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IUPAC name
2-[(2S,5R,8S,11S)-5-benzyl-11-{3-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]propyl}-7-methyl-3,6,9,12,15-pentaoxo-8-(propan-2-yl)-1,4,7,10,13-pentaazacyclopentadecan-2-yl]acetic acid
3D model (JSmol)
MeSH Cilengitide
  • InChI=1S/C27H40N8O7/c1-15(2)22-25(41)33-17(10-7-11-30-27(28)29)23(39)31-14-20(36)32-18(13-21(37)38)24(40)34-19(26(42)35(22)3)12-16-8-5-4-6-9-16/h4-6,8-9,15,17-19,22H,7,10-14H2,1-3H3,(H,31,39)(H,32,36)(H,33,41)(H,34,40)(H,37,38)(H4,28,29,30)/t17-,18-,19+,22-/m0/s1 checkY
  • InChI=1/C27H40N8O7/c1-15(2)22-25(41)33-17(10-7-11-30-27(28)29)23(39)31-14-20(36)32-18(13-21(37)38)24(40)34-19(26(42)35(22)3)12-16-8-5-4-6-9-16/h4-6,8-9,15,17-19,22H,7,10-14H2,1-3H3,(H,31,39)(H,32,36)(H,33,41)(H,34,40)(H,37,38)(H4,28,29,30)/t17-,18-,19+,22-/m0/s1
  • O=C1N[C@H](C(=O)NCC(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)N[C@@H](C(=O)N(C)[C@H]1C(C)C)Cc2ccccc2)CC(=O)O)CCC/N=C(\N)N
Molar mass 588.656 g/mol
Density 1.417 g/mL
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Cilengitide (EMD 121974) is a molecule designed and synthesized at the Technical University Munich in collaboration with Merck KGaA in Darmstadt. It is based on the cyclic peptide cyclo(-RGDfV-), which is selective for αv integrins, which are important in angiogenesis (forming new blood vessels), and other aspects of tumor biology. Hence, it is under investigation for the treatment of glioblastoma, where it may act by inhibiting angiogenesis, and influencing tumor invasion and proliferation.[1][2]

The European Medicines Agency has granted cilengitide orphan drug status.[3]

Cilengitide seems to function by inhibiting the FAK/Src/AKT pathway and inducing apoptosis in endothelial cells.[4] Preclinical studies in mice of cilengitide were able to demonstrate efficacious tumor regression.[4]

In a rat xenograft model, cilengitide was able to potentiate the cytotoxic effects of radiation when cilengitide was administered prior to radiation therapy.[5] When combined with radiation, inhibition of integrin expression by cilengitide synergistically improves the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation for glioblastoma.[5]

Clinical trials


Phase II studies were able to demonstrate that cilengitide as a potential monotherapy in patients with recurrent glioblastoma[6] with high intratumor drug levels when 2000 mg of cilengitide is given twice weekly.[7]

Cilengitide is well tolerated, in combination with radiation and temozolomide, at a dose of 2000 mg in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, regardless of MGMT promoter status.[8] In a phase I/IIa study, the addition of cilengitide to the standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (surgical resection followed by temozolomide and radiation therapy) improves progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with MGMT promoter methylation.[9]

However, in a subsequent study, cilengitide does not seem to alter the pattern of glioblastoma progression,[10] and in an EORTC phase III randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial, consisting of over 500 patients in 23 countries, the addition of cilengitide to the standard of care did not improve overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and methylated MGMT promoter status [11] In 2014, a phase II study, the CORE trial, was conducted in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and unmethylated MGMT promoter status.[12][needs update]


  1. ^ Burke PA, DeNardo SJ, Miers LA, Lamborn KR, Matzku S, DeNardo GL (August 2002). "Cilengitide targeting of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin receptor synergizes with radioimmunotherapy to increase efficacy and apoptosis in breast cancer xenografts". Cancer Research. 62 (15): 4263–72. PMID 12154028.
  2. ^ Goodman SL, Hölzemann G, Sulyok GA, Kessler H (February 2002). "Nanomolar small molecule inhibitors for alphav(beta)6, alphav(beta)5, and alphav(beta)3 integrins". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (5): 1045–51. doi:10.1021/jm0102598. PMID 11855984.
  3. ^ Spreitzer H (October 27, 2008). "Neue Wirkstoffe - Cilengitide". Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (22/2008): 1136–7.
  4. ^ a b Yamada S, Bu XY, Khankaldyyan V, Gonzales-Gomez I, McComb JG, Laug WE (December 2006). "Effect of the angiogenesis inhibitor Cilengitide (EMD 121974) on glioblastoma growth in nude mice". Neurosurgery. 59 (6): 1304–12, discussion 1312. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000245622.70344.BE. PMID 17277694. S2CID 19861713.
  5. ^ a b Mikkelsen T, Brodie C, Finniss S, Berens ME, Rennert JL, Nelson K, Lemke N, Brown SL, Hahn D, Neuteboom B, Goodman SL (June 2009). "Radiation sensitization of glioblastoma by cilengitide has unanticipated schedule-dependency". International Journal of Cancer. 124 (11): 2719–27. doi:10.1002/ijc.24240. PMID 19199360. S2CID 12073569.
  6. ^ Reardon DA, Fink KL, Mikkelsen T, Cloughesy TF, O'Neill A, Plotkin S, et al. (December 2008). "Randomized phase II study of cilengitide, an integrin-targeting arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide, in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 26 (34): 5610–7. CiteSeerX doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.16.7510. PMID 18981465.
  7. ^ Gilbert MR, Kuhn J, Lamborn KR, Lieberman F, Wen PY, Mehta M, Cloughesy T, Lassman AB, Deangelis LM, Chang S, Prados M (January 2012). "Cilengitide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: the results of NABTC 03-02, a phase II trial with measures of treatment delivery". Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 106 (1): 147–53. doi:10.1007/s11060-011-0650-1. PMC 4351869. PMID 21739168.
  8. ^ Nabors LB, Mikkelsen T, Hegi ME, Ye X, Batchelor T, Lesser G, Peereboom D, Rosenfeld MR, Olsen J, Brem S, Fisher JD, Grossman SA (November 2012). "A safety run-in and randomized phase 2 study of cilengitide combined with chemoradiation for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (NABTT 0306)". Cancer. 118 (22): 5601–7. doi:10.1002/cncr.27585. PMC 3423527. PMID 22517399.
  9. ^ Stupp R, Hegi ME, Neyns B, Goldbrunner R, Schlegel U, Clement PM, et al. (June 2010). "Phase I/IIa study of cilengitide and temozolomide with concomitant radiotherapy followed by cilengitide and temozolomide maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma" (PDF). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 28 (16): 2712–8. doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.26.6650. PMID 20439646.
  10. ^ Eisele G, Wick A, Eisele AC, Clément PM, Tonn J, Tabatabai G, et al. (March 2014). "Cilengitide treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients does not alter patterns of progression" (PDF). Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 117 (1): 141–5. doi:10.1007/s11060-014-1365-x. PMID 24442484. S2CID 21636884.
  11. ^ Merck Group. "Phase III Trial of Cilengitide Did Not Meet Primary Endpoint in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma, Date accessed: 3/24/2014."
  12. ^ ASCO Meeting Library. [1] "Cilengitide combined with standard treatment for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and methylated O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter: Key results of the multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled, phase III CENTRIC study, Date accessed: 3/24/2014."