Cinema of Africa
African cinema is film production in Africa. It dates back to the early 20th century, when film reels were the primary cinematic technology in use. During the colonial era, African life was shown only by the work of white, colonial, Western filmmakers, who depicted blacks in a negative fashion, as exotic "others". There is no one single African cinema; there are differences between North African and Sub-Saharan cinema, and between the cinemas of different countries.
The cinema of Egypt is one of the oldest in the world. Auguste and Louis Lumière screened their films in Alexandria and Cairo in 1896 and the first short documentary was filmed by Egyptians in 1907. In 1935 the MISR film studio in Cairo began producing mostly formulaic comedies and musicals, but also films like Kamal Selim's The Will (1939). Egyptian cinema flourished in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, considered its golden age. Youssef Chahine's seminal Cairo Station (1958) foreshadowed Hitchcock's Psycho, and laid a foundation for Arab film.
The Nigerian film industry is the largest in Africa in terms of value[clarification needed], number of annual films, revenue and popularity. It is also the second largest film producer in the world. In 2016 Nigeria's film industry contributed 2.3% of its gross domestic product (GDP).
During the colonial era, Africa was represented exclusively by Western filmmakers. In the first decades of the twentieth century, Western filmmakers made films that depicted black Africans as "exoticized", "submissive workers" or as "savage or cannibalistic". For example, see Kings of the Cannibal Islands in 1909, Voodoo Vengeance (1913) and Congorilla (1932). Colonial era films portrayed Africa as exotic, without history or culture. Examples abound and include jungle epics based on the Tarzan character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs and the adventure film The African Queen (1951), and various adaptations of H. Rider Haggard's novel King Solomon's Mines (1885). Much early ethnography "focused on highlighting the differences between indigenous people and the white civilised man, thus reinforcing colonial propaganda". Marc Allégret's first film,Voyage au Congo (1927) respectfully portrayed the Masa people, in particular a young African entertaining his little brother with a baby crocodile on a string. Yet the Africans were portrayed as human but not equals; a dialogue card for example referred to the movements of a traditional dance as naive. His lover, writer André Gide, accompanied Allégret and wrote a book also titled Voyage au Congo. Allégret later made Zouzou, starring Josephine Baker, the first major film starring a black woman. Baker had caused a sensation in the Paris arts scene by dancing in the Revue Nègre clad only in a string of bananas.
In the French colonies Africans were prohibited by the 1943 Laval Decree from making films of their own. The ban stunted the growth of film as a means of African expression, political, cultural, and artistic. Congolese Albert Mongita did make The Cinema Lesson in 1951 and in 1953 Mamadou Touré made Mouramani based on a folk story about a man and his dog. In 1955, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra – originally from Benin, but educated in Senegal – along with his colleagues from Le Group Africain du Cinema, shot a short film in Paris, Afrique-sur-Seine (1955). Vieyra was trained in filmmaking at the Institut des hautes études cinématographiques (IDHEC) in Paris, and despite the ban on filmmaking in Africa, was granted permission to make a film in France. Considered the first film directed by a black African, Afrique Sur Seine explores the difficulties of being an African in 1950s France.
Portuguese colonies came to independence with no film production facilities at all, since the colonial government there restricted film-making to colonialist propaganda, emphasizing the inferiority of indigenous populations. Therefore little thought was given until independence to developing authentic African voices.
In the mid-1930s, the Bantu Educational Kinema Experiment was conducted in an attempt to "educate the Bantu, mosstly about hygiene. Only three films from the this project survive; they are kept at the British Film Institute.
Before the colonies' independence, few anti-colonial films were produced. Examples included Statues Also Die (Les statues meurent aussi) by Chris Marker and Alain Resnais, about European theft of African art. The second part of this film was for 10 years banned in France.) Afrique 50 by René Vautier, showed anti-colonial riots in Côte d'Ivoire and in Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso).
Also doing film work in Africa at this time was French ethnographic filmmaker Jean Rouch, controversial with both French and African audiences. Film documentaries such as Jaguar (1955), Les maitres fous (1955), Moi, un noir (1958) and La pyramide humaine (1959). Rouch's documentaries were not explicitly anti-colonial, but did challenge perceptions of colonial Africa and give a new voice to Africans. Although Rouch was accused by Ousmane Sembene and others of seeing Africans "as if they are insects," Rouch was an important figure in the developing field of African film and was the first person to work with Africans, of whom many had important careers in African cinema (Oumarou Ganda, Safi Faye and Moustapha Alassane, and others).
