Cinema of Bangladesh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Cinema of West Bengal.
Cinema of Bangladesh
Bangladeshfilm.svg
Number of screens 400 (2016)[1]
 • Per capita 0.2 per 100,000 (2015)[2]
Main distributors Jaaz Multimedia
Tiger Media Limited
Impress Telefilm Limited
Produced feature films (2015)
Total 67
Number of admissions (2015)
Total 43,750,000

The cinema of Bangladesh, often generally referred to as Dhallywood, has been a significant film industry since the early 1970s. The dominant style of cinema is commercial cinema, which developed from 1947 to 1990 and characterizes most films to this day. Cinema was introduced in Bangladesh in 1898 by Bradford Bioscope Company, credited to have arranged the first film release in Bangladesh. Between 1913 and 1914, the first production company named Picture House was opened. A short silent film titled Sukumari (The Good Girl) was the first produced film in the region during 1928. The first full-length film The Last Kiss, was released in 1931. From the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, Dhaka is the center of Bangladeshi film industry, and generated the majority share of revenue, production and audiences. The 1960s, 1970s, 1980s and the first half of the 1990s were the golden years for Bangladeshi films as the industry produced many successful films. The Face and the Mask, the first Bengali language Bangladeshi full-length feature film was produced in 1956.[3][4]

Directors such as Fateh Lohani, Zahir Raihan, Alamgir Kabir, Khan Ataur Rahman, Subhash Dutta, Ritwik Ghatak, Ehtesham, Chashi Nazrul Islam, Abdullah al Mamun, Sheikh Niamat Ali, Gazi Mazharul Anwar, Tanvir Mokammel, Tareque Masud, Morshedul Islam, Humayun Ahmed, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Zahidur Rahman Anjan, Kamar Ahmed Saimon, Bijon Imtiaz and others have made significant contributions to Bangladeshi mainstream cinema, parallel cinema, art films and won global acclaim.

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

In 1895 on 28 December in French capital Paris De Café lumier brothers started bioscope show commercially. After 6 months of this lumier brothers showed the first bioscope of the subcontinent on 7 July in 1896. In this year bioscope was shown in the capital of united Bangla Calcutta. One of the arrangers to show the bioscope was the English Stephenson. We found that Stephenson came to Dhaka with a drama team and showed bioscope in around 1896 to 1897. But there is no prove about that. The weekly “Dhaka Prokash” proved the bioscope show of Dhaka. According to “Dhaka Prokash” 17 April 1898 (on 3rd Boishakh in 1305, Bengali Year) first bioscope was shown in Dhaka at the Crown Theatre (now lost) in Patuatuli, near Sadarghat then Dhaka Harbour. Bradford Bioscope Company of Calcutta arranged the show. The films that was shown there were very little of two, three, four or five minutes. The show included news items and other short features. The films were: The jubilee michil of Queen Victoria, Greek-Turkey battle, the jump of princes Diana from 300 feet up, the introduction of Russian prince jeer, the work of a mad hair-cutter, the game of lion and manik, the game of snow, the French underground railway etc.[5]:pages 7, 9 The price rate of ticket was eight anas to three taka. At that time the price of 40-kilogram rice was two taka four anas. After that bioscope was shown in SDO's Bungalow of Bhola, Bogjuri village of Manikganj, Joydebpur of Gazipur, Rajbari, and Palong village of Faridpur.[3] This became the first film ever to be released in Bangladesh.[5]:pages 7, 9

The first seeds of Bengali cinema was sown by Hiralal Sen, considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema[6] When bioscope was first shown in Dhaka, Hiralal Sen of Bogjuri village of Manikganj district, started showing films by forming a company named The Royal Bioscope Company. When he set up the Royal Bioscope Company in 1898, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows[6] at the Star Theater, Minerva Theater, Classic Theater in Kolkata formerly Calcutta in West Bengal. Thus Hiralal Sen developed film-making in the then famous town Calcutta in 1901. Hiralal Sen also made shooting in his country land Bogjuri. That was the first shooting of present Bangladesh.

