the Heiliges Grab of Görlitz, constructed between 1481 and 1504, and the New Jerusalem Monastery in Moscow Oblast, constructed by Patriarch Nikon between 1656 to 1666.
- "Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem". Jerusalem, , Israel: Sacred-destinations.com. 2010-02-21. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- McMahon, Arthur .L. (1913). "Holy Sepulchre". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- The search for a Protestant Holy Sepulchre: the Garden Tomb in nineteenth-century Jerusalem, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, April 01, 1995, Kochav, Sarah
- "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Eusebius, Life of Constantine, 3:26
- The Pilgrim of Bordeaux reports in 333: "There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica, that is to say, a church of wondrous beauty". Itinerarium Burdigalense, page 594
- Though Eusebius's account makes no mention of Helena's presence at the excavation, nor of the finding of the cross but only the tomb. According to Eusebius, the tomb exhibited "a clear and visible proof" that it was the tomb of Jesus. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Chapter 28. "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2012-07-07. Socrates Scholasticus (born c. 380), in his Ecclesiastical History, gives a full description of the discovery. "NPNF2-02. Socrates and Sozomenus Ecclesiastical Histories". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Kουβούκλιον; Modern Greek for small compartment
- Americans spell this as Edicule from Latin: aediculum, small building
- "Commemoration of the Founding of the Church of the Resurrection (Holy Sepulchre) at Jerusalem". Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Adémar de Chabannes recorded that the church of St George at Lydda 'with many other churches of the saints' had been attacked, and the 'basilica of the Lord's Sepulchre destroyed down to the ground'. ...The Christian writer Yahya ibn Sa'id reported that everything was razed 'except those parts which were impossible to destroy or would have been too difficult to carry away'." Morris 2005
- Morris 2005
- For example, Cluniac monk Rodulfus Glaber blamed the Jews, with the result that Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns
- Bokenkotter 2004
- Lev 1991
- Foakes-Jackson 1921
- Fergusson 1865
- Gold 2007
- "Council of Claremont". Famoushistoricalevents.net. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Venetian Adventurer: The Life and Times of Marco Polo, p88
- Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 56
- Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, Geschichte des östreichischen Kaiserstaates, János Nepomuk Jozsef Mailáth (gróf), Band 4, Seite 262, F. Perthes, Hamburg 1848.
- "The Church of the Holy Sepulchre:A Work in Progress". Bibleinterp.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Hesemann, Michael (1999). Die Jesus-Tafel (in German). Freiburg. p. 170. ISBN 3-451-27092-7.
- Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land, (1998), page 59
- Lancaster, James E. (1998). "Finding the Keys to the Chapel of St. Vartan". Jim Lancaster's Web Space. Retrieved 2 March 2012. "the height difference can be easily seen; the yellowish wall on the left is the 4th century wall, the pinkish wall on the right is the 2nd century wall."
- Cohen, Arieh (30 July 2010). "Israel threatens to cut off water supply to Church of the Holy Sepulchre". AsiaNews. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
-  (archived from the original[dead link])
- "Miracle of Holy Fire which happens every year". Holyfire.org. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Janin 1913. 35.
- De Sandoli 1990. 47. 81.
- A Brief Description of the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem and Other Christian Churches in the Holy City: With Some Account of the Mediaeval Copies of the Holy Sepulchre Surviving in Europe, George Jeffery, 69
- "The Franciscans at the Holy Sepulchre". The Franciscans of the Holy Land. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Armstrong, Chris (1 July 2002). "Christian History Corner: Divvying up the Most Sacred Place". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Fisher-Ilan, Allyn (September 28, 2004). "Punch-up at tomb of Jesus". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- "Armenian, Greek worshippers come to blows at Jesus' tomb - Haaretz - Israel News". Haaretz. 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- "Riot police called as monks clash in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre". London: Times Online. November 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
- "Once again, monks come to blows at Church of Holy Sepulchre". Associated Press. 10/11/2008. Retrieved 2008-11-11. [dead link]
- "Holy Sepulchre Ladder". Coastdaylight.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- An unusual and rare location of the ladder was documented by an Israeli tour guide in February 2009 
- "Entrance to the holy sepulchre; title page, vol. 1". Loc.gov. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Virgilio Corbo, The Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (1981)
- Dan Bahat, Does the Holy Sepulchre Church Mark the Burial of Jesus?, in Biblical Archaeology Review May/June 1986
- for example, Hebrews 13:12
- [Toynbee, Jocelyn M. C. Death and Burial in the Roman World, pp. 48-49, JHU Press. 1996. ISBN 0-8018-5507-1. An exception in the Classical World were the Lycians of Anatolia. There are also the Egyptian mortuary-temples, where the object of worship was the deified royal person entombed, but Egyptian temples to the major gods contained no burials. For an extreme example, see ancient Delos.
- Colonel Claude Reignier Conder, The City of Jerusalem (1909), (republished 2004); for details about Conder himself, see Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener#Survey of Western Palestine
- See Discoveries at Archaeological excavations at Meleke.