Because most films made prior to independence were egregiously racist in nature, African filmmakers of the independence era – such as Ousmane Sembene and Oumarou Ganda, among others – saw filmmaking as an important political tool for rectifying the erroneous image of Africans put forward by Western filmmakers and for reclaiming the image of Africa for Africans.
Post-independence and 1970s
The first African film to win international recognition was Sembène Ousmane's La Noire de... also known as Black Girl. It showed the despair of an African woman who has to work as a maid in France. It won the Prix Jean Vigo in 1966. Initially a writer, Sembène had turned to cinema to reach a wider audience. He is still considered the "father of African cinema". Sembène's native Senegal continued to be the most important place of African film production for more than a decade.
With the creation of the African film festival FESPACO in Burkina Faso in 1969, African film created its own forum. FESPACO now takes place every two years in alternation with the Carthago film festival in Tunisia.
The Pan African Federation of Filmmakers (Fédération Panafricaine des Cinéastes, or FEPACI) was formed in 1969 to promote African film industries in terms of production, distribution and exhibition. From its inception, FEPACI was seen as a critical partner organization to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), now the African Union. FEPACI looks at the role of film in the politico-economic and cultural development of African states and the continent as a whole.
Med Hondo's Soleil O, shot in 1969, was immediately recognized. No less politically engaged than Sembène, he chose a more controversial filmic language to show what it means to be a stranger in France with the "wrong" skin colour.
1980s and 1990s
Souleymane Cissé's Yeelen (Mali, 1987) was the first film made by a Black African to compete at Cannes. Cheick Oumar Sissoko's Guimba (Mali, 1995) was also well received in the west. Some critics criticized the filmmakers for adapting to the exotic tastes of western audiences.
Many films of the 1990s, including Quartier Mozart by Jean-Pierre Bekolo (Cameroon, 1992), are situated in the globalized African metropolis.
Nigerian cinema experienced a large growth in the 1990s with the increasing availability of home video cameras in Nigeria, and soon put Nollywood in the nexus for West African English-language films. Nollywood produced 1844 movies in 2013 alone.
The last movie theatre in Kinshasa shut down in 2004. Many of the former cinemas were converted to churches. In 2009 the UN refugee agency screened Breaking the Silence in South Kivu and Katanga Province. The film deals with rape in the Congolese civil wars.
The African Movie Academy Awards were launched in 2004, marking the growth of local film industries like that of Nigeria as well as the development and spread of the film industry culture in sub-Saharan Africa.
2000s and 2010s
Contemporary African cinema deals with a wide variety of themes relating to modern issues and universal problems.
Migration and relations between African and European countries is a common theme among many African films. Abderrahmane Sissako's film Waiting for Happiness portrays a Mauritanian city struggling against foreign influences through the journey of a migrant coming home from Europe.  Migration is also an important theme in Mahamat Saleh Haroun's film Une Saison en France, which shows the journey of a family from the Central African Republic seeking asylum in France.  Haroun is part of the Chadian diaspora in France, and uses the film to explore aspects of this diasporan experience.
Afrofuturism is a growing genre, encompassing Africans both on the continent and in the diaspora who tell science or speculative fiction stories involving Africa and African people. Neill Blomkamp's District 9 is a well-known example, portraying an alien invasion of South Africa.  Wanuri Kahiu's short film Pumzi portrays the futuristic fictional Maitu community in Africa 35 years after World War III. 
Directors including Haroun and Kahiu have expressed concerns about the lack of cinema infrastructure and appreciation in various African countries. However, organizations such as the Changamoto arts fund are providing more resources and opportunities to African filmmakers.
African cinema, like cinema in other world regions, covers a wide variety of topics. In Algiers in 1975, the Pan African Federation of Filmmakers (FEPACI) adopted the Charte du cinéaste africain (Charter of the African cinéaste), which recognized the importance of postcolonial and neocolonial realities in African cinema. The filmmakers start by recalling the neocolonial condition of African societies. "The situation contemporary African societies live in is one in which they are dominated on several levels: politically, economically and culturally." African filmmakers stressed their solidarity with progressive filmmakers in other parts of the world. African cinema is often seen a part of Third Cinema.