At the time when Calcutta based new film production houses were forming, new films were developing then east Bengal cinema halls were showing Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Hollywood, and Paris made films. Sequential bio-scope show was started at Dhaka in 1913-14 in a jute store of argoni tola. It was named Picture House, becoming the first theater to be built in present-day Bangladesh.[3]

Silent era[edit]

The first Bengali organisation for producing and exhibiting films was the Royal Bioscope Company, established in the 1890s in Calcutta by Hiralal Sen. After Hiralal Sen Madan Theatre started making films in Calcutta in 1916. The first Bengali feature film, Billwamangal was produced in 1919 under the banner of Madan Theatre in Calcutta. The movie was released on 8 November in 1919 by the direction of Rustomji Dhotiwala from that organization. One of the developers of this film was Priyonath Ganguli, the son of deoan of nawab estate of Dhaka. After that a Bengali film organization named The Indo British Film Co was formed at Calcutta. The owner of that company was Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (known as D.G.) one of the close relatives of Rabindranath Tagore. According to his direction and story, a film was released named Bilat Ferat in 1921. The film was the first production of Indo British Film Co. The Madan Theatre production of Jamai Shashthi(1931) was the first Bengali talkie directed by Amar Choudhury.[7]

Although feature films were made in Bengali as early as 1919 in Calcutta, the Nawab family of Dhaka produced Sukumari (1928-1929) and The Last Kiss (1931).[5]:pages 2–5 There were eighty theaters in Bangladesh during that time. In 1927-28, the Dhaka Royal family stepped forward and produced a short film named Sukumari-The Good Girl(1928-1929).[8] Some young sportsman of Nawab family of Dhaka, dramatist, and photographer were the developers of this film. Khaza Adil, Khaza Akmol, Khaza Nasirulla, Khaza Azmol, Khaza Zohir, Khaza Azad, Soyod Shahebe Alom, physical teacher of Jogonnath University Ombujgupto and professor of Dhaka University Andalib Shadini. They wanted to make a film in a natural circumstance with their own actors without the help of a studio. At their first attempt they made a short length film named Sukumari(1928–29). The main actor of the film was Khaza Nosrulla and the main actress was a man named Soyod Abdus Sobhan. At that time woman were not allowed to act in a film. So a man was the main actress. Later Nosrulla became a politician and Sobhan became the first Bengali secretary of Pakistan Central Civil Service. Only one still picture of Sukumary is kept in Bangladesh Film Archive.[3]

After the success of Sukumari, the Royal family went for a bigger venture.[9] To make a full-length silent film, a temporary studio was made in the garden of nawab family and they produced a full-length silent film titled The Last Kiss, released in 1931.[10][11] The main actor was Khaza Azmol. Physical teacher of Jagannath University, Ambujgupta directed the film and made the Bangla and English subtitle of it. Dr. Andalib Shadani the Professor of Dhaka University made the Urdu subtitle. “The Last Kiss” was released in 1931 in Mukul hall of Dhaka. Historian Dr. Romesh Chondro Mojumder started the premier show of the film. The print of the film was taken to the Aurora Company of Calcutta for bigger presentation. But it was lost later. The developers of that film wanted to make Dhaka unique in art, literature and cinema. For they named their production house “Dhaka East Bengal Cinematograph Society”. It was the first film producing organization of Bangladesh.[3]

Early development[edit]

Pakistan era[edit]

Mukh O Mukhosh screenshot

By 1947, there were around 80 cinemas in Bangladesh.[5]:pages 1, 3After the partition of India in 1947, East Bengal developed a hope. Considering Dhaka as center new cultural activities were started. A number of person and organization took step to establish film producing company and studio. Among them there were captain s. jaidi, Abbasuddin Ahmed, Ostad Mohammad Khosru, Sogir Ahmed Chowdhury, Forid Ahmed Chowdhury, Shamsul Huda etc. But all the attempts were failed. In March 1948 when the Governor-General of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to visit East Pakistan the then special personality radio broadcaster Nazir Ahmed was given to make an informational film. Nazir Ahmed was a radio broadcaster, actor, film-maker and author. He made an informational film In Our Midst (1948) with the help of Calcutta-based film technicians. It was the first informational film of Bangladesh.

