Cichorieae

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Cichorieae
Cichorium intybus Slovakia.jpg
Cichorium intybus (chicory)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Tribe: Cichorieae
(Lam. & DC. 1806)
Subtribes[1]

Chondrillinae
Cichoriinae
Crepidinae
Hieraciinae
Hyoseridinae
Hypochaeridinae
Lactucinae
Microseridinae
Scolyminae
Scorzonerinae
Warioniinae

Synonyms

Lactuceae Cassini

The Cichorieae (also called Lactuceae) are a tribe in the plant family Asteraceae that includes 93 genera and more than 1600 sexually reproductive species and more than 7000 apomictic species. They are found primarily in temperate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere.[2] Cichorieae all have milky latex and flowerheads that only contain one type of floret. The genera Gundelia and Warionia only have disk florets, while all other genera only have ligulate florets. The genera that contain most species are Taraxacum (Crepidinae subtribe) with about 1600 apomictic species, Hieracium with about 770 sexually reproducing and 5200 apomictic species, and Pilosella with 110 sexually reproducing and 700 apomictic species (both Hieraciinae).[3] Well known members include lettuce, chicory, dandelion, and salsify.

Description[edit]

Most species are herbaceous, perennial, short-lived or annual plants, rarely subshrubs, shrubs or vines. All Cichorieae-species have latex canals in both the roots, stems and leaves, and this occurs to be a unique character among the Asteraceae, although latex as such occurs rather widespread in this family. The leaves are in a rosette or alternately set along the stem, but this is the dominant situation in the Asteraceae. The only exception in the Cichorieae are the opposite lower leaves of Shinnersoseris. Traditionally, the Cichorieae consisted of taxa with flowerheads only containing bisexual ligulate florets (having a strap-shaped corolla with five teeth at its tip), a rare character that is further present only in the genera Catamixis, Glossarion, Hyaloseris (Mutisieae), and Fitchia (Heliantheae). However, recently the genera Gundelia and Warionia have been included in the Cichorieae, and those two genera have heads containing only disk flowers.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

In his Elemens de botanique ou methode pour connoître les plantes of 1694, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort first described this group as a taxonomic unit, calling it the "13th class of the plant kingdom". He only assigned taxa to it that are still regarded part of the Cichorieae today. Sébastien Vaillant gave this group the name "Cichoracées" in 1723. Since the name predates the start of the Linnean nomenclature in 1753, it is not valid, but Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Augustin Pyramus de Candolle used the name Cichorieae in the Synopsis Plantarium in Flora Gallica Descriptarum, published in 1806. The name Lactuceae that was coined by Henri Cassini in 1819, comprises the same group of taxa and is thus a synonym. Obviously, over the centuries since the group was first identified, numerous new taxa have been described that are now included in the Cichorieae, and the group has been divided in different subgroups using various morphological character states by authors such as Cassini, David Don, Christian Friedrich Lessing, A.P. De Candolle, George Bentham and Karl August Otto Hoffmann.[3]

Phylogeny[edit]

Genetic analysis has increased the insight in the phylogenetic relationships between the Cichorieae. The following trees together represent those insights.[3]

Subtribes[edit]

tribe Cichorieae

subtribe Cichoriinae

subtribe Microseridinae

subtribe Hieraciinae

subtribe Crepidinae

subtribe Chondrillinae

subtribe Hypochaeridinae

subtribe Hyoseridinae

subtribe Lactucinae

subtribe Scolyminae

subtribe Scorzonerinae

subtribe Warioniinae

Basal subtribes[edit]

tribe Cichorieae

subtribes Cichoriinae, Hieraciinae
and Microseridinae

subtribes Chondrillinae, Crepidinae,
Hyoseridinae, Hypochaeridinae and Lactucinae

subtribe Scolyminae

Gundelia tournefortii

Catananche

Scolymus

Hymenonema

subtribe Scorzonerinae

Epilasia

Tragopogon

Koelpinia

Pterachaenia stewartii

Geropogon hybridus

Podospermum

Scorzonera

Takhtajaniantha pusilla

Tourneuxia

Lasiospora

subtribe Warioniinae

Warionia saharae

Chondrillinae, Crepidinae, Hyoseridinae, Hypochaeridinae, Lactucinae[edit]

subtribe Hyoseridinae

Aposeris foetida

Hyoseris

Reichardia

Launaea

Sonchus

subtribe Crepidinae

Garhadiolus

Lagoseriopsis

Heteracia szovitsii

Heteroderis pusilla

Syncalathium

Hololeion

Nabalus

Soroseris

Acanthocephalus

Ixeris

Taraxacum

Youngia

Crepidiastrum

Askellia

Crepis

Lagoseris

Rhagadiolus

Lapsana

subtribe Chondrillinae

Chondrilla

Willemetia

Phitosia crocifolia

subtribe Hypochaeridinae

Urospermum

Prenanthes purpurea

Scorzoneroides

Hypochaeris

Helminthotheca

Picris

Hedypnois

Leontodon

subtribe Lactucinae

Notoseris

Cicerbita

Lactuca

Cichoriinae, Hieraciinae and Microseridinae[edit]

subtribe Hieraciinae

Schlagintweitia

Andryala

Hieracium

Hispidella hispanica

Pilosella

subtribe Cichoriinae

Phalacroseris bolanderi

Erythroseris

Cichorium

Rothmaleria granatensis

Arnoseris minima

Tolpis

subtribe Microseridinae

Picrosia

Pyrrhopappus

Chaetadelpha wheeleri

Lygodesmia

Shinnersoseris rostrata

Krigia

Marshalljohnstonia gypsophila

Pinaropappus

Agoseris

Nothocalais

Microseris

Uropappus

Atrichoseris platyphylla

Malacothrix

Munzothamnus blairii

Stephanomeria

Rafinesquia

Pleiacanthus spinosus

Prenanthella exigua

Glyptopleura

Alphabetic list of genera[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ICN (Hand, R., Kilian, N. & Raab-Straube, E. von; general editors) 2009- (continuously updated): International Cichorieae Network: Cichorieae Portal. Published on the Internet at http://wp6-cichorieae.e-taxonomy.eu/portal/; accessed 5 Nov 2010
  2. ^ Brouillet, Luc; Barkley, Theodore M.; Strother, John L. (2006). "Cichorieae". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (from 1993) (ed.). Flora of North America. 19. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 214.
  3. ^ a b c d Kilian, Norbert; Gemeinhlzer, Birgit; Lack, hans Walter. "24. Cichorieae" (PDF). In Funk, V. A.; Susanna, A.; Stuessy, T. E.; Bayer, R.J. (eds.). Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  4. ^ Kilian, N.; Gemeinholzer, B. (2007). "Studies in the Compositae of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra – 7. Erythroseris, a new genus and the previously unknown sister group of Cichorium (Cichorieae subtribe Cichoriinae)". Willdenowia. 37: 283–296. doi:10.3372/wi.37.37117.

External links[edit]