Some African filmmakers, for example Ousmane Sembène, try to give African history back to African people by remembering the resistance to European and Islamic domination.
The African filmmaker is often compared to the traditional griot. Like griots, filmmakers' task is to express and reflect communal experiences. Patterns of African oral literature often recur in African films. African film has also been influenced by traditions from other continents, such as Italian neorealism, Brazilian Cinema Novo and the theatre of Bertolt Brecht.
Senegalese ethnologist and filmmaker Safi Faye was the first African woman film director to gain international recognition.
In 1972, Sarah Maldoror shot her film Sambizanga about the 1961–74 war in Angola. Surviving African women of this war are the subject of the documentary Les Oubliées (The forgotten women), made by Anne-Laure Folly 20 years later.
In 2008, Manouchka Kelly Labouba became the first woman in the history of Gabonese cinema to direct a fictional film. Her short film Le Divorce addresses the impact of modern and traditional values on the divorce of a young Gabonese couple.
Kemi Adetiba, hitherto a music video director, made her directorial debut in 2016 with The Wedding Party. The film, about the events involved in the celebration of an aristocratic wedding, would go on to become the most successful Nollywood film in the history of her native Nigeria.
Directors by country
- Angola: Zézé Gamboa
- Benin: Jean Odoutan, Idrissou Mora Kpaï
- Burkina Faso: Idrissa Ouedraogo, Gaston Kaboré, Dani Kouyaté, Fanta Régina Nacro, Pierre Yameogo, Sanou Kollo, Pierre Rouamba, Drissa Touré, S. Pierre Yameogo, Apolline Traore
- Cameroon: Jean-Pierre Bekolo, Dia Moukouri, Bassek Ba Kobhio, Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa, François Woukoache, Francis Taptue, Jean-Marie Teno, Thérèse Sita-Bella, Jean-Paul Ngassa, Joséphine Ndagnou
- Chad: Issa Serge Coelo, Mahamat Saleh Haroun
- Côte d'Ivoire: Desiré Ecaré, Fadika Kramo Lancine, Roger Gnoan M'Bala, Jacques Trabi, Sidiki Bakaba, Henri Duparc, Akissi Delta, Marie-Louise Asseu
- Democratic Republic of the Congo: Zeka Laplaine, Mwezé Ngangura, Mamadi Indoka, Balufu Bakupa-Kanyinda, Joseph Kumbela
- Egypt: Salah Abu Seif, Youssef Chahine, Yousry Nasrallah, Ezzel Dine Zulficar, Sherif Arafa, Khaled Youssef, Marwan Hamed, Mohamed Khan, Shady Abdel Salam, Khairy Beshara, Samir Seif, Nader Galal, Ali Abdel-Khalek, Ashraf Fahmy, Radwan El-Kashef, Hady El Bagoury, Ali Ragab, Hala Khaleel, Ehab Lamey, Adel Adeeb, Tarek Al Eryan, Atef El-Tayeb, Daoud Abdel Sayed, Ehab Mamdouh, Sandra Nashaat
- Ethiopia: Haile Gerima, Hermon Hailay, Yemane Demissie, Salem Mekuria
- Gabon: Imunga Ivanga, Pierre-Marie Dong, Henri Joseph Koumba Bibidi, Charles Mensah
- Ghana: Kwaw Ansah, John Akomfrah, King Ampaw, Yaba Badoe, Chris Hesse, Jim Awindor, Tom Ribeiro, Ernest Abeikwe, Ajesu, Leila Djansi, Shirley Frimpong-Manso, Halaru B. Wandagou, Nii Kwate Owoo
- Guinea: Mohamed Camara, David Achkar, Cheik Doukouré, Cheick Fantamady Camara, Gahité Fofana, Mama Keïta
- Guinea-Bissau: Flora Gomes, Sana Na N'Hada
- Haiti: Raoul Peck
- Kenya: Wanuri Kahiu, Judy Kibinge, Jane Munene, Anne Mungai, Wanjiru Kinyanjui, Jim Chuchu
- Mali: Souleymane Cissé, Cheick Oumar Sissoko, Abdoulaye Ascofare, Adama Drabo, Manthia Diawara
- Mauritania: Med Hondo, Abderrahmane Sissako, Sidney Sokhana
