Cichorieae

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Cichorieae
Cichorium intybus Slovakia.jpg
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Tribe: Cichorieae
(Lam. & DC. 1806)
Subtribes[1]

Chondrillinae
Cichoriinae
Crepidinae
Hieraciinae
Hyoseridinae
Hypochaeridinae
Lactucinae
Microseridinae
Scolyminae
Scorzonerinae
Warioniinae

Synonyms

Lactuceae Cassini

The Cichorieae (also called Lactuceae) are a tribe in the plant family Asteraceae that includes 93 genera and more than 1600 sexually reproductive species and more than 7000 apomictic species. They are found primarily in temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere.[2] Cichorieae all have milky latex and flowerheads that only contain one type of floret. The genera Gundelia and Warionia only have disk florets, while all other genera only have ligulate florets. The genera that contain most species are Taraxacum (Crepidinae subtribe) with about 1600 apomictic species, Hieracium with about 770 sexually reproducing and 5200 apomictic species, and Pilosella with 110 sexually reproducing and 700 apomictic species (both Hieraciinae).[3] Well known members include lettuce, chicory, dandelion, and salsify.

Description[edit]

Most species are herbaceous, perennial, short-lived or annual plants, rarely subshrubs, shrubs or vines. All Cichorieae-species have latex canals in both the roots, stems and leaves, and this occurs to be a unique character among the Asteraceae, although latex as such occurs rather widespread in this family. The leaves are in a rosette or alternately set along the stem, but this is the dominant situation in the Asteraceae. The only exception in the Cichorieae are the opposite lower leaves of Shinnersoseris. Traditionally, the Cichorieae consisted of taxa with flowerheads only containing bisexual ligulate florets (having a strap-shaped corolla with five teeth at its tip), a rare character that is further present only in the genera Catamixis, Glossarion, Hyaloseris (Mutisieae), and Fitchia (Heliantheae). However, recently the genera Gundelia and Warionia have been included in the Cichorieae, and those two genera have heads containing only disk flowers.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

In his Elemens de botanique ou methode pour connoître les plantes of 1694, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort first described this group as a taxonomic unit, calling it the "13th class of the plant kingdom". Amazingly, he only assigned taxa to it that are still regarded part of the Cichorieae today. Sébastien Vaillant gave this group the name "Cichoracées" in 1723. Since the name predates the start of the Linnean nomenclature in 1753, it is not valid, but Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Augustin Pyramus de Candolle used the name Cichorieae in the Synopsis Plantarium in Flora Gallica Descriptarum, published in 1806. The name Lactuceae that was coined by Henri Cassini in 1819, comprises the same group of taxa and is thus a synonym. Obviously, over the centuries since the group was first identified, numerous new taxa have been described that are now included in the Cichorieae, and the group has been divided in different subgroups using various morphological character states by authors such as Cassini, David Don, Christian Friedrich Lessing, A.P. De Candolle, George Bentham and Karl August Otto Hoffmann.[3]

Phylogeny[edit]

Genetic analysis has increased the insight in the phylogenetic relationships between the Cichorieae. The following trees together represent those insights.[3]

Subtribes[edit]

tribe Cichorieae






subtribe Cichoriinae



subtribe Microseridinae




subtribe Hieraciinae








subtribe Crepidinae



subtribe Chondrillinae




subtribe Hypochaeridinae




subtribe Hyoseridinae




subtribe Lactucinae





subtribe Scolyminae




subtribe Scorzonerinae




subtribe Warioniinae




Basal subtribes[edit]

tribe Cichorieae




subtribes Cichoriinae, Hieraciinae
and Microseridinae



subtribes Chondrillinae, Crepidinae,
Hyoseridinae, Hypochaeridinae and Lactucinae



subtribe Scolyminae

Gundelia tournefortii




Catananche




Scolymus



Hymenonema






subtribe Scorzonerinae




Epilasia



Tragopogon





Koelpinia



Pterachaenia stewartii







Geropogon hybridus



Podospermum





Scorzonera



Takhtajaniantha pusilla







Tourneuxia



Lasiospora





subtribe Warioniinae

Warionia saharae




Chondrillinae, Crepidinae, Hyoseridinae, Hypochaeridinae, Lactucinae[edit]



subtribe Hyoseridinae

Aposeris foetida




Hyoseris




Reichardia




Launaea



Sonchus








subtribe Crepidinae



Garhadiolus




Lagoseriopsis




Heteracia szovitsii



Heteroderis pusilla







Syncalathium




Hololeion




Nabalus



Soroseris









Acanthocephalus




Ixeris



Taraxacum







Youngia



Crepidiastrum





Askellia




Crepis




Lagoseris




Rhagadiolus



Lapsana









subtribe Chondrillinae



Chondrilla



Willemetia




Phitosia crocifolia





subtribe Hypochaeridinae

Urospermum




Prenanthes purpurea




Scorzoneroides




Hypochaeris





Helminthotheca



Picris





Hedypnois



Leontodon










subtribe Lactucinae

Notoseris




Cicerbita



Lactuca






Cichoriinae, Hieraciinae and Microseridinae[edit]


subtribe Hieraciinae

Schlagintweitia




Andryala




Hieracium




Hispidella hispanica



Pilosella







subtribe Cichoriinae


Phalacroseris bolanderi




Erythroseris



Cichorium






Rothmaleria granatensis




Arnoseris minima



Tolpis





subtribe Microseridinae




Picrosia



Pyrrhopappus






Chaetadelpha wheeleri



Lygodesmia




Shinnersoseris rostrata






Krigia




Marshalljohnstonia gypsophila



Pinaropappus










Agoseris



Nothocalais





Microseris



Uropappus







Atrichoseris platyphylla



Malacothrix





Munzothamnus blairii




Stephanomeria




Rafinesquia




Pleiacanthus spinosus



Prenanthella exigua









Glyptopleura







Alphabetic list of genera[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ICN (Hand, R., Kilian, N. & Raab-Straube, E. von; general editors) 2009- (continuously updated): International Cichorieae Network: Cichorieae Portal. Published on the Internet at http://wp6-cichorieae.e-taxonomy.eu/portal/; accessed 5 Nov 2010
  2. ^ Brouillet, Luc; Barkley, Theodore M.; Strother, John L. (2006). "Cichorieae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (from 1993). Flora of North America. 19. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 214. 
  3. ^ a b c d Kilian, Norbert; Gemeinhlzer, Birgit; Lack, hans Walter. "24. Cichorieae" (PDF). In Funk, V. A.; Susanna, A.; Stuessy, T. E.; Bayer, R.J. Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2016-11-18. 
  4. ^ Kilian, N.; Gemeinholzer, B. (2007). "Studies in the Compositae of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra – 7. Erythroseris, a new genus and the previously unknown sister group of Cichorium (Cichorieae subtribe Cichoriinae)". Willdenowia. 37: 283–296. doi:10.3372/wi.37.37117. 

External links[edit]