1950s[edit]

After the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 encouraged the sincere Bengalis for their freedom. Within two years “Co-operative film Makers Ltd.” Was formed for film making under the leadership of Shohidul Alam, Abdul Jabbar Khan, Kazi Nruzzaman including Abdus Sadek, Dolil Ahmed, Azizul Hoque, Dudu Mia, Kazi Khalek, and Saroar Hossain etc. Immediately a film unit was formed to make film under control of media department. Attempt of making studio and laboratory at tejgoan of Dhaka was taken. From this unit the first proved picture Salamot was made in 1954 by the direction of Nazir Ahmed. Success of Salamot brought a chance for film unit to make their bigger plan true. In 1954, work of the first film of Iqbal films The Face and The Mask was started by the direction of Abdul Jabbar Khan. A short length film Appayon was started in 1955 by the direction of Co Operative Film Makers and Saroar Hossain. In June 1955 during the rule of United Front chief secretary N.M.Khan introduced a film studio and laboratory in tejgoan. The first full-length feature film with sound made in East Pakistan was The Face and the Mask,[4] which was directed by Abdul Jabbar Khan and released on 3 August 1956. Editing, printing and all other film processing for this movie were done in Lahore, Pakistan. Abdul Jabbar directed the film from his own drama “Dakat”. He acted as the hero. Another actors were Inam Ahmed, Purnima Sen, Nazma, Johrot Ara, Ali Monsur, Rofiq, Nurul Alom Khan, Saiful Bilkis Bari etc. cameraman was K.M.Jaman and song director was Somor Das. The singers were Abdul Alim and Mahbuba Hasnat.[3][12]

On 27 March 1957 "The East Pakistan Film Development Corporation Bill, 1957" was introduced by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who later became the Father of the Nation and the founding leader of Bangladesh. On 3 April 1957 the bill was passed in the "East Bengal Provincial Assembly" and the procedure began on 19 June 1957. Nazir Ahmed played an important role in the establishment of FDC. Government made him the creative director of FDC.

At first stage EPFDC permitted some specific directors to make films. Fateh Lohani started the work of Asiya the first film of EPFDC. Nazir Ahmed worked as the background founder of it. Asiya was a rural area based art film. It got president award in 1961 as the best Bangla film. Although, the first film produced by EPFDC was Asiya but the film released in 1960. So, after the "East Bengal Provincial Assembly" established the "East Pakistan Film Development Corporation" (EPFDC) on 3 April 1957, the first films released by EPFDC was Akash Ar Mati (The Sky and The Earth) in 1959, directed by Fateh Lohani. Technically it was the second movie directed by Fateh Lohani. Fateh Lohani's second attempt Akash Ar Mati (The Sky and The Earth) (1959) was praised as song based film.

In the same year there also released a Bengali-Urdu film The Day Shall Dawn (1959) by prominent Pakistani director A. J. Kardar. Zahir Raihan was an assistant director of this film. The film was based on a Bengali novel Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman on The River Padma, 1936) by Bengali novelist Manik Bandopadhyay. It was a highly international acclaimed movie. The film was selected as the Pakistani entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 32nd Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee.[13] The film got 11 international awards.[3] It was also entered into the 1st Moscow International Film Festival where it won a Golden Medal.[14]

Except EPFDC there were three studios which played important roles for the industry that time. These studios include, Popular Studio, Bari Studio and Bengal Studio. The establishment of EPFDC started the rising of East Bengal film industry with some prominent directors of that time include Abdul Jabbar Khan, Fateh Lohani, Ehtesham and Mohiuddin. In 1959, only three Bengali film and one Bengali-Urdu produced from EPFDC including Akash Ar Mati (The Sky and The Earth) (1959) by Fateh Lohani, Matir Pahar (The Clay Hill) (1959) by Mohiuddin and E Desh Tomar Amar (1959) by Ehtesham with the Bengali-Urdu film The Day Shall Dawn (1959). Matir Pahar (1959) directed by Mohiuddin had a story of mordacity vs. darkness. E Desh Tomar Amar (1959) directed by Ehtesham, based on the social views after country division. The first theatrical feature films made by EPFDC were good but they didn't get expected business success.