- Niger: Oumarou Ganda, Moustapha Alassane
- Nigeria: Ola Balogun, Tade Ogidan, Kunle Afolayan, Izu Ojukwu, Eddie Ugboma, Amaka Igwe, Zeb Ejiro, Lola Fani-Kayode, Bayo Awala, Greg Fiberesima, Jide Bello, Billy Kings, Tunde Kelani, Dele Ajakaiye, Chico Ejiro, Andy Amenechi, Obi Emelonye, Chris Obi Rapu
- Rwanda: Eric Kabera, Kivu Ruhorahoza
- São Tomé and Príncipe: Ângelo Torres, Januário Afonso
- Senegal: Ousmane Sembène, Djibril Diop Mambéty, Safi Faye, Ben Diogaye Bèye, Mansour Sora Wade, Moussa Sène Absa, Bouna Medoune Seye, Tidiane Aw, Moussa Bathily, Clarence Thomas Delgado, Ahmadou Diallo, Dyana Gaye, Ababacar Samb Makharam, Ousmane William Mbaye, Samba Félix Ndiaye, Moustapha Ndoye, Joseph Gaï Ramaka, Blaise Senghor, Thierno Faty Sow, As Thiam, Momar Thiam, Moussa Touré, Mahama Johnson Traoré, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra, Mansour Sora Wade, Ibrahima Sarr, Alain Gomis
- Somalia: Abdisalam Aato, Abdulkadir Ahmed Said, Idil Ibrahim
- Sudan: Gadalla Gubara
- South Africa: Lionel Ngakane, Gavin Hood, Zola Maseko, Katinka Heyns, Neil Blomkamp, Seipati Bulani-Hopa, Mickey Dube, Oliver Hermanus, Jonathan Liebesman, William Kentridge, Teddy Matthera, Morabane Modise, Sechaba Morejele, Nana Mahomo
- Togo: Anne Laure Folly
- Uganda: Usama Mukwaya, Kinene Yusuf, Kabali Jagenda, Mariam Ndagire, George Stanley Nsamba, Hassan Kamoga, Matt Bish, Carol Kamya, Jacqueline Rose Kawere Nabagereka
- Zimbabwe: M. K. Asante, Jr., Tsitsi Dangarembga
Films about African cinema
- Caméra d'Afrique, Director: Férid Boughedir, Tunisia/France, 1983
- Les Fespakistes, Directors: François Kotlarski, Eric Münch, Burkina Faso/France, 2001
- This Is Nollywood, Director: Franco Sacchi, 2007
- Sembene!, Director: Samba Gadjigo and Jason Silverman, 2015
- Le Congo, quel cinéma! - Director: Guy Bomanyama-Zandu, Democratic Republic of Congo
- La Belle at the Movies - Director: Cecilia Zoppelletto, Kinshasa
- Spell Reel - Filipa César, Guinea-Bissau
- Africa in Motion, held in Edinburgh, Scotland in late October
- Sahara International Film Festival (FiSahara), held in Sahrawi refugee camps in Algeria
- African Film Festival, held in New York
- The African Film Festival (TAFF) held in Dallas in late June
- Silicon Valley African Film Festival, held in San Jose, California
- Pan African Film Festival, held in Los Angeles
- Africa World Documentary Film Festival, held in St Louis
- Rwanda Film Festival (Hillywood), held in Rwanda
- African literature
- Africa Movie Academy Awards
- List of African films
- Political cinema
- Third Cinema
- Women's cinema
- World cinema
- Cinema of Senegal
- Cinema of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- List of Democratic Republic of the Congo films
- Sometimes in April
- Atlas Corporation Studios
- Nu Metro Cinemas
- Cinéma_congolais (RDC Congo)
- Hayward, Susan. "Third World Cinemas: African Continent" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition). Routledge, 2006. p. 426-442
- Leaman, Oliver (2003-12-16). Companion Encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African Film. Routledge. ISBN 9781134662524.
- "Alexandria, Why? (The Beginnings of the Cinema Industry in Alexandria)". Bibliotheca Alexandrina's AlexCinema.
- "A Chronology of Firsts in Alexandria".
- "The Golden Age of Egyptian Cinema – the 1940s to 1960s".
