Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus
|Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus|
|Consul of the Roman Republic|
|Preceded by||Publius Valerius Publicola and Gaius Claudius Inregillensis Sabinus|
|Succeeded by||Quintus Fabius Vibulanus and Lucius Cornelius Maluginensis Uritinus|
|Died||430 BC (aged c. 89)
|Religion||Ancient Roman religion|
|Battles/wars||Battle of Mons Algidus|
Cincinnatus was regarded by the Romans, especially the aristocratic patrician class, as one of the heroes of early Rome and as a model of Roman virtue and simplicity. He was a persistent opponent of the plebeians. When his son, Caeso Quinctius, was convicted and condemned to death, Cincinnatus was forced to live in humble circumstances, working on his own small farm, until an invasion caused him to be called to serve Rome as dictator, an office which he resigned two weeks later, after completing his task of defeating the rival tribes of the Aequians, Sabines, and Volscians.
His immediate resignation of his near-absolute authority with the end of the crisis has often been cited as an example of outstanding leadership, service to the greater good, civic virtue, lack of personal ambition, and modesty. As a result, he has inspired a number of organizations and other entities, many of which are named in his honor.
Politically, Cincinnatus was a persistent opponent of attempts to improve the legal situation of the plebeians. His son Caeso Quinctius often drove the tribunes of the plebeians out from the forum, the heart of Roman political life, preventing them from reaching a formal decision. In 461 BC, these actions finally resulted in a capital charge against Caeso. After Caeso was released on bail and escaped to the Etruscans, he was condemned to death in absentia and his father had to pay an immense fine, forcing him to sell most of his lands and retire to a small farm, where he and his family were able to subsist on the work of his hands.
The following year, Cincinnatus was elected suffect consul. During his consulship, his main adversary was the Plebeian Tribune Gaius Terentilius Harsa. During this time period, the Roman senate was preoccupied with a war against the Volsci, a neighbouring Italic people. Cincinnatus was initially able to prevent the enactment of reforms proposed by Terentilius, who attempted to use the upheaval associated with the war effort to push them through. This was a series of reforms which were specifically to benefit the proletarii and peasantry, including a proposal to draw up a code of written laws applicable equally to patricians and plebeians — an early push for what would eventually become the Ten or Twelve Tables.
In 458 BC, the Romans were fighting the Aequi and the Sabines. The consul Minucius Esquilinus had led an army against them, but had been trapped by the Aequians in the Alban Hills and was attempting to fight off a siege. A few Roman horsemen escaped and returned to Rome to tell the senate what had happened. The senate fell into a panic and authorized the other consul for the year, Horatius Pulvillus, to nominate a dictator. Horatius nominated Cincinnatus for a dictatorial term (also known as Magister Populi or "Master of the People") for six months.
A group of senators were sent to tell Cincinnatus that he had been nominated dictator. According to Livy, the senators found Cincinnatus while he was plowing on his farm. Cincinnatus cried out "Is everything all right?" They said to Cincinnatus that they hoped "it might turn out well for both him and his country," and then they asked him to put on his senatorial toga and hear the mandate of the senate. He called to his wife, Racilia, telling her to bring out his toga from their cottage.
When he put on his toga, the senatorial delegation hailed him as dictator, and told him to come to the city. He then crossed the Tiber river in a boat provided by the senate, as his farm was on the far side of the river. When he reached the other side of the Tiber, he was greeted by his three sons and most of the senators. Several lictors were given to him for protection.
The next morning, Cincinnatus went to the Roman forum and nominated as his Master of the Horse (his second in command) Lucius Tarquitius, who was considered one of the finest soldiers in Rome. Cincinnatus then went to the Roman popular assembly and issued an order to the effect that every man of military age should report to the Campus Martius—the Field of Mars, god of war—by the end of the day.
Once the army assembled, Cincinnatus took them to fight the Aequi at the Battle of Mons Algidus. Cincinnatus led the infantry in person, while Tarquitius led the cavalry. The Aequi were surprised by the double attack and were soon cut to pieces. The commanders of the Aequi begged Cincinnatus not to slaughter them all.
