Chusquea

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South American mountain bamboos
Chusquea quila.jpg
Chusquea quila
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Bambusoideae
Tribe: Bambuseae
Subtribe: Chusqueinae
Genus: Chusquea
Kunth
Type species
Chusquea scandens
Kunth
Synonyms[2]
  • Rettbergia Raddi
  • Platonia Kunth, 1829, rejected homonym not Mart. 1832 (Clusiaceae) nor Raf. 1808 (Verbenaceae) nor Raf. 1810 (Cistaceae)[1]
  • Dendragrostis Nees
  • Neurolepis Meisn.
  • Coliquea Steud. ex Bibra
  • Planotia Munro
  • Swallenochloa McClure

Chusquea is a genus of evergreen bamboos in the grass family. Most of them are native to mountain habitats in Latin America, from Mexico to southern Chile and Argentina.

They are sometimes referred to as South American mountain bamboos. Unlike most other grasses, the stems of these species are solid, not hollow. Some animals are, to various extents, associated with stands of Chusquea, for example the Inca wren and the plushcap.

Notable species[edit]

Chusquea culeou, the colihue cane, from southern Chile and adjacent western Argentina, is notable as the most frost-tolerant South American bamboo and the only one that has been grown successfully to any extent in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with successful growth as an ornamental plant north to Scotland. The colihue cane was used by the Mapuches Indians to make instruments and as lances during the War of Arauco.

Chusquea quila (in Spanish quila), in contrast to Colihue, has a spreading or vining growth. It prefers wet places and does not grow above 500 metres (1,600 ft), where C. coleou becomes more dominant. Chusquea quila can form pure stands called quilantales. Very few plants can grow under this species.

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Chusquea now includes species formerly classified in Dendragrostis, Rettbergia, Swallenochloa, and Neurolepis. [3] The genus has been organized into three subgenera, subg. Rettbergia, subg. Swallenochloa and subg. Chusquea,[4] although molecular evidence only supports a monophyletic subg. Rettbergia.[5]