- "African Cinema: Invisible Classics". British Film Institute.
- "Nigeria surpasses Hollywood as world's second largest film producer – UN". United Nations. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Nigeria's Nollywood eclipsing Hollywood in Africa". The Independent. May 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-24.
- "Spotlight: The Nigerian Film Industry" (PDF). July 2017.
- Murphskirty, David (2000). "Africans Filming Africa: Questioning Theories of an Authentic African Cinema". Journal of African Cultural Studies. 13 (2): 239–249. doi:10.1080/713674315. JSTOR 1771833.
- "The anti-colonial gaze in ethnographic cinema: "Voyage au Congo" e "Marquis de Wavrin"". Cinefilia ritrovata. July 1, 2018. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
- Barlet, Olivier (2012). ""The Ambivalence of French Funding"". Black Camera. pp. 205–16. doi:10.2979/blackcamera.3.2.205 – via JStor.
- Diawara, Manthia (1992). African Cinema: Politics and Culture. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, pp. 22–23.
- Halhoul, Khalid (2012). "Using African Cinema to Shift Cultural Perceptions." Utne Reader (June/July 2012 edition). Mixed Media Section, pp. 78–79.
- Wes Felton (December 2010). "Caught in the Undertow: African Francophone Cinema in the French New Wave". Senses of Self.
- Diawara (1992), African Cinema, p. 23.
- Gugler, Josef (2003). African Film: Re-Imagining a Continent. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, p. 3.
- Abiola Irele; Biodun Jeyifo (2010). Abiola Irele; Biodun Jeyifo, eds. "The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought". Oxford University Press. p. 234. ISBN 0195334736 – via Google Books.
- Notcutt, L. A., and G. C. Latham, The African and the Cinema: An Account of the Work of the Bantu Educational Cinema Experiment during the Period March 1935 to May 1937, London: Edinburgh House Press, 1937.
- Ukadike, Nwachukwu Frank (1994), Black African Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 49.
- Melissa Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back: Alternative Perspectives in Sub-Saharan Francophone African Film. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0-253-34349-9, pp. 7 and 32.
- For more on Rouch's work, see Steven Feld (ed.), Cine-Ethnography (1994), and Paul Henley, The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema (2010).
- See, for example, Nwachukwu Frank Ukadike, Black African Cinema (1994), pp. 48–58.
- Diawara (1992). African Cinema, pp. 23–24. See also Henley, Paul (2010), The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 310–337.
- Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back, pp. 1–6.
- Bilge Ebiri (November 5, 2015). "The Story of Sembene!: How Ousmane Sembene Invented African Cinema". Vulture. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Dennis McLellan, "Ousmane Sembene, 84; Sengalese hailed as 'the father of African film'" (obituary), Los Angeles Times, June 14, 2007.
- FEPACI. Archived 2014-02-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- Nadia Neophytou (May 19, 2018). "In Cannes, African filmmakers are plotting to take back control from European producers". QuartzAfrica.
- Jake Bright (June 24, 2015). "Meet 'Nollywood': The second largest movie industry in the world". Fortune. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Colm McAuliffe (November 6, 2015). "The death of cinema in Congo: how churches killed off cowboy films: As the country is left without a single film theatre, a new documentary explores the end of a once thriving movie culture". The Guardian. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- "DR Congo: UNHCR uses cinema to spread awareness of sexual violence". July 30, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Jean-Sebastien Josset (August 25, 2016). "Congo : ouverture d'une salle de cinéma à la pointe de la technologie: La République du Congo s'offre un cinéma de haut standing de 200 places à Brazzaville" [Congo:Opening of a cutting-edge cinema hall: The Republic of the Congo getting a luxury cinema with 200 seats in Brazzaville] (in French). JeuneAfrique. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- "Cinéma : bientôt une salle de projection à Brazzaville" [Cinema: Soon a screen in Brazzaville] (in French). 19 April 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Gonzalez, Ed (October 4, 2002). "Waiting for Happiness". Slant Magazine. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- "A Season in France (2017)". en.unifrance.org. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- "Mahamat-Saleh HAROUN - Festival de Cannes 2018". Festival de Cannes 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- Cousins, Mark (September 3, 2012). "African Cinema: ten of the best". The Guardian. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Pumzi (2009), retrieved 2018-12-04
- Kermeliotis, Teo (30 March 2010). "Wanuri Kahiu "In Kenya, I'm a hustler"". CNN. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- "Changamoto Arts Fund". Contemporary And. 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
- G. Cahill. "THE BATTLE OF THE SACRED TREE". Cleaveland International Film Festival.