Cincinnatus did not want to cause any unnecessary bloodshed, and told the Aequi that he would let them live if they killed three major people for him and brought their leader, Gracchus Cloelius, and his officers to him in chains. A yoke was set up, made up of three spears, and the Aequi had to pass under it in an act of submission, bowing down while confessing that they had been conquered. After this, the war ended and Cincinnatus disbanded his army. He then resigned his dictatorship and returned to his farm, a mere fifteen days after he had been nominated dictator.
He came out of retirement again for a second term as dictator (439 BC) to put down a conspiracy of Spurius Maelius, who supposedly was planning to become king. He was nominated by his old friend and relative, Titus Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, one of the two consuls that year. Maelius was killed immediately when the Master of the Horse was sent to bring him to trial and the incipient coup perished with him. With the crisis resolved, Cincinnatus again resigned his commission.
Within his lifetime Cincinnatus became a legend to the Romans. Twice granted supreme power, he held onto it for not a day longer than absolutely necessary. The high esteem in which he was held by his compatriots is illustrated with an anecdote from the end of his life: one of his sons was tried for military incompetence. The great Capitolinus defended him by asking the jury who would go to tell the aged Cincinnatus the news in the event of a conviction. The son was acquitted because the jury could not bring itself to break the old man's heart.
George Washington was often compared to Cincinnatus for his willingness to give up his position as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and decline offers of near-monarchical power after the crisis of the American Revolution had passed and victory had been won, instead retiring to his farm at Mount Vernon. The Society of the Cincinnati is a historical association founded in the aftermath of the American Revolutionary War, by officers of the Continental Army, to preserve the ideals of the military officer's role in the new American Republic. Washington was its first president. The city of Cincinnati, Ohio was named in honor of this society.
The fictional character of general Maximus Decimus Meridius (played by Russell Crowe in the movie Gladiator) was partially based on Cincinnatus as well as being based on Marcus Aurelius's general Marcus Nonius Macrinus, Spartacus, and Maximus of Hispania.
- Quinctia (gens)
- List of Roman dictators
- Marcus Atilius Regulus
- Cato the Elder
- Publius Decius Mus
- N.S. Gill. "Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus". About.com. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- "The Early Roman Republic". Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- Livy translated by William Gordon in 1813 (26 BC), Ab urbe condita,
Under his conduct, the tribunes had frequently been driven out of the forumCheck date values in:
- Livy, Book 3, sect 14, Project Gutenberg.
- Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 3.26
- Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 3.27
- Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 3.28-9
- Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, 3.29
- E.g., Ode to Napoleon Buonoparte by George Gordon, Lord Byron (1814)
- "…it was determined that a dictator should be appointed to retrieve their shattered fortunes, Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was appointed by universal consent.
- It is worthwhile for those persons who despise all things human in comparison with riches, and who suppose that there is no room either for exalted honour, or for virtue, except where riches abound in great profusion, to listen to the following…"
- Project Gutenberg version of Ab Urbe Condita
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities, x. 23–25
- Florus, Epitome de T. Livio Beliorism omnium annorum DCC Libri duo, i. 11
- W. Ihne, History of Rome, i.
- Dante, Paradiso, canto 15, line 127
- E. Pais, Storia di Roma, i. ch. 4 (1898)
- Schwegler, Römische Geschichte, bk. xxviii. 12
- Sir George Cornewall Lewis, Credibility of early Roman History, ch. xii. 40
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.) article Cincinnatus.|
- Media related to Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus at Wikimedia Commons
- "Cincinnatus, Lucius Quintius". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.
- "Cincinnatus, Lucius Quintius". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
- "Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
Publius Valerius Publicola,
and Gaius Claudius Sabinus Regillensis
|Consul (Suffect) of the Roman Republic
with Gaius Claudius Sabinus Regillensis
Quintus Fabius Vibulanus
and Lucius Cornelius Maluginensis Uritinus