Cicada 3301 is a nickname given to an alleged enigmatic organization that posted three sets of puzzles online between 2012 and 2014 to recruit codebreakers from the public. The first Internet puzzle started on January 4, 2012, on 4chan and ran for nearly a month. A second round began one year later on January 4, 2013, and then a third round following the confirmation of a fresh clue posted on Twitter on January 4, 2014. The third puzzle has yet to be solved. The stated intent was to recruit "intelligent individuals" by presenting a series of puzzles which were to be solved. No new puzzles were published on January 4, 2015. However, a new clue was posted on Twitter on January 5, 2016. Cicada 3301 posted their last verified PGP-signed message in April 2017, denying the validity of any unsigned puzzle.
It has been called "the most elaborate and mysterious puzzle of the internet age" and is listed as one of the "top 5 eeriest, unsolved mysteries of the internet" by The Washington Post, and much speculation exists as to its function. Many have speculated that the puzzles are a recruitment tool for the NSA, CIA, MI6, a "Masonic conspiracy" or a cyber mercenary group. Others have claimed Cicada 3301 is an alternate reality game, although no company or individual has attempted to monetize it. Some of the final contestant believes that Cicada 3301 is a remnant of the 90s Cypherpunk movement. Dark Web: Cicada 3301, a film inspired by the organization, was released in 2021.
The stated purpose of the puzzles each year was to recruit "highly intelligent individuals", although the ultimate purpose remains unknown. Some claimed that Cicada 3301 is a secret society with the goal of improving cryptography, privacy and anonymity. Others claimed that Cicada 3301 is a cult or religion. According to statements of several people who won the 2012 puzzle, 3301 typically uses non-puzzle-based recruiting methods, but created the Cicada puzzles because they were looking for potential members with cryptography and computer security skills.
The first puzzle, of 2012, was solved by Marcus Wanner. According to him, those who solved the puzzles were asked questions about their support of information freedom, online privacy and freedom, and rejection of censorship. Those who answered satisfactorily at this stage were invited to a private forum, where they were instructed to devise and complete a project intended to further the ideals of the group. He did not finish his work on a method of general decryption and the website was removed.
Types of clues
The Cicada 3301 clues spanned many different forms of communication media, including the internet, telephone, original music, bootable Linux CDs, digital images, physical paper signs, and pages of unpublished cryptic books written in runes. One book, titled Liber Primus, literally "first book", contains many pages, only some of which have been decrypted. More information on which pages were solved, and how can be found on the official Cicada 3301 wiki. In addition to using many varying techniques to encrypt, encode, or hide data, these clues also referenced a wide variety of books, poetry, artwork and music. Each clue was signed by the same OpenPGP private key to confirm authenticity.
Allegations against the group
Allegations of illegal activity
Authorities from the Los Andes Province of Chile claimed that Cicada 3301 is a "hacker group" and engaged in illegal activities. Cicada 3301 responded to this claim by issuing a PGP-signed statement denying any involvement in illegal activity.
In July 2015, a group calling themselves "3301" hacked into Planned Parenthood's database; however, the group appeared to have no association to Cicada 3301. Cicada 3301 later issued a PGP-signed statement stating they "are not associated with this group in any way" and also stated that Cicada 3301 did not "condone their use of our name, number, or symbolism". The hacker group later confirmed that they were not affiliated with Cicada 3301.
Claims of being a cult
As the group gained notoriety and public attention, many asserted that the puzzles were an introduction to occult principles, and possibly even recruitment for a cult. Conspiracy theorist Tim Dailey, a former senior research fellow with the conservative Christian Family Research Council, analyzed Cicada 3301 puzzles and stated, "The enigmatic Cicada 3301 appears to be drawing participants inexorably into the dark web of the occult à la Blavatsky and Crowley. At the heart of the enchantment is the counterfeit promise of ultimate meaning through self-divination."
In popular culture
The plot of "Nautilus", the September 30, 2014 episode of the TV show Person of Interest, featured a large-scale game very similar to the Cicada 3301 puzzles. Both feature a series of worldwide cryptographic puzzles, but as the title implies, these feature the image of a nautilus shell instead of a cicada logo. Person of Interest creator Jonathan Nolan and producer Greg Plageman stated in an interview that Cicada 3301 was the inspiration for the episode: "Episode 2, I'm particularly fascinated by the subject underneath it. Look up Cicada 3301 on the internet. It's a very interesting concept out there that we then put into a larger story that connects to our show."
The organization is the subject of the comedy-thriller film Dark Web: Cicada 3301, which was announced in 2018. Directed by Alan Ritchson, who co-wrote the script with Joshua Montcalm, it stars Jack Kesy, Conor Leslie, Ron Funches, Kris Holden-Ried, Andreas Apergis, and Ritchson. The film was acquired by Lionsgate in 2020, who released the film digitally on March 12, 2021.
Cicada 3301 is mentioned in the 5th episode "Game Over" of Q Into the Storm.
The video game Assassin's Creed Origins has a member of the Isu civilisation reference Cicada when listing off various mysteries of history. The game's musical composer, Michael A. Levine has been linked to Cicada 3301.
There were two pieces of music, titled 'the Instar Emergence' and 'Interconnectedness,' accompanying the Cicada clues. However, none of them were part of a standard repertoire, and neither the composers nor performers have been identified. Certain patterns have emerged that indicate that the music itself may be a clue and that Cicada is attempting to establish a musical cryptogram in parallel with its other embedded information. TechGeek365 analyzed the structure of a number of the pieces and discovered that there are certain dyads (two notes sounding simultaneous), which, when corresponded with letters and numbers, reveal hidden messages. However, TechGeek365's analysis is not done on verified Cicada 3301 content.
Artists Rick Steff and Roy Berry of the band Lucero included a Cicada 3301-inspired song on their side-project album Superfluidity. The music video, directed by Charlie Fasano, featured artwork taken from the Liber Primus book by Cicada 3301.
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