Church of the Pater Noster
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Church of the Pater Noster|
The Church of the Pater Noster is a Roman Catholic church located on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. It is part of a Carmelite monastery', also known as the Sanctuary of the Eleona (French: Domaine de l'Eleona). The Church of the Pater Noster stands right next to the traditional site of Christ's teaching of the Lord's Prayer (Luke 11:2-4), a cave which formed the crypt and centrepiece of the 4th-century Byzantine Church of Eleona. The ruins of the Eleona were rediscovered in the 20th century and its walls were partially rebuilt. Today, the land on which both churches and the entire monastery are standing formally belongs to France.
The modern Church of the Pater Noster is built right next to the site of a fourth-century basilica commissioned by Constantine I to commemorate the Ascension of Jesus Christ. It was built under the direction of Constantine's mother Helena in the early 4th century, who named it the Church of the Disciples. The pilgrim Egeria was the first surviving source referring to it as the Church of the Eleona (Greek for olive grove) in the late 4th century. The church is mentioned by the Bordeaux pilgrim in the Itinerarium Burdigalense circa 333, and the historian Eusebius of Caesarea recounts that Constantine constructed a church over a cave on the Mount of Olives that had been linked with the Ascension. The 2nd-century Acts of John mentions the existence of a cave on the Mount of Olives associated with the teachings of Jesus, but not specifically the Lord's Prayer. The church survived intact until it was destroyed by Persians in 614.
The memory of Jesus' teaching remained associated with this site, and during the crusades it became exclusively associated with the teaching of the Lord's Prayer. The crusaders built a small oratory amid the ruins in 1106, and a full church was constructed in 1152 thanks to funds donated by the Bishop of Denmark, who is buried inside the church. The crusader-era church was heavily damaged during Sultan Saladin's siege of Jerusalem in 1187, eventually being abandoned and falling into ruin in 1345. In 1851 the remaining stones of the 4th-century church were sold for tombstones in the Valley of Jehoshaphat.
The site was acquired by Princess Aurelia Bossi de la Tour d'Auvergne in the second half of the 19th century and a search for the cave mentioned by early pilgrims began. In 1868 she built a cloister modelled on the Campo Santo at Pisa, Italy and founded a Carmelite convent in 1872. A convent church was erected in the 1870s. In 1910 the foundations over the venerated cave were finally found, partly stretching beneath the modern cloister. The convent was moved nearby and reconstruction of the Byzantine church began in 1915. The reconstruction was stopped in 1927 when funds ran out and the renewed Church of Eleona remains unfinished. The small convent church stands at the east end of the modern cloister, while the partly reconstructed Byzantine church stands west of it.
Design and layout
The 4th-century Byzantine church has been partially reconstructed and provides a good sense of what the original was like. The church's dimensions are the same as the original and the garden outside the three doors outlines the atrium area. The church is unroofed and has steps that lead into a grotto where some Christians believe that Jesus revealed to his disciples his prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem and the second coming. Unfortunately the cave containing the grotto partially collapsed when it was discovered in 1910. It also cuts partly into a 1st-century tomb.
Left of the church's south door[dubious ] is a baptistery paved with mosaic.
A road to the right of the convent leads to the Russian Church of the Ascension and Byzantine tomb chapels where some Armenian mosaics are preserved in a small museum.[dubious ]
- Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Oxford Archaeological Guides: The Holy Land (Oxford, 1998), 125-26.
- Kay Prag, Blue Guide to Israel and the Palestinian Territories (Black and Norton, 2002), 230-31.
- Daniel Jacobs, Mini Rough Guide to Jerusalem (Rough Guides, 1999), 105-06.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Church of the Pater Noster.|