- Dan Bahat in German television ZDF, April 11, 2007[dead link]
- Rachel Hachlili, (2005) Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices and Rites in the Second Temple Period
- Baba Batra 25a
- Ephraim Stern, (editor), New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, 1993
- CenturyOne Foundation, Inc. "Church of the Apostles Found on Mt. Zion - Pixner - BAR and CenturyOne Foundation". Centuryone.org. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
- Given that the area of Golgotha was understood by the early Jerusalem church to have been further south than the site now occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, it would certainly have been miraculous if, given the history here outlined, Constanline's workmen had struck the right tomb. [...] We can deduce from the late second-century evidence of Melito of Sardis that the Jerusalem church pointed out Golgotha as lying under the colonnaded streets of the forum or the adjacent Cardo Maximus or Decumanus. This location is confirmed by the evidence of Eusebius, writing in his Onomasticon. The site of Golgotha was close to the temple of Venus, built by order of the emperor Hadrian, but further south. With Constantine came a relocation of Golgotha. The emperor made the identification of the site as actually lying under the temple of Venus. He wished to destroy this and replace it with a new Christian temple in honour of the 'saving sign', the cross, which had proved the instrument of his success. Proof of his having chosen the correct site, for those who may have been doubtful amongst the Jerusalem church, came with the finding of the wood of Christ's cross in the course of excavating the Hadrianic fill. The matter was clinched when an empty tomb was discovered and heralded as being that belonging to Christ. Further tombs which came to light were simply cut away. [...] Christians began to see the rock of the cross as being the precise place where Jesus' cross had been positioned; the decorative cross was believed to have replaced the cross of wood on which the Saviour had died. The rock of the cross, the former Venus shrine, became Golgotha itself. It may well have been that the belief that Hadrian built a temple on Golgotha led to the idea that pagans wished to annihilate sites with Christian significance in general, so that it was precisely for this reason that the Christians were inclined to accept that the birthplace of Christ was in the cave of Tammuz-Adonis in Bethlehem. But the evidence suggests that Hadrian did not build his temple exactly over Golgotha, and that neither the Rock of Calvary nor the supposed Tomb of Christ was venerated by Christians before the fourth century. - Christians And The Holy Places - The Myth Of Jewish-Christian Origins, Joan E. Taylor, Clarendon Press Oxford, Oxford University Press 1993.
- "However, around 398 Jerome vehemently dismissed the legend as a fable (in Matt. xvii. 33). He repeated the reference to the person discoursing on Ephesians, but he went on to say that it was just "a popular interpretation", which was "pleasing to the ears" of people. Nevertheless, Golgotha did not gain its name because of Adam's skull, but because it was local jargon for "execution place", or "place of beheading". He explained that outside the gate of Jerusalem there were areas where criminals were executed, and these were each called "Golgotha", even in his day. Jesus was therefore killed in "the field of the condemned", as a criminal among criminals. Furthermore, said Jerome implicitly arguing against Origen, the Jews did not have a tradition that Adam was buried at Golgotha. Jerome knew of the tradition of Adam's burial at Hebron (cf. Lib. loc. 75.23). Since Jerome was familiar with Jerusalem and its surroundings, his first-hand knowledge of the language of the local population provides weighty evidence for a proper understanding of the name "Golgotha". Perhaps, if there were other "execution places" around Jerusalem, this would account for Cyril of Jerusalem's specification of the "Christian Golgotha" in his lectures as being "pre-eminent" (Cat. xiii. 39, or x. 19), a double entendre of a word which appears to refer both to the physical height of the hill (part rock, part fill) of Golgotha and to its importance.- "Christians And The Holy Places - The Myth Of Jewish-Christian Origins", Joan E. Taylor, Clarendon Press Oxford, Oxford University Press 1993, p.130
- "Golgotha was no longer seen as the site as a whole but as the rocky outcrop with the cross on its summit. It became one of the many sacred sites within a growing complex of shrines and buildings. The actual form of the rock was obscured and no one realized just how unlikely a place it would have been for a crucifixion; it was naturally hollow and stood 12 metres above bedrock on the east, and 5 metres above bedrock on the west. In other words, any Roman soldiers who wished to crucify three people on the top of this unstable spur would have had to overcome enormous difficulties, to say the least." - "Christians And The Holy Places - The Myth Of Jewish-Christian Origins", Joan E. Taylor, Clarendon Press Oxford, Oxford University Press 1993, p.131
- Gabriel Barkay, The Garden Tomb, published in Biblical Archaeology Review March/April 1986
- Monastero di Santo Stefano: Basilica Santuario Santo Stefano: Storia, Bologna.
- Bahat, Dan (1986). "Does the Holy Sepulchre church mark the burial of Jesus?". Biblical Archaeology Review 12 (3): 26–45
- Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Doubleday. p. 155. ISBN 0-385-50584-1.
- Coüasnon, Charles (1974). The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy. ISBN 0-19-725938-3.
- Fergusson, James (1865). A History of Architecture in All Countries. London: J. Murray.
- Foakes-Jackson, Frederick John (1921). An Introduction to the History of Christianity, A. D. 590-1314. London: Macmillan.
- Gold, Dore (2007). The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, the West, and the Future of the Holy City. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 1-59698-029-X.
- Lev, Yaacov (1991). State and Society in Fatimid Egypt. Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-09344-7.
- McMahon, Arthur .L. (1913). "Holy Sepulchre". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Biddle, Martin (1999). The Tomb of Christ. Scarborough: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1926-4.
- Biddle, Martin; Seligman, Jon; Tamar, Winter; Avni, Gideon (2000). The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. New York: Rizzoli in cooperation with Israel Antiquities Authority, distributed by St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-8478-2282-6.
- Gibson, Shimon; Taylor, Joan E. (1994). Beneath the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Jerusalem: The archaeology and early history of traditional Golgotha. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. ISBN 0-903526-53-0.
- Cohen, Raymond (2008). Saving the Holy Sepulchre: How Rival Christians Came Together to Rescue Their Holiest Shrine. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-518966-3.
- Glenn Bowman, '“In Dubious Battle on the Plains of Heav'n”: The Politics of Possession in Jerusalem's Holy Sepulchre,' History and Anthropology, 22,3 (2011), 371-399.
- Weitzmann, Kurt, ed., Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 582, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780870991790
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