1960s[edit]

In 1960 Fateh Lohani directed Asiya (Asiya- The Life of a Village Girl) (1960) and it was critically successful. It got president award and Nigar Award. In the same year Ehtesham made Rajdhanir Buke(In the heart of the capital) (1960) which was a commercial and critical success. Fateh Lohani the prominent director of the 1960s was also a notable actor. He started his film career as an actor. He first acted in Bombay and Calcutta films in the 1940s. The films are, Hindi film Hamrahi (1944) by notable Indian Bengali director Bimal Roy and Bengali film Dukkhe Jader Jibon Gora (1946) by Himadri Chowdhury(Obayedul Huq). He acted in East Bengali films like, Raja Elo Shohore(King comes to town) (1964), Tanha (1964), Behula (1966), Phir Milenge Hum Dono(Urdu) (1966), Agun Niye Khela (1967), Julekha (1967), Atotuku Asha (1968), Momer Alo (1968), Mayar Shonshar (1969), Mishor Kumari(The princess of Egypt) (1970) of Karigir and Tansen (1970) of Rofiqul Bari. Notable Director Salahuddin made social-drama films in the 1960s, like Je Nodi Morupothe(1961), Shurjosnan (1962) and Dharapat (1963). In the 1960s, one of the prominent directors of East Bengal was Zahir Raihan. Some of his works include Je Nodi Morupothe (1961) (As an assistant director), Kokhono Asheni (Never Came) (1961), Shonar Kajol (1962) (Associated with Kalim Sharafi), Kancher Deyal (Crystal Wall) (1963), Shangam (1964) (The first Pakistani colour film), Bahana (1965), Behula (1966), Anowara (1967), Dui Bhai (Two Brothers) (1968), Let There be Light (1970) (incomplete), Taka Ana Paay (1970) and Jibon Theke Neya (Story of Life) (1970).

In 1971 Zahir Raihan made a documentary Stop Genocide on Bangladesh Liberation War, which was one of the first internationally acclaimed film of Bangladesh.[15][16] In the 1960s another rising director was Khan Ataur Rahman, he was also a film actor, producer, screenplay writer, music composer, and singer. Hos directorial debut was Onek Diner Chena (1963). His other notable films of 1960s include, Raja Sanyasi (1964–65), Nawab Sirajuddaula (1967), Orun Borun Kironmala (1968) and Jowar Bhata (1969). He has acted many of his own directed films. As an actor his other films 1960s include, Kokhono Asheni (Never Came) (1961), Kancher Deyal (Crystal Wall) (1963) and Jibon Theke Neya (Story of Life) (1970) by Zahir Raihan; Saat Bhai Champa (Seven Brother Champak) (1968) by Dilip Som and others. During the late 1960s, 20-35 films were produced every year.

Some notable actors from the 1960s include Rahman, Sumita Devi, Khan Ataur Rahman, Rawshan Jamil, Azim, Sujata, Anwar Hossain, Anwara Begum, Golam Mustafa, Abdur Razzak, Kabori Sarwar, Shabana, Farida Akhter Bobita, Farooque, Shabnam, Shawkat Akbar, Rosy Samad, Baby Zaman, Kohinoor Akhter Shuchanda and others. The most well known Bangladeshi actor to date has been Abdur Razzak and for his popularity people called him Nayok Raaj Rajjak (King of Heroes). He started his carrier as a side actor in 1965 and became a leading actor in 1967. Abdur Razzak and Kabori Sarwar was the most popular pair at 1968 to 1970s.

After independence[edit]

1970s[edit]

Total 41 films were released in this year. Some notable films of 1970 are Shorolipi (1970) by Nazrul Islam, Taka Ana Paay (1970) and Jibon Theke Neya (1970) by Zahir Raihan. Jibon Theke Neya (1970) became a landmark film in the history of the country and it had a great influence on the liberation of Bangladesh. The film was a political satire based on the Bengali Language Movement under the rule of Pakistan metaphorically, where an autocratic woman in one family symbolizes the political dictatorship of Ayub Khan in East Pakistan, and stars Shaukat Akbar, Anwar Hossain, Khan Ataur Rahman, Rawshan Jamil, Abdur Razzak, Kohinoor Akhter Shuchanda, Amjad Hossain and Rosy Samad.[17] Jibon Theke Neya has been described as an example of "national cinema", using discrete local traditions to build a representation of the Bangladeshi national identity.[18] Other significant works of 1970 were Mishor Kumari of Karigir, Tansen of Rafiqul Bari, Bindu Theke Britto of Rebeka, Binimoy of Subhash Dutta, Kothay Jeno Dekhechi of Nizamul Hoque.

