The Cichorieae (also called Lactuceae) are a tribe in the plant family Asteraceae that includes 93 genera and more than 1600 sexually reproductive species and more than 7000 apomictic species. They are found primarily in temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. Cichorieae all have milky latex and flowerheads that only contain one type of floret. The genera Gundelia and Warionia only have disk florets, while all other genera only have ligulate florets. The genera that contain most species are Taraxacum (Crepidinae subtribe) with about 1600 apomictic species, Hieracium with about 770 sexually reproducing and 5200 apomictic species, and Pilosella with 110 sexually reproducing and 700 apomictic species (both Hieraciinae). Well known members include lettuce, chicory, dandelion, and salsify.
Most species are herbaceous, perennial, short-lived or annual plants, rarely subshrubs, shrubs or vines. All Cichorieae-species have latex canals in both the roots, stems and leaves, and this occurs to be a unique character among the Asteraceae, although latex as such occurs rather widespread in this family. The leaves are in a rosette or alternately set along the stem, but this is the dominant situation in the Asteraceae. The only exception in the Cichorieae are the opposite lower leaves of Shinnersoseris. Traditionally, the Cichorieae consisted of taxa with flowerheads only containing bisexual ligulate florets (having a strap-shaped corolla with five teeth at its tip), a rare character that is further present only in the genera Catamixis, Glossarion, Hyaloseris (Mutisieae), and Fitchia (Heliantheae). However, recently the genera Gundelia and Warionia have been included in the Cichorieae, and those two genera have heads containing only disk flowers.
^ICN (Hand, R., Kilian, N. & Raab-Straube, E. von; general editors) 2009- (continuously updated): International Cichorieae Network: Cichorieae Portal. Published on the Internet at http://wp6-cichorieae.e-taxonomy.eu/portal/; accessed 5 Nov 2010
^Brouillet, Luc; Barkley, Theodore M.; Strother, John L. (2006). "Cichorieae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (from 1993) (ed.). Flora of North America. 19. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 214.
^ abcdKilian, Norbert; Gemeinhlzer, Birgit; Lack, hans Walter. "24. Cichorieae"(PDF). In Funk, V. A.; Susanna, A.; Stuessy, T. E.; Bayer, R.J. (eds.). Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2016-11-18.