Species[2][6][7]
  1. Chusquea abietifolia
  2. Chusquea acuminata
  3. Chusquea albilanata
  4. Chusquea amistadensis
  5. Chusquea andina
  6. Chusquea anelythra
  7. Chusquea anelytroides
  8. Chusquea angustifolia
  9. Chusquea antioquensis
  10. Chusquea aperta
  11. Chusquea arachniformis
  12. Chusquea aristata
  13. Chusquea aspera
  14. Chusquea asymmetrica
  15. Chusquea attenuata
  16. Chusquea baculifera
  17. Chusquea bahiana
  18. Chusquea bambusoides
  19. Chusquea barbata
  20. Chusquea bilimekii
  21. Chusquea bradei
  22. Chusquea caparaoensis
  23. Chusquea capitata
  24. Chusquea capituliflora
  25. Chusquea ciliata
  26. Chusquea circinata
  27. Chusquea cordata
  28. Chusquea coronalis
  29. Chusquea costaricensis
  30. Chusquea culeou
  31. Chusquea cumingii
  32. Chusquea cylindrica
  33. Chusquea decolorata
  34. Chusquea deficiens
  35. Chusquea deflexa
  36. Chusquea delicatula
  37. Chusquea depauperata
  38. Chusquea diversiglumis
  39. Chusquea dombeyana
  40. Chusquea elata
  41. Chusquea elegans
  42. Chusquea erecta
  43. Chusquea exasperata
  44. Chusquea falcata
  45. Chusquea fasciculata
  46. Chusquea fendleri
  47. Chusquea fernandeziana
  48. Chusquea foliosa
  49. Chusquea galeottiana
  50. Chusquea gigantea
  51. Chusquea glauca
  52. Chusquea glomerata
  53. Chusquea gracilis
  54. Chusquea grandiflora
  55. Chusquea guirigayensis
  56. Chusquea hatschbackii
  57. Chusquea heterophylla
  58. Chusquea huantensis
  59. Chusquea ibiramae
  60. Chusquea inamoena
  61. Chusquea juergensii
  62. Chusquea laegaardii
  63. Chusquea lanceolata'
  64. Chusquea latifolia'
  65. Chusquea lehmannii
  66. Chusquea leonardiorum
  67. Chusquea leptophylla
  68. Chusquea liebmannii
  69. Chusquea ligulata
  70. Chusquea linearis
  71. Chusquea londoniae
  72. Chusquea longifolia
  73. Chusquea longiligulata
  74. Chusquea longipendula
  75. Chusquea longiprophylla
  76. Chusquea longispiculata
  77. Chusquea lorentziana
  78. Chusquea loxensis
  79. Chusquea maclurei
  80. Chusquea macrostachya
  81. Chusquea maculata
  82. Chusquea magnifolia
  83. Chusquea meyeriana
  84. Chusquea microphylla
  85. Chusquea mimosa
  86. Chusquea mollis
  87. Chusquea montana
  88. Chusquea muelleri
  89. Chusquea nana
  90. Chusquea nelsonii
  91. Chusquea neurophylla
  92. Chusquea nudiramea
  93. Chusquea nobilis
  94. Chusquea nutans
  95. Chusquea oligophylla
  96. Chusquea oxylepis
  97. Chusquea pallida
  98. Chusquea paludicola
  99. Chusquea patens
  100. Chusquea perligulata
  101. Chusquea perotensis
  102. Chusquea peruviana
  103. Chusquea petiolata
  104. Chusquea picta
  105. Chusquea pinifolia
  106. Chusquea pittieri
  107. Chusquea pohlii
  108. Chusquea polyclados
  109. Chusquea pubescens
  110. Chusquea pubispicula
  111. Chusquea pulchella
  112. Chusquea purdieana
  113. Chusquea quila
  114. Chusquea ramosissima
  115. Chusquea renvoizei
  116. Chusquea repens
  117. Chusquea rigida
  118. Chusquea riosaltensis
  119. Chusquea robusta
  120. Chusquea scabra
  121. Chusquea scandens
  122. Chusquea sclerophylla
  123. Chusquea sellowii
  124. Chusquea serpens
  125. Chusquea serrulata
  126. Chusquea silverstonei
  127. Chusquea simpliciflora
  128. Chusquea smithii
  129. Chusquea sneidernii
  130. Chusquea spadicea
  131. Chusquea spathacea
  132. Chusquea spectabilis
  133. Chusquea spencei
  134. Chusquea spicata
  135. Chusquea steyermarkii
  136. Chusquea straminea
  137. Chusquea subtessellata
  138. Chusquea subtilis
  139. Chusquea subulata
  140. Chusquea sulcata
  141. Chusquea talamancensis
  142. Chusquea tarmensis
  143. Chusquea tenella
  144. Chusquea tessellata
  145. Chusquea tomentosa
  146. Chusquea tonduzii
  147. Chusquea tovari
  148. Chusquea tuberculosa
  149. Chusquea uliginosa
  150. Chusquea uniflora
  151. Chusquea urelytra
  152. Chusquea valdiviensis
  153. Chusquea villosa
  154. Chusquea virgata
  155. Chusquea vulcanalis
  156. Chusquea wilkesii
  157. Chusquea windischii

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos search for Platonia
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Fisher, A. E., Triplett, J. K., Ho, C. S., Schiller, A. D., Oltrogge, K. A., Schroder, E. S., ... & Clark, L. G. (2009). Paraphyly in the bamboo subtribe Chusqueinae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) and a revised infrageneric classification for Chusquea. Systematic Botany, 34(4), 673-683.
  4. ^ Clark, L. G. (1989). Systematics of Chusquea Section Swallenochloa, Section Verticillatae, Section Serpentes, and Section Longifoliae (Poaceae-Bambusoideae). Systematic Botany Monographs, 1-127.
  5. ^ Fisher, A. E., Clark, L. G., & Kelchner, S. A. (2014). Molecular Phylogeny Estimation of the Bamboo Genus Chusquea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) and Description of Two New Subgenera. Systematic Botany, 39(3).
  6. ^ Clark, L. G. 2000. Chusquea. 39: 36–52. In E. J. Judziewicz, R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, T. S. Filgueiras & F. O. Zuloaga (eds.) Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): I. Subfamilies Anomochlooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, and Pharoideae, Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  7. ^ Morales, J. F. 2003. Poaceae. 93(3): 598–821. In B. E. Hammel, M. H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora Villalobos (eds.) Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.

External links[edit]