In 1971, the year of independence only 6 Bengali films and 2 Urdu films made by East Bengal were released before the Bangladesh Liberation War. Some notable social drama films include, Shorolipi by Nazrul Islam, Nacher Putul by Ashok Ghosh, Sritituku Thak by Alamgir Kumkum and Shukh Dukkho by Khan Ataur Rahman. At the time of Bangladesh Liberation War prominent director Zahir Raihan made the international acclaimed documentary Stop Genocide (1971).[15][16] At that time film department was made under the leadership of Abdul Jabbar Khan.[3] After independence Bangladeshi film industry was very much significant and successful both critically and commercially in the 1970s, 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. But a few Bangladeshi movies were reached to an international standard and to international audiences. But some intellectual Bangladeshi directors have made some international acclaimed movies at that time. In December 1971, the month of liberation of Bangladesh the name of East Pakistan Film Development Corporation (EPFDC) had changed into Bangladesh Film Development Corporation (BFDC) which had the only major film studio and colour lab of Bangladeshi film industry till the 2010s. Most of the Bangladeshi films were produced from this studio. Production quantity continued to increase after Bangladesh gained its independence on 16 December 1971. In 1979, for example, 51 films were released and in the 1990s over 90 films per year were released.

A River Called Titas (1973), directed by prominent Bengali director Ritwik Ghatak

In the 1970s most of the Bangladeshi movies had originality. After independence in 1972, 29 films were released. The first full-length feature film of Bangladesh was Ora Egaro Jon released in 1972. The movie was directed by Chashi Nazrul Islam. In the 1970s many of the films were war films based on Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. The filmmakers who made critically acclaimed war films in the 1970s are Alamgir Kabir, Chashi Nazrul Islam, Subhash Dutta and others. After independence one of the prominent director of Bangladesh was Alamgir Kabir.[19] Three of his feature films are featured in the "Top 10 Bangladeshi Films" list by British Film Institute.[20] His films include Dhire Bohe Meghna (1973), Shurjo Konya (1976), Shimana Periye (1977), Rupali Shoykte (1979), Mohona (1982), Porinita (1984) and Mohanayok (1985). Some other notable directors in the 1970s includes Chashi Nazrul Islam, Narayan Ghosh Mita, Subhash Dutta,[21] Abdullah al Mamun, Johirul Haque and Amjad Hossain. Rongbaaj directed by Johirul haque released in 1973, was one of the first commercial action film of Bangladesh. After independence one of the first international acclaimed film was A River Called Titas released in 1973, directed by prominent Indian Bengali director Ritwik Ghatak and starring Prabir Mitra in the lead role. Some other notable films of 1970s include Joy Bangla (1972) of Fakrul Alom; Lalon Fokir (1972) of Syed Hasan Imam; Obhuj Mon (1972) of Kazi Jhohir; Shongram (1974) by Chashi Nazrul Islam, Arunodoyer Agnishakkhi (1972), Bashundhara (1977) by Subhash Dutta; Erao Manush (1972), Alor Michil (1974), Lathial (1975) by Narayan Ghosh Mita; Beymaan (1974) by Rujul Amin; Choritrohin (1975) by Bebi Islam; Megher Onek Rong (1976) by Harunur Rashid; Jadur Banshi (1977) by Abdul Lotif Bacchu; Golapi Ekhon Traine (1978) by Amjad Hossain; Sareng Bou (1978) by Abdullah al Mamun; Oshikkhito (1978) by Azizur Rahman; The Father (1979) by Kazi Hayat and Surjo Dighal Bari (1979) by Sheikh Niamat Ali and Moshiuddin Shaker. Surjo Dighal Bari was a highly international acclaimed movie and it re-introduced Bangladeshi films to a wide international audiences. The movie was based on a novel of the same-name by Abu Ishaque. In 1975 the government has taken some steps to improve film industry. Among them they had started national film award, donation fund for well and creative films.

