Cinema of Afghanistan
- This article addresses both Persian and Pashto cinema in Afghanistan. For Pashto-language cinema in Pakistan, see: Pashto cinema.
Cinema entered Afghanistan at the beginning of 20th century. The political changes of Afghanistan have not allowed the cinema of the country to grow over the years. However, numerous Pashto and Dari films have been made both inside and outside Afghanistan throughout the 20th century. The cinema of Afghanistan entered a new phase in 2001.
Emir Habibullah Khan (reigned 1901–1919) introduced film to Afghanistan, but in the royal court only. In 1923-24, the first projector - "magic box" or "mageek lantan" (magic lantern) - showed the first silent film in Paghman to the public. The first Afghan film, "Love and Friendship", was produced in 1946.
When the fledgling Afghan Film was opened in 1968 it produced documentaries and news films highlighting the official meetings and conferences of the government. All these films were shown in cinemas before feature films, which were usually from India. The first feature film made in Kabul by Afghan Film using Afghan artists was ‘Like Eagles’ starring Zahir Waida and a young girl named Najia. Soon after this Afghan Film made a three-part film with the collective title ‘Ages’, which comprised ‘Smugglers’, ‘Suitors’ and ‘Friday Night’. Two other films from the same era are ‘Village Tunes’ and ‘Difficult Days’. All of these films were shot in black and white. Film artists of this era included Khan Aqa Soroor, Rafeeq Saadiq, Azizullah Hadaf, Mashal Honaryar and Parvin Sanatgar.
The first color films produced by Afghan Film in the late 1960s were ‘Run Away’ (Faraar), ‘Love Epic’ (Hamaasa e Ishg), ‘Saboor Soldier’(Saboor Sarbaaz), ‘Ash’ (Khakestar), ‘Last Wishes’ (Akharin Arezo) and ‘Migrating Birds’ (Paranda Mohajer). These films, although not as technically proficient as those from abroad, struck a chord with Afghans because they mirrored their life. However, cinema was still seen only in the larger centres.
During the late 1960s and 1970s Soviet aid included cultural training and scholarships were offered to students interested in studying film. However, since Afghanistan had no film academy, future filmmakers had to apprentice on the job. The civil wars of the 1990s were not conducive to creative work and many people working in the Afghan film industry escaped to Iran or Pakistan, where they were able to make videos for NGOs.
When the Taliban took power on 1996 in Kabul, cinemas were attacked and many films were burnt. The Taliban forbade the viewing of television and films and cinemas were closed, either becoming tea shops or restaurants or falling into a state of disrepair.
Afghan Film Organization
Since 2000, the cinema of Afghanistan has slowly started to re-emerge from a lengthy period of silence. Before the September 11th attacks, Afghanistan-based Iranian director Mohsen Makhmalbaf attracted world attention to Afghanistan with his celebrated movie, Kandahar. It was an attempt to tell the world about a forgotten country. The film brought the cinema of Afghanistan to the Cannes film festival for the first time in history. Later Samira Makhmalbaf, Siddiq Barmak, Razi Mohebi, Horace Shansab, Yassamin Maleknasr and Abolfazl Jalili made a significant contribution to Dari (Persian) cinema in Afghanistan.
Barmak's first Persian/Pashtu film Osama (2003) won several awards at film festivals in Cannes and London. Siddiq Barmak is also director of the Afghan Children Education Movement (ACEM), an association that promotes literacy, culture and the arts, founded by Iranian film director Mohsen Makhmalbaf. The school trains actors and directors for the emerging cinema of Afghanistan. In 2006 Afghanistan joined the Central Asian and Southern Caucasus Film Festivals Confederation.
In the 1970s and 1980s, it was not difficult to get women to act in films. The war and the Taliban rule changed the situation. Today women are increasingly represented in the cinema of Afghanistan. Talented actors like Leena Alam, Amina Jafari, Saba Sahar and Marina Gulbahari have emerged over the last decade.
Apart from cinema in Persian, Pashto cinema is also flourishing in Afghanistan. Several Pashto language films have been made since the fall of the Taliban. Several Pashto films have been made by foreigners like "Good Morning Afghanistan" (2003) by Camilla Nielsson.
There are a number of films produced both inside and outside Afghanistan that are considered B-movies due to the low production quality and audience reach. These films are targeted mainly at Afghan audience and rarely make it to the non-Afghan audiences or the international film festivals.
Since many filmmakers escaped the country due to the wars, they began to make films outside Afghanistan. Some notable films made outside Afghanistan include Shirin Gul-o-Shir Agha trilogy made in Russia, Foreign Land, Sheraghai Daghalbaaz, In The Wrong Hands, Shade of Fire, (Asheyana) London (khana Badosh) London (Do Atash) Holland (Waris) Holland 3 Friends, Al Qarem in United States, Shekast in Pakistan, Aftaab e Bighroob in Tajikistan Kidnapping in Germany and in Italy Gridami by Razi Mohebi.
- Ali Orokzai
- Aryan Khan
- Haji Kamran
- Mamnoon Maqsoodi
- Marina Golbahari - Osama
- Leena Alam - In Foreign Land, Loori
These films have had either theatrical distribution or won awards at prestigious film festivals. They also appear on IMBD's Most popular list.
- Osama  Winner of Golden Globes
- Kandahar - 20+ Film festivals
- The Patience Stone (2012) 
- Wajma, an Afghan Love Story - Distributed by Netflix
- Buzkashi Boys (2012)- Oscar nominee
- Mina Walking (2015)
- The Black Tulip (2010)
- A Few Cubic Meters of Love (2014)
- Opium War (2008)
- Earth and Ashes (2004)
- Kabuli Kid (2008)
- Madrasa (2013)
- Zolykha's Secret (2006)
Zolykha's Secret (2007), (Rahze Zolykha in Persian) is also among the first feature films from post-Taliban Afghanistan. Lyrical and tragic, the film has played to full houses at major film festivals. The film's director, Horace Ahmad Shansab, trained young Afghan filmmakers and made the film entirely on location in Afghanistan.
Emaan (2010), After much await and public demand, EMAAN film was finally screened at Reading Cinemas in Australia. This is the first time an Afghan Film to be screened at a Cinema. Emaan - the winner of 2011 South Asian Film Festival (Canberra Australia) for Best Story and Best Film.
There is also a monthly magazine, Theme, that is published by Afghan Cinema Club that focuses on Afghan and international cinema.
- 3continents - Programme 2004
- Oscar Nominations
- Afghan cinema
- Afghan Cinema - Network for Afghan filmmakers
- IMDB: Afghanistan
- Movie Movie - A chronological history of Afghan cinema from 1946 to the present day.