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Coordinates: 33°36′04″N 78°38′53″E / 33.601°N 78.648°E / 33.601; 78.648
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Chushul is located in Ladakh
Location in Ladakh, India
Chushul is located in India
Chushul (India)
Coordinates: 33°36′04″N 78°38′53″E / 33.601°N 78.648°E / 33.601; 78.648
Country India
Union TerritoryLadakh
4,350 m (14,270 ft)
 • Total949
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Census code908

Chushul[a] is a village in the Leh district of Ladakh, India.[8] It is located in the Durbuk tehsil, in the area known as "Chushul Valley", south of the Pangong Lake and west of the Spanggur Lake. The Line of Actual Control with China runs about 5 miles east of Chushul, across the Chushul Valley. Famous as site for historical battle grounds.

In August 1842 the concluding battle of Dogra-Tibetan War with subsequent signing of Treaty of Chushul in September 1842 for border non-proliferation took place at Chushul.[9]

On 18 November 1962 Sino-Indian War, PVC Major Shaitan Singh with his five platoons of 120 men fought to the 'last man, last round' at Rezang La (Chushul), only 6 men survived the Chinese massacre.[10]


Map including Chushul (AMS, 1954)[b]
Chushul area (DMA, 1992

Chushul is about 10 miles south of the Pangong Lake. It is in the valley of the Chushul River (or Tsaka chu), which rises near the Tsaka La and flows north for about 30 miles before entering the Pangong Lake on its south bank near Thakung. Near Chushul, the river flows through a flat plain of some 10 square miles in extent, leading to growth of grass and fuelwood.[6]


According to the 2011 census of India, Chushul has 148 households. The effective literacy rate (i.e. the literacy rate of population excluding children aged 6 and below) is 61.47%.[11]

Most of the people are dependent on the rearing of goat and yak. In the field of agriculture, barley and pea are main crops of the season. During the chilly winter season, Chushul is cut off from main the capital city of Leh. During the winter season, Ice hockey is the main sport in Chushul. The youth of Chushul has a keen interest in playing ice hockey. The Chushul Ice Hockey team recently participated in the district as well as the CEC cup which was held at Leh at Karzoo and the new ice hockey ring at NDS Ground. In Chushul, various associations have played an important role in developing Chushul's economy, politics and education system. Some of these associations are Women's Alliance Chushul, Student Union of Chushul, Youth Association of Chushul, Gonpa Community of Chushul and Ex. Service Men Association of Chushul

Demographics (2011 Census)[11]
Total Male Female
Population 949 489 460
Children aged below 6 years 121 69 52
Scheduled caste 0 0 0
Scheduled tribe 945 489 456
Literates 509 315 194
Workers (all) 556 278 278
Main workers (total) 398 244 154
Main workers: Cultivators 197 130 67
Main workers: Agricultural labourers 18 12 6
Main workers: Household industry workers 25 14 11
Main workers: Other 158 88 70
Marginal workers (total) 158 34 124
Marginal workers: Cultivators 49 25 24
Marginal workers: Agricultural labourers 13 2 11
Marginal workers: Household industry workers 85 2 83
Marginal workers: Others 11 5 6
Non-workers 393 211 182


In Chushul there are five schools. They are Govt. High school Chushul, Govt. Middle school Buk, Govt Middle School Tailing, Central Institute of Buddhist Studies .[citation needed]


The Chushul village was the block headquarters of Changthang block of Ladakh district prior to the 1962 war with China.[citation needed]


The Chushul airstrip became operational since 1954. Chushul airstrip,[12] supported military operations during the 1962 Sino-Indian War. Dakotas and IL 14 from No. 12 Squadron IAF, No. 43 Squadron IAF and No. 42 Squadron IAF made logistical supplies to Chushul as the roads didn't exist.[13] On 25 & 26 October 1962 in Sino-Indian War, AN-12 transport airplanes of No. 44 Squadron IAF airlifted six AMX-13 tanks to armour the gap at Spanggur Tso through makeshift Chushul aerodrome made of (Perforated Steel Plates) fishplates at a height of 13,000 feet in Ladakh. Vir Chakra awardee Flight Lieutenant Virendera Singh Pathania of No. 23 Squadron IAF made sorties on Gnat airplane for photo reconnaissance from Chushul.[14]

Road transport[edit]

Chushul is connected by the following roads:

  • "Mahe-Chushul Road" (MCR), via Kartsangla, will be completed by the BRO by December 2023 (August 2023 update).[16]

Border Personnel Meeting point[edit]

Chushul is one of the five officially agreed Border Personnel Meeting points between the Indian Army and the People's Liberation Army of China for regular consultations and interactions between the two armies to improve relations.[17]

Moldo (Chinese: 莫爾多) post of the Indian Army, coordinate: 33°33′27″N 78°43′55″E / 33.5575°N 78.732°E / 33.5575; 78.732[dubiousdiscuss]

Spanggur (Chinese: 斯潘古爾) post of the People's Liberation Army of China, coordinate: 33°33′54″N 78°48′00″E / 33.565°N 78.80°E / 33.565; 78.80

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Alternative spellings include Chhushul,[2] Chushal,[3][4] and Chushol.[5] An old spelling is Shushal,[6] also Shooshal.[7]


  1. ^ "Villages | District Leh, Union Territory of Ladakh | India".
  2. ^ Government of Punjab (1862), Report on the trade and resources of the countries on the north-western boundary of India, Lahore: Printed at the Government Press, Appendix IV A, p. xxii – via unomaha.edu
  3. ^ Drew, The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories (1875), p. 319.
  4. ^ Godwin-Austen, H. H. (1867), "Notes on the Pangong Lake District of Ladakh, from a Journal made during a Survey in 1863", The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 37, London: J. Murray: 352, JSTOR 1798534
  5. ^ Yale North India Expedition, Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1934, p. 33
  6. ^ a b Gazetteer of Kashmir and Ladak, Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1890, p. 747
  7. ^ Ward, Tourist's and Sportsman's guide (1896).
  8. ^ "Blockwise Village Amenity Directory" (PDF). Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  9. ^ Rubin, Alfred P. (1960), "The Sino-Indian Border Disputes", International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 9 (1): 96–124, doi:10.1093/iclqaj/9.1.96, JSTOR 756256
  10. ^ "#ShauryaStories: Major Shaitan Singh, 'The Hero of Rezang La' in 1962 war". DNA Web Team. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  11. ^ a b "Leh district census". 2011 Census of India. Directorate of Census Operations. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  12. ^ Photos on www.flickr.com
  13. ^ Lal, P.C. "1962 War: The Role of the IAF". Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Importance of Chushul sector: Indian Army's consolidation will give New Delhi access to east Ladakh and region's crucial airstrip". First Post. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  15. ^ BRO starts process for 135-km road near LAC from Chushul to Demchok, News18, 24 Jan 2023.
  16. ^ Over 20 strategic roads close to LAC have the ear and deadline, The Economic Times, 3 Aug 2023.
  17. ^ "Indian soldiers prevent Chinese troops from constructing road in Arunachal". The Times of India. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2017.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]