1980s[edit]

The 1970s and 1980s were a golden era for Bangladeshi film industry commercially and critically. At this time, a lot of actors and actresses enjoyed popularity, including Abdur Razzak, Kabori Sarwar, Shabana, Farida Akhter Bobita, Farooque, Shabnam, Kohinoor Akhter Shuchanda, Alamgir, Sohel Raana, Amol Bose, Bulbul Ahmed, Zafar Iqbal, Wasim, Ilias Kanchan, Jashim, Rozina, Parveen Sultana Diti, Champa and others.

In the 1980s most of the Bangladeshi commercial films were influenced in film-making, style and presentation by Indian movies, mostly Hindi movies from Maharashtra. But many of the films were original or adaptation from literary works. Some notable original and adapted films include, Chhutir Ghonta (1980) by Azizur Rahman; Emiler Goenda Bahini (1980) by Badal Rahman; Shokhi Tumi Kar (1980), Akhoni Shomoy (1980) by Abdullah Al Mamun; Lal Shobujer Pala (1980), Obichar (1985) by Syed Hasan Imam; Koshai (1980), Jonmo Theke Jolchi (1981), Bhat De (1984) by Amjad Hossain; Devdas (1982), Chandranath (1984), Shuvoda (1987) by Chashi Nazrul Islam; Smriti Tumi Bedona (1980) by Dilip Shom; Mohona (1982), Porinita (1986) by Alamgir Kabir; Boro Bhalo Lok Chhilo (1982) by Mohammad Mohiuddin; Puroshkar (1983) by C.B Zaman; Maan Shomman (1983) by A.J Mintu; Nazma (1983), Shokal-Shondha (1984), Fulshojja (1986) by Subhash Dutta, Rajbari (1984) by Kazi Hayat; Grihilokkhi (1984) by Kamal Ahmed; Dahan (1986) by Sheikh Niamat Ali; Shot Bhai (1985) by Abdur Razzak; Ramer Shumoti (1985) by Shahidul Amin; Rajlokkhi-Srikanto (1986) by Bulbul Ahmed; Harano Shur (1987) by Narayan Ghosh Mita; Dayi Ke (1987) by Aftab Khan Tulu; Tolpar (1988) by Kabir Anowar and Biraj Bou (1988) by Mohiuddin Faruk.

The parallel cinema movement was officially started from this decade, though there were many off-track movies were made of different genres from the 60s. But the 80s movies were strictly commercial influenced by Indian Hindi commercial films, so there was a necessity of a realism and naturalism cinema movement. The movement was started by Alamgir Kabir. From this movement some intellectual filmmakers came such as, Tanvir Mokammel, Tareque Masud and Morshedul Islam.

1990s[edit]

In the 1990s most of the Bangladeshi movies were dominate by mainstream commercial movies.[3] In 1990s definition of Bangla mainstream commercial movies had changed, because most of the movies were very much influenced by commercial Indian Hindi movies and most of them were direct copies from those Indian commercial Hindi films full with action, dance, song and jokes.[3] The first half of the 1990s was a successful time of Bangladeshi cinema followed by the 1980s. There were many successful films produced in this time. In the 1990s some new directors and actors came to the industry. Intellectual Directors such as Tanvir Mokammel, Tareque Masud, Morshedul Islam, Humayun Ahmed, Nasiruddin Yousuff, Akhtaruzzaman and Mustafizur Rahman made some critically and internationally acclaimed films at that time.

During the mid 1990s, Bangladeshi films started losing a large sector of audience because of lack of quality. The film directors started giving more attention to film's music, dance and other elements instead of story and screenplay. Some also began to add action and intense scenes. A few directors began to imitate and copy foreign films, mostly Indian films. Hence, the films could attract only the urban living small income people and some rural people. And the process is continuing till now.