- Biography, African Film Festival, New York.
- Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
- "Ali Abdel-Khalek". IMDb.
- "Radwan El-Kashef". IMDb.
- "Ehab Mamdouh". IMDb.
- "Salem Mekuria", Women Make movies.
- Maureen Abotsi, "Nii Kwate Owoo", GhanaNation, 13 September 2013.
- Fernando Arenas - Portuguese Literary and Cultural Studies, University of Massachussetts Dartmouth (May 29, 2018). Christopher Larkosh; Mario Perreira; Memory Holloway, eds. "The Filmography of Guinea-Bissau's Sana Na N'Hada: From the Return of Amílcar Cabral to the Threat of Global Drug Trafficking". Transnational Africa. Missing or empty
- Lynsey Chutel (March 30, 2018). "One of Africa's oldest animated films has a timeless message about African life". Quartz Africa.
- "Nelson "Nana" Mahomo". South African History Online.
- Yael Even Or (August 14, 2017). "The Man Running a Queer Film Festival in a Nation Where Homosexuality Is Illegal". Broadly.
- "Film Screening: SEMBENE! The Inspiring Story of the Father of African Cinema with Director Samba Gadjigo". February 7, 2017. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
- Ela Bittencourt (June 27, 2017). "Reactivating the Lost Revolutionary Films of Guinea-Bissau: In her debut feature, artist Filipa César documents the digitization of films made in the African country around the time of its independence". HyperAllergic.
- Ben Kenigsberg (June 27, 2017). "Review: 'Spell Reel' Shows a Revolution Filmed, on the Leader's Orders". New York Times.
- "TAFF WORKSHOPS AND EVENTS CALENDAR".
- Tomaselli, Keyan G., & Mhando, Martin (eds), Journal of African Cinemas, Bristol : Intellect, 2009 - , ISSN 1754-9221
- Mahir Şaul and Ralph Austen (eds), Viewing African Cinema in the Twenty-First Century: Art Films and the Nollywood Video Revolution, Ohio University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-8214-1931-1
- Roy Armes: Dictionary of African Filmmakers, Indiana University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-253-35116-2
- Barlet, Olivier (2000). African Cinemas: Decolonizing the Gaze. London; New York: Zed Books. ISBN 1856497429.
- Pfaff, Françoise (2004). Focus on African Films. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253216687.
- Fernando E. Solanas, Octavio Getino, "Towards a Third Cinema" in: Bill Nichols (ed.), Movies and Methods. An Anthology, University of California Press, 1976, pp. 44–64
- Ukadike, Nwachukwu Frank (1994). Black African cinema. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0520077474.
- Africultures: see www.africultures.com (French and English)
- Samuel Lelievre (ed.), "Cinémas africains, une oasis dans le désert?", CinémAction, no. 106, Paris, Télérama/Corlet, 1st trimester 2003
- Écrans d'Afriques (1992–1998) – French and English – to read on www.africine.org or www.africultures.com
- Halhoul, Khalid (2012-07-03). "Using African Cinema to Shift Cultural Perceptions". Utne Reader. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- Lindiwe Dovey (2009). African Film and Literature: Adapting Violence to the Screen. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231147546.
- Onookome Okome. "Film Policy and the development of the African Cinema" (PDF) – via Michigan State University.
- Oliver Bartlet. "The Five Decades of African Cinemas". Africultures.
- Movie theatres re-opening in Africa (in French, extensive business discussion
- Congo in Harlem
- The Heavy Flag of Pan-African Cinema
- Harvard Film Archive
- African Cinema in the 1990s
- African Media Program – comprehensive database of African media
- Library of African Cinema in California
- Panafrican Film and TV Festival of Ouagadougou (FESPACO)
- Wiki of the African Film Festival of Tarifa
- Utne Reader – Using African Cinema to Shift Cultural Perceptions
- Pan-African Film Festival, Cannes
- "Top African Film Directors in Alphabetical order", Africapedia