Present[edit]

BFDC Main Gate 2011

During the 2000s, Bangladeshi films began doing poor business and initially, the numbers of films decreased. The term 'Bangla Cinema' became a matter of joke among the people. Though there always have been some independent film makers who attempt to make movies in a good manner, their work attract only a few audience. Viewership of Bangladeshi films has dropped, and the industry has been criticized for producing low-quality films whose only appeal is that of cheap melodrama.[22]

After a drastic decline in the 2000s, the Bangladeshi[23] film industry tried to bounced back after 2009. With the help of the Bangladeshi Government and the emergence of big production companies, the Bangladeshi film industry is growing very slowly. Since 2013, Bangladesh has developed several big production and distribution companies, such as Monsoon Films, Jaaz Multimedia and Tiger Media Limited and the films produced by them have been doing better business than others for their large budget and glamorous appearance. But these films hardly attract the educated audience living in urban and rural areas. After 2000 till now most of the Bangladeshi movies are low budget "B-Grade" movies with lower quality.[22]

The year 2014 has been the most profitable year in the last ten years, while the previous record was expected to be surpassed in 2015, but 2015 is one of the worst time for Bangladeshi cinema. Most of the films in 2015 are flop. The main reason for this most of the Bangladeshi movies are B-grade movies with some are cheap copies of Indian cheap commercial films, and also most of the movie theaters are not in a good condition. Recently, the Bangladeshi film industry has faced increased competition from foreign films, satellite TV, home video, and other sources. In 2014 India's Reliance Entertainment Limited had expressed their interest in producing Bangladeshi films. However, the Bangladesh Film Corporation didn't respond due to the ban on Indian films in Bangladesh.

International recognition of Bangladeshi cinema[edit]

Internationally acclaimed Bangladeshi films include, Zahir Raihan's Stop Genocide (1971);[15][16] Ritwik Ghatak's A river called Titas (1973); Sheikh Niamat Ali and Moshiuddin Shaker's Surjo Dighal Bari (1979); Tareque Masud's Song of Freedom (1995),[24][25] Story of Freedom (1999) and The Clay Bird (2002); Tanvir Mokammel's Quiet Flows the River Chitra (1999), Lalsalu (2001) and Lalon (2004); Kamar Ahmed Saimon's Are You Listening! (2012); Humayun Ahmed's Aguner Poroshmoni (1994)[26][27][28] and Shyamol Chhaya (2004); Morshedul Islam's Dipu Number Two (1996), Duratta (2004) and Amar Bondhu Rashed (2011); Enamul Karim Nirjhar's Aha! (2007); Golam Rabbany Biplob's On the Wings of Dreams (2007); Giashuddin Selim's Monpura (2009); Tauquir Ahmed's Joyjatra (2004); Mostofa Sarwar Farooki's Third Person Singular Number (2009) and Television (2013); Abu Shahed Emon's Jalal's Story (2015); Bijon Imtiaz’s Matir Projar Deshe-Kingdom of Clay Subjects (2016) etc. These films won highly international acclaims and they introduced Bangladeshi films to a wide international audiences.[29] The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors due to his numerous productions on historical and social issues. Masud was honored by FIPRESCI at the Cannes Film Festival in 2002 for his film The Clay Bird (2002).

Government support[edit]

The government of Bangladesh played a huge role in the re-emergence of Bangladeshi films. The Bangladesh Film Development Corporation (BFDC) was established as an assistance hub for Bangladeshi cinema. The government also spends about $1 million annually for the development of Bangladeshi parallel cinema and art cinema. Bangladesh Awami League, the present government has spend more than $10 million in 2012 and 2014-15 for the modern technical supports in Bangladeshi Cinema.

Film production and distribution house[edit]

There are more than 100 production houses in the Bangladeshi film industry, but few have managed to be successful in the market. Such production houses and distribution houses have helped Bangladeshi movies to reach a national and international platform, releasing films and distributing them to audiences overseas. Some well-known production houses in the Bangladeshi cinema include, Impress Telefilm Ltd., Monsoon Films, Jaaz Multimedia, Tiger Media Limited, The Abhi Pictures, Fatman Films and others.

Important figures[edit]

Actors[edit]

Actresses[edit]

Directors[edit]

Films[edit]

Notable films[edit]

Classics[edit]

The Face and The Mask (1956), the first Bangladeshi full-length sound film.

Cult films[edit]

Muktir Gaan (1995)

Modern era films[edit]

Commercial successes[edit]

Monpura (2009)

Major events[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Awards[edit]

Film education[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "100 New Theaters Opening this Eid". BMDB. .bmdb.com.bd. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  2. ^ "After 40 years, Bangladesh lifts ban on Bollywood films". Retrieved 12 November 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au "History of Bangladeshi Film". cholochitro.com. Cholochitro. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c "Mukh O Mukhosh". bfa.gov.bd. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d A Brief History of Bangladesh Cinema, accessed 27-July-2006
  6. ^ a b Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. Hiralal Sen
  7. ^ IMDB page on Jamai Shashthi
  8. ^ "The Liberation Struggles of a Country and a Festival". dhakafilmfestival.org. Dhaka Film Festival. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  9. ^ Raju, Zakir (2015). Bangladesh Cinema and National Identity: In Search of the Modern. London: Routledge. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-415-46544-1. 
  10. ^ "Dhaka Nawab Family and Film". www.nawabbari.com. Nawab Bari. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  11. ^ "Did you know? First Pakistani silent movie makes it to international film fests". tribune.com.pk. Retrieved 1 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Celebrating 50 years of our cinema, Karim Waheed, The Daily Star (web edition), vol. 5, num. 431, accessed 27-July-2006
  13. ^ Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
  14. ^ "1st Moscow International Film Festival (1959)". MIFF. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  15. ^ a b c "The making of Stop Genocide and disappearance of Zahir Raihan". The Daily Star. 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  16. ^ a b c "'Stop Genocide' Depicting the actual massacre". The Daily Star. 2004-12-16. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  17. ^ "Jibon Theke Neya". Internet Movie Database. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  18. ^ "Bangladesh National Cinema in the Age of Globalisation". Star Weekend Magazine. 2004-12-17. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  19. ^ Hossain, Ayub (2012). "Kabir, Alamgir". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  20. ^ "Top 10 Bangladeshi Films". British Film Institute. 2007-07-17. Archived from the original on 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2015-10-17. 
  21. ^ "Nigar Award 1962: 19 September 1963 Hotel Metropol Karachi.". Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  22. ^ a b Bangladeshis reject "smutty" Bengali films, AFP/Helen Rowe, accessed 2006-07-26
  23. ^ "www.bangladesh.pixub.com"
  24. ^ "Muktir Gaan". tarequemasud.org. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  25. ^ "Muktir Gaan". ektaonline.org. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  26. ^ "Aguner Poshmoni-আগুনের পরশমনি". Bangladesh Film Archive. Retrieved 22 January 2015. 
  27. ^ Ahmed, H. (1986). Aguner poroshmoni. Bidda Prokash. Retrieved 2014-10-05. 
  28. ^ "Aguner Poroshmoni (1995) - IMDb". imdb.com. Retrieved 2014-10-05. 
  29. ^ "History of Bangladeshi Cinema". www.bdfi.com.bd. bdfi. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  30. ^ "Shakib, Apu bag best actor awards". Daily Sun (Dhaka). 2013-07-09. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. 
  31. ^ "দুই ছবিতে সাইমন". Daily Manobkantha. Retrieved 2013-05-09. 
  32. ^ "Bhalobasar Rong Film". Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  33. ^ আবার মৌসুমী. Prothom Alo. Retrieved 2013-11-14. 
  34. ^ "মা হোসনা প্রধান, প্রযোজকের হাতে অভিষেক মেয়ে আলিশার" [Producer Hosna Pradhan Introduces her Daughter Alisha To film Industry]. 
  35. ^ আবারো বড় পর্দায় আলিশা প্রধান! [Alisha Pradhan on Silver Screen with her second movie]. ajsarabela. 
  36. ^ চলচ্চিত্রে আলোচিত ৫ নায়িকার দৌড় চলছে এখন!. Ittefaq. 
  37. ^ ছবি বানাতে টাকার চেয়ে বেশি দরকার মেধা : মোস্তফা সরয়ার ফারুকী [Pictures need more than talent to make money: Mostafa Sarwar Farooqi]. bdnews24.com. 2008-10-08. Archived from the original on 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  38. ^ "Tareque Masud and Muktir Gaan". news.priyo.com. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  39. ^ "Muktir Gaan". idfa.nl. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  40. ^ "Finding Simple Methods In bengali entertainment". Skillshare. Retrieved 14 November 2014. 

External links[edit]